Bug 894227 - Add configobj Python package; rs=glandium
authorGregory Szorc <gps@mozilla.com>
Thu, 18 Jul 2013 12:55:41 -0700
changeset 152311 b9fe5a05edd907852d728474a4df43fe80c1e197
parent 152310 b9ded7687cdf3cde8f2ee84fd91e61963c313323
child 152312 4c89002460da068084558b7e54d602d67362d667
push id382
push userakeybl@mozilla.com
push dateMon, 21 Oct 2013 21:47:13 +0000
treeherdermozilla-release@5f1868ee45cb [default view] [failures only]
perfherder[talos] [build metrics] [platform microbench] (compared to previous push)
reviewersglandium
bugs894227
milestone25.0a1
first release with
nightly linux32
nightly linux64
nightly mac
nightly win32
nightly win64
last release without
nightly linux32
nightly linux64
nightly mac
nightly win32
nightly win64
Bug 894227 - Add configobj Python package; rs=glandium Version 4.7.2 added without modifications. Source obtained from PyPI.
build/mach_bootstrap.py
build/virtualenv/packages.txt
python/configobj/PKG-INFO
python/configobj/configobj.py
python/configobj/setup.py
python/configobj/validate.py
--- a/build/mach_bootstrap.py
+++ b/build/mach_bootstrap.py
@@ -24,16 +24,17 @@ want to export this environment variable
 
 
 # TODO Bug 794506 Integrate with the in-tree virtualenv configuration.
 SEARCH_PATHS = [
     'python/mach',
     'python/mozboot',
     'python/mozbuild',
     'python/blessings',
+    'python/configobj',
     'python/psutil',
     'python/which',
     'build/pymake',
     'config',
     'other-licenses/ply',
     'xpcom/idl-parser',
     'testing',
     'testing/xpcshell',
--- a/build/virtualenv/packages.txt
+++ b/build/virtualenv/packages.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,12 @@
 simplejson.pth:python/simplejson-2.1.1
 marionette.pth:testing/marionette/client
 blessings.pth:python/blessings
+configobj.pth:python/configobj
 mach.pth:python/mach
 mozbuild.pth:python/mozbuild
 pymake.pth:build/pymake
 optional:setup.py:python/psutil:build_ext:--inplace
 optional:psutil.pth:python/psutil
 which.pth:python/which
 ply.pth:other-licenses/ply/
 codegen.pth:python/codegen/
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/PKG-INFO
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Metadata-Version: 1.0
+Name: configobj
+Version: 4.7.2
+Summary: Config file reading, writing and validation.
+Home-page: http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+Author: Michael Foord & Nicola Larosa
+Author-email: fuzzyman@voidspace.org.uk
+License: UNKNOWN
+Download-URL: http://www.voidspace.org.uk/downloads/configobj-4.7.2.zip
+Description: **ConfigObj** is a simple but powerful config file reader and writer: an *ini
+        file round tripper*. Its main feature is that it is very easy to use, with a
+        straightforward programmer's interface and a simple syntax for config files.
+        It has lots of other features though :
+        
+        * Nested sections (subsections), to any level
+        * List values
+        * Multiple line values
+        * Full Unicode support
+        * String interpolation (substitution)
+        * Integrated with a powerful validation system
+        
+        - including automatic type checking/conversion
+        - and allowing default values
+        - repeated sections
+        
+        * All comments in the file are preserved
+        * The order of keys/sections is preserved
+        * Powerful ``unrepr`` mode for storing/retrieving Python data-types
+        
+        | Release 4.7.2 fixes several bugs in 4.7.1
+        | Release 4.7.1 fixes a bug with the deprecated options keyword in
+        | 4.7.0.
+        | Release 4.7.0 improves performance adds features for validation and
+        | fixes some bugs.
+Keywords: config,ini,dictionary,application,admin,sysadmin,configuration,validation
+Platform: UNKNOWN
+Classifier: Development Status :: 6 - Mature
+Classifier: Intended Audience :: Developers
+Classifier: License :: OSI Approved :: BSD License
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.3
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.4
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.5
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6
+Classifier: Operating System :: OS Independent
+Classifier: Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries
+Classifier: Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/configobj.py
@@ -0,0 +1,2468 @@
+# configobj.py
+# A config file reader/writer that supports nested sections in config files.
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# ConfigObj 4
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+
+# Released subject to the BSD License
+# Please see http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+
+# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
+# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
+# ConfigObj mailing list:
+# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
+# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.
+
+from __future__ import generators
+
+import os
+import re
+import sys
+
+from codecs import BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_BE, BOM_UTF16_LE
+
+
+# imported lazily to avoid startup performance hit if it isn't used
+compiler = None
+
+# A dictionary mapping BOM to
+# the encoding to decode with, and what to set the
+# encoding attribute to.
+BOMS = {
+    BOM_UTF8: ('utf_8', None),
+    BOM_UTF16_BE: ('utf16_be', 'utf_16'),
+    BOM_UTF16_LE: ('utf16_le', 'utf_16'),
+    BOM_UTF16: ('utf_16', 'utf_16'),
+    }
+# All legal variants of the BOM codecs.
+# TODO: the list of aliases is not meant to be exhaustive, is there a
+#   better way ?
+BOM_LIST = {
+    'utf_16': 'utf_16',
+    'u16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf-16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf16_be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf_16_be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf-16be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf16_le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf_16_le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf-16le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf_8': 'utf_8',
+    'u8': 'utf_8',
+    'utf': 'utf_8',
+    'utf8': 'utf_8',
+    'utf-8': 'utf_8',
+    }
+
+# Map of encodings to the BOM to write.
+BOM_SET = {
+    'utf_8': BOM_UTF8,
+    'utf_16': BOM_UTF16,
+    'utf16_be': BOM_UTF16_BE,
+    'utf16_le': BOM_UTF16_LE,
+    None: BOM_UTF8
+    }
+
+
+def match_utf8(encoding):
+    return BOM_LIST.get(encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'
+
+
+# Quote strings used for writing values
+squot = "'%s'"
+dquot = '"%s"'
+noquot = "%s"
+wspace_plus = ' \r\n\v\t\'"'
+tsquot = '"""%s"""'
+tdquot = "'''%s'''"
+
+# Sentinel for use in getattr calls to replace hasattr
+MISSING = object()
+
+__version__ = '4.7.2'
+
+try:
+    any
+except NameError:
+    def any(iterable):
+        for entry in iterable:
+            if entry:
+                return True
+        return False
+
+
+__all__ = (
+    '__version__',
+    'DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE',
+    'DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION',
+    'ConfigObjError',
+    'NestingError',
+    'ParseError',
+    'DuplicateError',
+    'ConfigspecError',
+    'ConfigObj',
+    'SimpleVal',
+    'InterpolationError',
+    'InterpolationLoopError',
+    'MissingInterpolationOption',
+    'RepeatSectionError',
+    'ReloadError',
+    'UnreprError',
+    'UnknownType',
+    'flatten_errors',
+    'get_extra_values'
+)
+
+DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION = 'configparser'
+DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE = '    '
+MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH = 10
+
+OPTION_DEFAULTS = {
+    'interpolation': True,
+    'raise_errors': False,
+    'list_values': True,
+    'create_empty': False,
+    'file_error': False,
+    'configspec': None,
+    'stringify': True,
+    # option may be set to one of ('', ' ', '\t')
+    'indent_type': None,
+    'encoding': None,
+    'default_encoding': None,
+    'unrepr': False,
+    'write_empty_values': False,
+}
+
+
+
+def getObj(s):
+    global compiler
+    if compiler is None:
+        import compiler
+    s = "a=" + s
+    p = compiler.parse(s)
+    return p.getChildren()[1].getChildren()[0].getChildren()[1]
+
+
+class UnknownType(Exception):
+    pass
+
+
+class Builder(object):
+    
+    def build(self, o):
+        m = getattr(self, 'build_' + o.__class__.__name__, None)
+        if m is None:
+            raise UnknownType(o.__class__.__name__)
+        return m(o)
+    
+    def build_List(self, o):
+        return map(self.build, o.getChildren())
+    
+    def build_Const(self, o):
+        return o.value
+    
+    def build_Dict(self, o):
+        d = {}
+        i = iter(map(self.build, o.getChildren()))
+        for el in i:
+            d[el] = i.next()
+        return d
+    
+    def build_Tuple(self, o):
+        return tuple(self.build_List(o))
+    
+    def build_Name(self, o):
+        if o.name == 'None':
+            return None
+        if o.name == 'True':
+            return True
+        if o.name == 'False':
+            return False
+        
+        # An undefined Name
+        raise UnknownType('Undefined Name')
+    
+    def build_Add(self, o):
+        real, imag = map(self.build_Const, o.getChildren())
+        try:
+            real = float(real)
+        except TypeError:
+            raise UnknownType('Add')
+        if not isinstance(imag, complex) or imag.real != 0.0:
+            raise UnknownType('Add')
+        return real+imag
+    
+    def build_Getattr(self, o):
+        parent = self.build(o.expr)
+        return getattr(parent, o.attrname)
+    
+    def build_UnarySub(self, o):
+        return -self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])
+    
+    def build_UnaryAdd(self, o):
+        return self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])
+
+
+_builder = Builder()
+
+
+def unrepr(s):
+    if not s:
+        return s
+    return _builder.build(getObj(s))
+
+
+
+class ConfigObjError(SyntaxError):
+    """
+    This is the base class for all errors that ConfigObj raises.
+    It is a subclass of SyntaxError.
+    """
+    def __init__(self, message='', line_number=None, line=''):
+        self.line = line
+        self.line_number = line_number
+        SyntaxError.__init__(self, message)
+
+
+class NestingError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates a level of nesting that doesn't match.
+    """
+
+
+class ParseError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates that a line is badly written.
+    It is neither a valid ``key = value`` line,
+    nor a valid section marker line.
+    """
+
+
+class ReloadError(IOError):
+    """
+    A 'reload' operation failed.
+    This exception is a subclass of ``IOError``.
+    """
+    def __init__(self):
+        IOError.__init__(self, 'reload failed, filename is not set.')
+
+
+class DuplicateError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    The keyword or section specified already exists.
+    """
+
+
+class ConfigspecError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    An error occured whilst parsing a configspec.
+    """
+
+
+class InterpolationError(ConfigObjError):
+    """Base class for the two interpolation errors."""
+
+
+class InterpolationLoopError(InterpolationError):
+    """Maximum interpolation depth exceeded in string interpolation."""
+
+    def __init__(self, option):
+        InterpolationError.__init__(
+            self,
+            'interpolation loop detected in value "%s".' % option)
+
+
+class RepeatSectionError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates additional sections in a section with a
+    ``__many__`` (repeated) section.
+    """
+
+
+class MissingInterpolationOption(InterpolationError):
+    """A value specified for interpolation was missing."""
+    def __init__(self, option):
+        msg = 'missing option "%s" in interpolation.' % option
+        InterpolationError.__init__(self, msg)
+
+
+class UnreprError(ConfigObjError):
+    """An error parsing in unrepr mode."""
+
+
+
+class InterpolationEngine(object):
+    """
+    A helper class to help perform string interpolation.
+
+    This class is an abstract base class; its descendants perform
+    the actual work.
+    """
+
+    # compiled regexp to use in self.interpolate()
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")
+    _cookie = '%'
+
+    def __init__(self, section):
+        # the Section instance that "owns" this engine
+        self.section = section
+
+
+    def interpolate(self, key, value):
+        # short-cut
+        if not self._cookie in value:
+            return value
+        
+        def recursive_interpolate(key, value, section, backtrail):
+            """The function that does the actual work.
+
+            ``value``: the string we're trying to interpolate.
+            ``section``: the section in which that string was found
+            ``backtrail``: a dict to keep track of where we've been,
+            to detect and prevent infinite recursion loops
+
+            This is similar to a depth-first-search algorithm.
+            """
+            # Have we been here already?
+            if (key, section.name) in backtrail:
+                # Yes - infinite loop detected
+                raise InterpolationLoopError(key)
+            # Place a marker on our backtrail so we won't come back here again
+            backtrail[(key, section.name)] = 1
+
+            # Now start the actual work
+            match = self._KEYCRE.search(value)
+            while match:
+                # The actual parsing of the match is implementation-dependent,
+                # so delegate to our helper function
+                k, v, s = self._parse_match(match)
+                if k is None:
+                    # That's the signal that no further interpolation is needed
+                    replacement = v
+                else:
+                    # Further interpolation may be needed to obtain final value
+                    replacement = recursive_interpolate(k, v, s, backtrail)
+                # Replace the matched string with its final value
+                start, end = match.span()
+                value = ''.join((value[:start], replacement, value[end:]))
+                new_search_start = start + len(replacement)
+                # Pick up the next interpolation key, if any, for next time
+                # through the while loop
+                match = self._KEYCRE.search(value, new_search_start)
+
+            # Now safe to come back here again; remove marker from backtrail
+            del backtrail[(key, section.name)]
+
+            return value
+
+        # Back in interpolate(), all we have to do is kick off the recursive
+        # function with appropriate starting values
+        value = recursive_interpolate(key, value, self.section, {})
+        return value
+
+
+    def _fetch(self, key):
+        """Helper function to fetch values from owning section.
+
+        Returns a 2-tuple: the value, and the section where it was found.
+        """
+        # switch off interpolation before we try and fetch anything !
+        save_interp = self.section.main.interpolation
+        self.section.main.interpolation = False
+
+        # Start at section that "owns" this InterpolationEngine
+        current_section = self.section
+        while True:
+            # try the current section first
+            val = current_section.get(key)
+            if val is not None and not isinstance(val, Section):
+                break
+            # try "DEFAULT" next
+            val = current_section.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(key)
+            if val is not None and not isinstance(val, Section):
+                break
+            # move up to parent and try again
+            # top-level's parent is itself
+            if current_section.parent is current_section:
+                # reached top level, time to give up
+                break
+            current_section = current_section.parent
+
+        # restore interpolation to previous value before returning
+        self.section.main.interpolation = save_interp
+        if val is None:
+            raise MissingInterpolationOption(key)
+        return val, current_section
+
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        """Implementation-dependent helper function.
+
+        Will be passed a match object corresponding to the interpolation
+        key we just found (e.g., "%(foo)s" or "$foo"). Should look up that
+        key in the appropriate config file section (using the ``_fetch()``
+        helper function) and return a 3-tuple: (key, value, section)
+
+        ``key`` is the name of the key we're looking for
+        ``value`` is the value found for that key
+        ``section`` is a reference to the section where it was found
+
+        ``key`` and ``section`` should be None if no further
+        interpolation should be performed on the resulting value
+        (e.g., if we interpolated "$$" and returned "$").
+        """
+        raise NotImplementedError()
+    
+
+
+class ConfigParserInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
+    """Behaves like ConfigParser."""
+    _cookie = '%'
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        key = match.group(1)
+        value, section = self._fetch(key)
+        return key, value, section
+
+
+
+class TemplateInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
+    """Behaves like string.Template."""
+    _cookie = '$'
+    _delimiter = '$'
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"""
+        \$(?:
+          (?P<escaped>\$)              |   # Two $ signs
+          (?P<named>[_a-z][_a-z0-9]*)  |   # $name format
+          {(?P<braced>[^}]*)}              # ${name} format
+        )
+        """, re.IGNORECASE | re.VERBOSE)
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        # Valid name (in or out of braces): fetch value from section
+        key = match.group('named') or match.group('braced')
+        if key is not None:
+            value, section = self._fetch(key)
+            return key, value, section
+        # Escaped delimiter (e.g., $$): return single delimiter
+        if match.group('escaped') is not None:
+            # Return None for key and section to indicate it's time to stop
+            return None, self._delimiter, None
+        # Anything else: ignore completely, just return it unchanged
+        return None, match.group(), None
+
+
+interpolation_engines = {
+    'configparser': ConfigParserInterpolation,
+    'template': TemplateInterpolation,
+}
+
+
+def __newobj__(cls, *args):
+    # Hack for pickle
+    return cls.__new__(cls, *args) 
+
+class Section(dict):
+    """
+    A dictionary-like object that represents a section in a config file.
+    
+    It does string interpolation if the 'interpolation' attribute
+    of the 'main' object is set to True.
+    
+    Interpolation is tried first from this object, then from the 'DEFAULT'
+    section of this object, next from the parent and its 'DEFAULT' section,
+    and so on until the main object is reached.
+    
+    A Section will behave like an ordered dictionary - following the
+    order of the ``scalars`` and ``sections`` attributes.
+    You can use this to change the order of members.
+    
+    Iteration follows the order: scalars, then sections.
+    """
+
+    
+    def __setstate__(self, state):
+        dict.update(self, state[0])
+        self.__dict__.update(state[1])
+
+    def __reduce__(self):
+        state = (dict(self), self.__dict__)
+        return (__newobj__, (self.__class__,), state)
+    
+    
+    def __init__(self, parent, depth, main, indict=None, name=None):
+        """
+        * parent is the section above
+        * depth is the depth level of this section
+        * main is the main ConfigObj
+        * indict is a dictionary to initialise the section with
+        """
+        if indict is None:
+            indict = {}
+        dict.__init__(self)
+        # used for nesting level *and* interpolation
+        self.parent = parent
+        # used for the interpolation attribute
+        self.main = main
+        # level of nesting depth of this Section
+        self.depth = depth
+        # purely for information
+        self.name = name
+        #
+        self._initialise()
+        # we do this explicitly so that __setitem__ is used properly
+        # (rather than just passing to ``dict.__init__``)
+        for entry, value in indict.iteritems():
+            self[entry] = value
+            
+            
+    def _initialise(self):
+        # the sequence of scalar values in this Section
+        self.scalars = []
+        # the sequence of sections in this Section
+        self.sections = []
+        # for comments :-)
+        self.comments = {}
+        self.inline_comments = {}
+        # the configspec
+        self.configspec = None
+        # for defaults
+        self.defaults = []
+        self.default_values = {}
+        self.extra_values = []
+        self._created = False
+
+
+    def _interpolate(self, key, value):
+        try:
+            # do we already have an interpolation engine?
+            engine = self._interpolation_engine
+        except AttributeError:
+            # not yet: first time running _interpolate(), so pick the engine
+            name = self.main.interpolation
+            if name == True:  # note that "if name:" would be incorrect here
+                # backwards-compatibility: interpolation=True means use default
+                name = DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION
+            name = name.lower()  # so that "Template", "template", etc. all work
+            class_ = interpolation_engines.get(name, None)
+            if class_ is None:
+                # invalid value for self.main.interpolation
+                self.main.interpolation = False
+                return value
+            else:
+                # save reference to engine so we don't have to do this again
+                engine = self._interpolation_engine = class_(self)
+        # let the engine do the actual work
+        return engine.interpolate(key, value)
+
+
+    def __getitem__(self, key):
+        """Fetch the item and do string interpolation."""
+        val = dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        if self.main.interpolation: 
+            if isinstance(val, basestring):
+                return self._interpolate(key, val)
+            if isinstance(val, list):
+                def _check(entry):
+                    if isinstance(entry, basestring):
+                        return self._interpolate(key, entry)
+                    return entry
+                new = [_check(entry) for entry in val]
+                if new != val:
+                    return new
+        return val
+
+
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value, unrepr=False):
+        """
+        Correctly set a value.
+        
+        Making dictionary values Section instances.
+        (We have to special case 'Section' instances - which are also dicts)
+        
+        Keys must be strings.
+        Values need only be strings (or lists of strings) if
+        ``main.stringify`` is set.
+        
+        ``unrepr`` must be set when setting a value to a dictionary, without
+        creating a new sub-section.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(key, basestring):
+            raise ValueError('The key "%s" is not a string.' % key)
+        
+        # add the comment
+        if key not in self.comments:
+            self.comments[key] = []
+            self.inline_comments[key] = ''
+        # remove the entry from defaults
+        if key in self.defaults:
+            self.defaults.remove(key)
+        #
+        if isinstance(value, Section):
+            if key not in self:
+                self.sections.append(key)
+            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
+        elif isinstance(value, dict) and not unrepr:
+            # First create the new depth level,
+            # then create the section
+            if key not in self:
+                self.sections.append(key)
+            new_depth = self.depth + 1
+            dict.__setitem__(
+                self,
+                key,
+                Section(
+                    self,
+                    new_depth,
+                    self.main,
+                    indict=value,
+                    name=key))
+        else:
+            if key not in self:
+                self.scalars.append(key)
+            if not self.main.stringify:
+                if isinstance(value, basestring):
+                    pass
+                elif isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+                    for entry in value:
+                        if not isinstance(entry, basestring):
+                            raise TypeError('Value is not a string "%s".' % entry)
+                else:
+                    raise TypeError('Value is not a string "%s".' % value)
+            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
+
+
+    def __delitem__(self, key):
+        """Remove items from the sequence when deleting."""
+        dict. __delitem__(self, key)
+        if key in self.scalars:
+            self.scalars.remove(key)
+        else:
+            self.sections.remove(key)
+        del self.comments[key]
+        del self.inline_comments[key]
+
+
+    def get(self, key, default=None):
+        """A version of ``get`` that doesn't bypass string interpolation."""
+        try:
+            return self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            return default
+
+
+    def update(self, indict):
+        """
+        A version of update that uses our ``__setitem__``.
+        """
+        for entry in indict:
+            self[entry] = indict[entry]
+
+
+    def pop(self, key, default=MISSING):
+        """
+        'D.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value.
+        If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised'
+        """
+        try:
+            val = self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            if default is MISSING:
+                raise
+            val = default
+        else:
+            del self[key]
+        return val
+
+
+    def popitem(self):
+        """Pops the first (key,val)"""
+        sequence = (self.scalars + self.sections)
+        if not sequence:
+            raise KeyError(": 'popitem(): dictionary is empty'")
+        key = sequence[0]
+        val =  self[key]
+        del self[key]
+        return key, val
+
+
+    def clear(self):
+        """
+        A version of clear that also affects scalars/sections
+        Also clears comments and configspec.
+        
+        Leaves other attributes alone :
+            depth/main/parent are not affected
+        """
+        dict.clear(self)
+        self.scalars = []
+        self.sections = []
+        self.comments = {}
+        self.inline_comments = {}
+        self.configspec = None
+        self.defaults = []
+        self.extra_values = []
+
+
+    def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
+        """A version of setdefault that sets sequence if appropriate."""
+        try:
+            return self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            self[key] = default
+            return self[key]
+
+
+    def items(self):
+        """D.items() -> list of D's (key, value) pairs, as 2-tuples"""
+        return zip((self.scalars + self.sections), self.values())
+
+
+    def keys(self):
+        """D.keys() -> list of D's keys"""
+        return (self.scalars + self.sections)
+
+
+    def values(self):
+        """D.values() -> list of D's values"""
+        return [self[key] for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]
+
+
+    def iteritems(self):
+        """D.iteritems() -> an iterator over the (key, value) items of D"""
+        return iter(self.items())
+
+
+    def iterkeys(self):
+        """D.iterkeys() -> an iterator over the keys of D"""
+        return iter((self.scalars + self.sections))
+
+    __iter__ = iterkeys
+
+
+    def itervalues(self):
+        """D.itervalues() -> an iterator over the values of D"""
+        return iter(self.values())
+
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        """x.__repr__() <==> repr(x)"""
+        def _getval(key):
+            try:
+                return self[key]
+            except MissingInterpolationOption:
+                return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        return '{%s}' % ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(_getval(key))))
+            for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)])
+
+    __str__ = __repr__
+    __str__.__doc__ = "x.__str__() <==> str(x)"
+
+
+    # Extra methods - not in a normal dictionary
+
+    def dict(self):
+        """
+        Return a deepcopy of self as a dictionary.
+        
+        All members that are ``Section`` instances are recursively turned to
+        ordinary dictionaries - by calling their ``dict`` method.
+        
+        >>> n = a.dict()
+        >>> n == a
+        1
+        >>> n is a
+        0
+        """
+        newdict = {}
+        for entry in self:
+            this_entry = self[entry]
+            if isinstance(this_entry, Section):
+                this_entry = this_entry.dict()
+            elif isinstance(this_entry, list):
+                # create a copy rather than a reference
+                this_entry = list(this_entry)
+            elif isinstance(this_entry, tuple):
+                # create a copy rather than a reference
+                this_entry = tuple(this_entry)
+            newdict[entry] = this_entry
+        return newdict
+
+
+    def merge(self, indict):
+        """
+        A recursive update - useful for merging config files.
+        
+        >>> a = '''[section1]
+        ...     option1 = True
+        ...     [[subsection]]
+        ...     more_options = False
+        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
+        >>> b = '''# File is user.ini
+        ...     [section1]
+        ...     option1 = False
+        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
+        >>> c1 = ConfigObj(b)
+        >>> c2 = ConfigObj(a)
+        >>> c2.merge(c1)
+        >>> c2
+        ConfigObj({'section1': {'option1': 'False', 'subsection': {'more_options': 'False'}}})
+        """
+        for key, val in indict.items():
+            if (key in self and isinstance(self[key], dict) and
+                                isinstance(val, dict)):
+                self[key].merge(val)
+            else:   
+                self[key] = val
+
+
+    def rename(self, oldkey, newkey):
+        """
+        Change a keyname to another, without changing position in sequence.
+        
+        Implemented so that transformations can be made on keys,
+        as well as on values. (used by encode and decode)
+        
+        Also renames comments.
+        """
+        if oldkey in self.scalars:
+            the_list = self.scalars
+        elif oldkey in self.sections:
+            the_list = self.sections
+        else:
+            raise KeyError('Key "%s" not found.' % oldkey)
+        pos = the_list.index(oldkey)
+        #
+        val = self[oldkey]
+        dict.__delitem__(self, oldkey)
+        dict.__setitem__(self, newkey, val)
+        the_list.remove(oldkey)
+        the_list.insert(pos, newkey)
+        comm = self.comments[oldkey]
+        inline_comment = self.inline_comments[oldkey]
+        del self.comments[oldkey]
+        del self.inline_comments[oldkey]
+        self.comments[newkey] = comm
+        self.inline_comments[newkey] = inline_comment
+
+
+    def walk(self, function, raise_errors=True,
+            call_on_sections=False, **keywargs):
+        """
+        Walk every member and call a function on the keyword and value.
+        
+        Return a dictionary of the return values
+        
+        If the function raises an exception, raise the errror
+        unless ``raise_errors=False``, in which case set the return value to
+        ``False``.
+        
+        Any unrecognised keyword arguments you pass to walk, will be pased on
+        to the function you pass in.
+        
+        Note: if ``call_on_sections`` is ``True`` then - on encountering a
+        subsection, *first* the function is called for the *whole* subsection,
+        and then recurses into it's members. This means your function must be
+        able to handle strings, dictionaries and lists. This allows you
+        to change the key of subsections as well as for ordinary members. The
+        return value when called on the whole subsection has to be discarded.
+        
+        See  the encode and decode methods for examples, including functions.
+        
+        .. admonition:: caution
+        
+            You can use ``walk`` to transform the names of members of a section
+            but you mustn't add or delete members.
+        
+        >>> config = '''[XXXXsection]
+        ... XXXXkey = XXXXvalue'''.splitlines()
+        >>> cfg = ConfigObj(config)
+        >>> cfg
+        ConfigObj({'XXXXsection': {'XXXXkey': 'XXXXvalue'}})
+        >>> def transform(section, key):
+        ...     val = section[key]
+        ...     newkey = key.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
+        ...     section.rename(key, newkey)
+        ...     if isinstance(val, (tuple, list, dict)):
+        ...         pass
+        ...     else:
+        ...         val = val.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
+        ...         section[newkey] = val
+        >>> cfg.walk(transform, call_on_sections=True)
+        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': None}}
+        >>> cfg
+        ConfigObj({'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': 'CLIENT1value'}})
+        """
+        out = {}
+        # scalars first
+        for i in range(len(self.scalars)):
+            entry = self.scalars[i]
+            try:
+                val = function(self, entry, **keywargs)
+                # bound again in case name has changed
+                entry = self.scalars[i]
+                out[entry] = val
+            except Exception:
+                if raise_errors:
+                    raise
+                else:
+                    entry = self.scalars[i]
+                    out[entry] = False
+        # then sections
+        for i in range(len(self.sections)):
+            entry = self.sections[i]
+            if call_on_sections:
+                try:
+                    function(self, entry, **keywargs)
+                except Exception:
+                    if raise_errors:
+                        raise
+                    else:
+                        entry = self.sections[i]
+                        out[entry] = False
+                # bound again in case name has changed
+                entry = self.sections[i]
+            # previous result is discarded
+            out[entry] = self[entry].walk(
+                function,
+                raise_errors=raise_errors,
+                call_on_sections=call_on_sections,
+                **keywargs)
+        return out
+
+
+    def as_bool(self, key):
+        """
+        Accepts a key as input. The corresponding value must be a string or
+        the objects (``True`` or 1) or (``False`` or 0). We allow 0 and 1 to
+        retain compatibility with Python 2.2.
+        
+        If the string is one of  ``True``, ``On``, ``Yes``, or ``1`` it returns 
+        ``True``.
+        
+        If the string is one of  ``False``, ``Off``, ``No``, or ``0`` it returns 
+        ``False``.
+        
+        ``as_bool`` is not case sensitive.
+        
+        Any other input will raise a ``ValueError``.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_bool('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: Value "fish" is neither True nor False
+        >>> a['b'] = 'True'
+        >>> a.as_bool('b')
+        1
+        >>> a['b'] = 'off'
+        >>> a.as_bool('b')
+        0
+        """
+        val = self[key]
+        if val == True:
+            return True
+        elif val == False:
+            return False
+        else:
+            try:
+                if not isinstance(val, basestring):
+                    # TODO: Why do we raise a KeyError here?
+                    raise KeyError()
+                else:
+                    return self.main._bools[val.lower()]
+            except KeyError:
+                raise ValueError('Value "%s" is neither True nor False' % val)
+
+
+    def as_int(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to an integer.
+        
+        If the value is an invalid literal for ``int``, a ``ValueError`` will
+        be raised.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_int('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: 'fish'
+        >>> a['b'] = '1'
+        >>> a.as_int('b')
+        1
+        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
+        >>> a.as_int('b')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: '3.2'
+        """
+        return int(self[key])
+
+
+    def as_float(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to a float.
+        
+        If the value is an invalid literal for ``float``, a ``ValueError`` will
+        be raised.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_float('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for float(): fish
+        >>> a['b'] = '1'
+        >>> a.as_float('b')
+        1.0
+        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
+        >>> a.as_float('b')
+        3.2000000000000002
+        """
+        return float(self[key])
+    
+    
+    def as_list(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which fetches the specified value, guaranteeing
+        that it is a list.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 1
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        >>> a['a'] = (1,)
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        >>> a['a'] = [1]
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        """
+        result = self[key]
+        if isinstance(result, (tuple, list)):
+            return list(result)
+        return [result]
+        
+
+    def restore_default(self, key):
+        """
+        Restore (and return) default value for the specified key.
+        
+        This method will only work for a ConfigObj that was created
+        with a configspec and has been validated.
+        
+        If there is no default value for this key, ``KeyError`` is raised.
+        """
+        default = self.default_values[key]
+        dict.__setitem__(self, key, default)
+        if key not in self.defaults:
+            self.defaults.append(key)
+        return default
+
+    
+    def restore_defaults(self):
+        """
+        Recursively restore default values to all members
+        that have them.
+        
+        This method will only work for a ConfigObj that was created
+        with a configspec and has been validated.
+        
+        It doesn't delete or modify entries without default values.
+        """
+        for key in self.default_values:
+            self.restore_default(key)
+            
+        for section in self.sections:
+            self[section].restore_defaults()
+
+
+class ConfigObj(Section):
+    """An object to read, create, and write config files."""
+
+    _keyword = re.compile(r'''^ # line start
+        (\s*)                   # indentation
+        (                       # keyword
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'"=].*?)       # no quotes
+        )
+        \s*=\s*                 # divider
+        (.*)                    # value (including list values and comments)
+        $   # line end
+        ''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    _sectionmarker = re.compile(r'''^
+        (\s*)                     # 1: indentation
+        ((?:\[\s*)+)              # 2: section marker open
+        (                         # 3: section name open
+            (?:"\s*\S.*?\s*")|    # at least one non-space with double quotes
+            (?:'\s*\S.*?\s*')|    # at least one non-space with single quotes
+            (?:[^'"\s].*?)        # at least one non-space unquoted
+        )                         # section name close
+        ((?:\s*\])+)              # 4: section marker close
+        \s*(\#.*)?                # 5: optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # this regexp pulls list values out as a single string
+    # or single values and comments
+    # FIXME: this regex adds a '' to the end of comma terminated lists
+    #   workaround in ``_handle_value``
+    _valueexp = re.compile(r'''^
+        (?:
+            (?:
+                (
+                    (?:
+                        (?:
+                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                            (?:[^'",\#][^,\#]*?)    # unquoted
+                        )
+                        \s*,\s*                     # comma
+                    )*      # match all list items ending in a comma (if any)
+                )
+                (
+                    (?:".*?")|                      # double quotes
+                    (?:'.*?')|                      # single quotes
+                    (?:[^'",\#\s][^,]*?)|           # unquoted
+                    (?:(?<!,))                      # Empty value
+                )?          # last item in a list - or string value
+            )|
+            (,)             # alternatively a single comma - empty list
+        )
+        \s*(\#.*)?          # optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # use findall to get the members of a list value
+    _listvalueexp = re.compile(r'''
+        (
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'",\#]?.*?)       # unquoted
+        )
+        \s*,\s*                 # comma
+        ''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # this regexp is used for the value
+    # when lists are switched off
+    _nolistvalue = re.compile(r'''^
+        (
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'"\#].*?)|     # unquoted
+            (?:)                # Empty value
+        )
+        \s*(\#.*)?              # optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # regexes for finding triple quoted values on one line
+    _single_line_single = re.compile(r"^'''(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
+    _single_line_double = re.compile(r'^"""(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
+    _multi_line_single = re.compile(r"^(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
+    _multi_line_double = re.compile(r'^(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
+
+    _triple_quote = {
+        "'''": (_single_line_single, _multi_line_single),
+        '"""': (_single_line_double, _multi_line_double),
+    }
+
+    # Used by the ``istrue`` Section method
+    _bools = {
+        'yes': True, 'no': False,
+        'on': True, 'off': False,
+        '1': True, '0': False,
+        'true': True, 'false': False,
+        }
+
+
+    def __init__(self, infile=None, options=None, configspec=None, encoding=None,
+                 interpolation=True, raise_errors=False, list_values=True,
+                 create_empty=False, file_error=False, stringify=True,
+                 indent_type=None, default_encoding=None, unrepr=False,
+                 write_empty_values=False, _inspec=False):
+        """
+        Parse a config file or create a config file object.
+        
+        ``ConfigObj(infile=None, configspec=None, encoding=None,
+                    interpolation=True, raise_errors=False, list_values=True,
+                    create_empty=False, file_error=False, stringify=True,
+                    indent_type=None, default_encoding=None, unrepr=False,
+                    write_empty_values=False, _inspec=False)``
+        """
+        self._inspec = _inspec
+        # init the superclass
+        Section.__init__(self, self, 0, self)
+        
+        infile = infile or []
+        
+        _options = {'configspec': configspec,
+                    'encoding': encoding, 'interpolation': interpolation,
+                    'raise_errors': raise_errors, 'list_values': list_values,
+                    'create_empty': create_empty, 'file_error': file_error,
+                    'stringify': stringify, 'indent_type': indent_type,
+                    'default_encoding': default_encoding, 'unrepr': unrepr,
+                    'write_empty_values': write_empty_values}
+
+        if options is None:
+            options = _options
+        else:
+            import warnings
+            warnings.warn('Passing in an options dictionary to ConfigObj() is '
+                          'deprecated. Use **options instead.',
+                          DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
+            
+            # TODO: check the values too.
+            for entry in options:
+                if entry not in OPTION_DEFAULTS:
+                    raise TypeError('Unrecognised option "%s".' % entry)
+            for entry, value in OPTION_DEFAULTS.items():
+                if entry not in options:
+                    options[entry] = value
+                keyword_value = _options[entry]
+                if value != keyword_value:
+                    options[entry] = keyword_value
+        
+        # XXXX this ignores an explicit list_values = True in combination
+        # with _inspec. The user should *never* do that anyway, but still...
+        if _inspec:
+            options['list_values'] = False
+        
+        self._initialise(options)
+        configspec = options['configspec']
+        self._original_configspec = configspec
+        self._load(infile, configspec)
+        
+        
+    def _load(self, infile, configspec):
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            self.filename = infile
+            if os.path.isfile(infile):
+                h = open(infile, 'rb')
+                infile = h.read() or []
+                h.close()
+            elif self.file_error:
+                # raise an error if the file doesn't exist
+                raise IOError('Config file not found: "%s".' % self.filename)
+            else:
+                # file doesn't already exist
+                if self.create_empty:
+                    # this is a good test that the filename specified
+                    # isn't impossible - like on a non-existent device
+                    h = open(infile, 'w')
+                    h.write('')
+                    h.close()
+                infile = []
+                
+        elif isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+            infile = list(infile)
+            
+        elif isinstance(infile, dict):
+            # initialise self
+            # the Section class handles creating subsections
+            if isinstance(infile, ConfigObj):
+                # get a copy of our ConfigObj
+                def set_section(in_section, this_section):
+                    for entry in in_section.scalars:
+                        this_section[entry] = in_section[entry]
+                    for section in in_section.sections:
+                        this_section[section] = {}
+                        set_section(in_section[section], this_section[section])
+                set_section(infile, self)
+                
+            else:
+                for entry in infile:
+                    self[entry] = infile[entry]
+            del self._errors
+            
+            if configspec is not None:
+                self._handle_configspec(configspec)
+            else:
+                self.configspec = None
+            return
+        
+        elif getattr(infile, 'read', MISSING) is not MISSING:
+            # This supports file like objects
+            infile = infile.read() or []
+            # needs splitting into lines - but needs doing *after* decoding
+            # in case it's not an 8 bit encoding
+        else:
+            raise TypeError('infile must be a filename, file like object, or list of lines.')
+        
+        if infile:
+            # don't do it for the empty ConfigObj
+            infile = self._handle_bom(infile)
+            # infile is now *always* a list
+            #
+            # Set the newlines attribute (first line ending it finds)
+            # and strip trailing '\n' or '\r' from lines
+            for line in infile:
+                if (not line) or (line[-1] not in ('\r', '\n', '\r\n')):
+                    continue
+                for end in ('\r\n', '\n', '\r'):
+                    if line.endswith(end):
+                        self.newlines = end
+                        break
+                break
+
+            infile = [line.rstrip('\r\n') for line in infile]
+            
+        self._parse(infile)
+        # if we had any errors, now is the time to raise them
+        if self._errors:
+            info = "at line %s." % self._errors[0].line_number
+            if len(self._errors) > 1:
+                msg = "Parsing failed with several errors.\nFirst error %s" % info
+                error = ConfigObjError(msg)
+            else:
+                error = self._errors[0]
+            # set the errors attribute; it's a list of tuples:
+            # (error_type, message, line_number)
+            error.errors = self._errors
+            # set the config attribute
+            error.config = self
+            raise error
+        # delete private attributes
+        del self._errors
+        
+        if configspec is None:
+            self.configspec = None
+        else:
+            self._handle_configspec(configspec)
+    
+    
+    def _initialise(self, options=None):
+        if options is None:
+            options = OPTION_DEFAULTS
+            
+        # initialise a few variables
+        self.filename = None
+        self._errors = []
+        self.raise_errors = options['raise_errors']
+        self.interpolation = options['interpolation']
+        self.list_values = options['list_values']
+        self.create_empty = options['create_empty']
+        self.file_error = options['file_error']
+        self.stringify = options['stringify']
+        self.indent_type = options['indent_type']
+        self.encoding = options['encoding']
+        self.default_encoding = options['default_encoding']
+        self.BOM = False
+        self.newlines = None
+        self.write_empty_values = options['write_empty_values']
+        self.unrepr = options['unrepr']
+        
+        self.initial_comment = []
+        self.final_comment = []
+        self.configspec = None
+        
+        if self._inspec:
+            self.list_values = False
+        
+        # Clear section attributes as well
+        Section._initialise(self)
+        
+        
+    def __repr__(self):
+        def _getval(key):
+            try:
+                return self[key]
+            except MissingInterpolationOption:
+                return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        return ('ConfigObj({%s})' % 
+                ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(_getval(key)))) 
+                for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]))
+    
+    
+    def _handle_bom(self, infile):
+        """
+        Handle any BOM, and decode if necessary.
+        
+        If an encoding is specified, that *must* be used - but the BOM should
+        still be removed (and the BOM attribute set).
+        
+        (If the encoding is wrongly specified, then a BOM for an alternative
+        encoding won't be discovered or removed.)
+        
+        If an encoding is not specified, UTF8 or UTF16 BOM will be detected and
+        removed. The BOM attribute will be set. UTF16 will be decoded to
+        unicode.
+        
+        NOTE: This method must not be called with an empty ``infile``.
+        
+        Specifying the *wrong* encoding is likely to cause a
+        ``UnicodeDecodeError``.
+        
+        ``infile`` must always be returned as a list of lines, but may be
+        passed in as a single string.
+        """
+        if ((self.encoding is not None) and
+            (self.encoding.lower() not in BOM_LIST)):
+            # No need to check for a BOM
+            # the encoding specified doesn't have one
+            # just decode
+            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+        
+        if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+            line = infile[0]
+        else:
+            line = infile
+        if self.encoding is not None:
+            # encoding explicitly supplied
+            # And it could have an associated BOM
+            # TODO: if encoding is just UTF16 - we ought to check for both
+            # TODO: big endian and little endian versions.
+            enc = BOM_LIST[self.encoding.lower()]
+            if enc == 'utf_16':
+                # For UTF16 we try big endian and little endian
+                for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
+                    if not final_encoding:
+                        # skip UTF8
+                        continue
+                    if infile.startswith(BOM):
+                        ### BOM discovered
+                        ##self.BOM = True
+                        # Don't need to remove BOM
+                        return self._decode(infile, encoding)
+                    
+                # If we get this far, will *probably* raise a DecodeError
+                # As it doesn't appear to start with a BOM
+                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+            
+            # Must be UTF8
+            BOM = BOM_SET[enc]
+            if not line.startswith(BOM):
+                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+            
+            newline = line[len(BOM):]
+            
+            # BOM removed
+            if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+                infile[0] = newline
+            else:
+                infile = newline
+            self.BOM = True
+            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+        
+        # No encoding specified - so we need to check for UTF8/UTF16
+        for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
+            if not line.startswith(BOM):
+                continue
+            else:
+                # BOM discovered
+                self.encoding = final_encoding
+                if not final_encoding:
+                    self.BOM = True
+                    # UTF8
+                    # remove BOM
+                    newline = line[len(BOM):]
+                    if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+                        infile[0] = newline
+                    else:
+                        infile = newline
+                    # UTF8 - don't decode
+                    if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+                        return infile.splitlines(True)
+                    else:
+                        return infile
+                # UTF16 - have to decode
+                return self._decode(infile, encoding)
+            
+        # No BOM discovered and no encoding specified, just return
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            # infile read from a file will be a single string
+            return infile.splitlines(True)
+        return infile
+
+
+    def _a_to_u(self, aString):
+        """Decode ASCII strings to unicode if a self.encoding is specified."""
+        if self.encoding:
+            return aString.decode('ascii')
+        else:
+            return aString
+
+
+    def _decode(self, infile, encoding):
+        """
+        Decode infile to unicode. Using the specified encoding.
+        
+        if is a string, it also needs converting to a list.
+        """
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            # can't be unicode
+            # NOTE: Could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
+            return infile.decode(encoding).splitlines(True)
+        for i, line in enumerate(infile):
+            if not isinstance(line, unicode):
+                # NOTE: The isinstance test here handles mixed lists of unicode/string
+                # NOTE: But the decode will break on any non-string values
+                # NOTE: Or could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
+                infile[i] = line.decode(encoding)
+        return infile
+
+
+    def _decode_element(self, line):
+        """Decode element to unicode if necessary."""
+        if not self.encoding:
+            return line
+        if isinstance(line, str) and self.default_encoding:
+            return line.decode(self.default_encoding)
+        return line
+
+
+    def _str(self, value):
+        """
+        Used by ``stringify`` within validate, to turn non-string values
+        into strings.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            return str(value)
+        else:
+            return value
+
+
+    def _parse(self, infile):
+        """Actually parse the config file."""
+        temp_list_values = self.list_values
+        if self.unrepr:
+            self.list_values = False
+            
+        comment_list = []
+        done_start = False
+        this_section = self
+        maxline = len(infile) - 1
+        cur_index = -1
+        reset_comment = False
+        
+        while cur_index < maxline:
+            if reset_comment:
+                comment_list = []
+            cur_index += 1
+            line = infile[cur_index]
+            sline = line.strip()
+            # do we have anything on the line ?
+            if not sline or sline.startswith('#'):
+                reset_comment = False
+                comment_list.append(line)
+                continue
+            
+            if not done_start:
+                # preserve initial comment
+                self.initial_comment = comment_list
+                comment_list = []
+                done_start = True
+                
+            reset_comment = True
+            # first we check if it's a section marker
+            mat = self._sectionmarker.match(line)
+            if mat is not None:
+                # is a section line
+                (indent, sect_open, sect_name, sect_close, comment) = mat.groups()
+                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
+                    self.indent_type = indent
+                cur_depth = sect_open.count('[')
+                if cur_depth != sect_close.count(']'):
+                    self._handle_error("Cannot compute the section depth at line %s.",
+                                       NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                
+                if cur_depth < this_section.depth:
+                    # the new section is dropping back to a previous level
+                    try:
+                        parent = self._match_depth(this_section,
+                                                   cur_depth).parent
+                    except SyntaxError:
+                        self._handle_error("Cannot compute nesting level at line %s.",
+                                           NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                        continue
+                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth:
+                    # the new section is a sibling of the current section
+                    parent = this_section.parent
+                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth + 1:
+                    # the new section is a child the current section
+                    parent = this_section
+                else:
+                    self._handle_error("Section too nested at line %s.",
+                                       NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                    
+                sect_name = self._unquote(sect_name)
+                if sect_name in parent:
+                    self._handle_error('Duplicate section name at line %s.',
+                                       DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                
+                # create the new section
+                this_section = Section(
+                    parent,
+                    cur_depth,
+                    self,
+                    name=sect_name)
+                parent[sect_name] = this_section
+                parent.inline_comments[sect_name] = comment
+                parent.comments[sect_name] = comment_list
+                continue
+            #
+            # it's not a section marker,
+            # so it should be a valid ``key = value`` line
+            mat = self._keyword.match(line)
+            if mat is None:
+                # it neither matched as a keyword
+                # or a section marker
+                self._handle_error(
+                    'Invalid line at line "%s".',
+                    ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+            else:
+                # is a keyword value
+                # value will include any inline comment
+                (indent, key, value) = mat.groups()
+                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
+                    self.indent_type = indent
+                # check for a multiline value
+                if value[:3] in ['"""', "'''"]:
+                    try:
+                        value, comment, cur_index = self._multiline(
+                            value, infile, cur_index, maxline)
+                    except SyntaxError:
+                        self._handle_error(
+                            'Parse error in value at line %s.',
+                            ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+                        continue
+                    else:
+                        if self.unrepr:
+                            comment = ''
+                            try:
+                                value = unrepr(value)
+                            except Exception, e:
+                                if type(e) == UnknownType:
+                                    msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
+                                else:
+                                    msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
+                                self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
+                                    cur_index)
+                                continue
+                else:
+                    if self.unrepr:
+                        comment = ''
+                        try:
+                            value = unrepr(value)
+                        except Exception, e:
+                            if isinstance(e, UnknownType):
+                                msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
+                            else:
+                                msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
+                            self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
+                                cur_index)
+                            continue
+                    else:
+                        # extract comment and lists
+                        try:
+                            (value, comment) = self._handle_value(value)
+                        except SyntaxError:
+                            self._handle_error(
+                                'Parse error in value at line %s.',
+                                ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+                            continue
+                #
+                key = self._unquote(key)
+                if key in this_section:
+                    self._handle_error(
+                        'Duplicate keyword name at line %s.',
+                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                # add the key.
+                # we set unrepr because if we have got this far we will never
+                # be creating a new section
+                this_section.__setitem__(key, value, unrepr=True)
+                this_section.inline_comments[key] = comment
+                this_section.comments[key] = comment_list
+                continue
+        #
+        if self.indent_type is None:
+            # no indentation used, set the type accordingly
+            self.indent_type = ''
+
+        # preserve the final comment
+        if not self and not self.initial_comment:
+            self.initial_comment = comment_list
+        elif not reset_comment:
+            self.final_comment = comment_list
+        self.list_values = temp_list_values
+
+
+    def _match_depth(self, sect, depth):
+        """
+        Given a section and a depth level, walk back through the sections
+        parents to see if the depth level matches a previous section.
+        
+        Return a reference to the right section,
+        or raise a SyntaxError.
+        """
+        while depth < sect.depth:
+            if sect is sect.parent:
+                # we've reached the top level already
+                raise SyntaxError()
+            sect = sect.parent
+        if sect.depth == depth:
+            return sect
+        # shouldn't get here
+        raise SyntaxError()
+
+
+    def _handle_error(self, text, ErrorClass, infile, cur_index):
+        """
+        Handle an error according to the error settings.
+        
+        Either raise the error or store it.
+        The error will have occured at ``cur_index``
+        """
+        line = infile[cur_index]
+        cur_index += 1
+        message = text % cur_index
+        error = ErrorClass(message, cur_index, line)
+        if self.raise_errors:
+            # raise the error - parsing stops here
+            raise error
+        # store the error
+        # reraise when parsing has finished
+        self._errors.append(error)
+
+
+    def _unquote(self, value):
+        """Return an unquoted version of a value"""
+        if not value:
+            # should only happen during parsing of lists
+            raise SyntaxError
+        if (value[0] == value[-1]) and (value[0] in ('"', "'")):
+            value = value[1:-1]
+        return value
+
+
+    def _quote(self, value, multiline=True):
+        """
+        Return a safely quoted version of a value.
+        
+        Raise a ConfigObjError if the value cannot be safely quoted.
+        If multiline is ``True`` (default) then use triple quotes
+        if necessary.
+        
+        * Don't quote values that don't need it.
+        * Recursively quote members of a list and return a comma joined list.
+        * Multiline is ``False`` for lists.
+        * Obey list syntax for empty and single member lists.
+        
+        If ``list_values=False`` then the value is only quoted if it contains
+        a ``\\n`` (is multiline) or '#'.
+        
+        If ``write_empty_values`` is set, and the value is an empty string, it
+        won't be quoted.
+        """
+        if multiline and self.write_empty_values and value == '':
+            # Only if multiline is set, so that it is used for values not
+            # keys, and not values that are part of a list
+            return ''
+        
+        if multiline and isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+            if not value:
+                return ','
+            elif len(value) == 1:
+                return self._quote(value[0], multiline=False) + ','
+            return ', '.join([self._quote(val, multiline=False)
+                for val in value])
+        if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            if self.stringify:
+                value = str(value)
+            else:
+                raise TypeError('Value "%s" is not a string.' % value)
+
+        if not value:
+            return '""'
+        
+        no_lists_no_quotes = not self.list_values and '\n' not in value and '#' not in value
+        need_triple = multiline and ((("'" in value) and ('"' in value)) or ('\n' in value ))
+        hash_triple_quote = multiline and not need_triple and ("'" in value) and ('"' in value) and ('#' in value)
+        check_for_single = (no_lists_no_quotes or not need_triple) and not hash_triple_quote
+        
+        if check_for_single:
+            if not self.list_values:
+                # we don't quote if ``list_values=False``
+                quot = noquot
+            # for normal values either single or double quotes will do
+            elif '\n' in value:
+                # will only happen if multiline is off - e.g. '\n' in key
+                raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+            elif ((value[0] not in wspace_plus) and
+                    (value[-1] not in wspace_plus) and
+                    (',' not in value)):
+                quot = noquot
+            else:
+                quot = self._get_single_quote(value)
+        else:
+            # if value has '\n' or "'" *and* '"', it will need triple quotes
+            quot = self._get_triple_quote(value)
+        
+        if quot == noquot and '#' in value and self.list_values:
+            quot = self._get_single_quote(value)
+                
+        return quot % value
+    
+    
+    def _get_single_quote(self, value):
+        if ("'" in value) and ('"' in value):
+            raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+        elif '"' in value:
+            quot = squot
+        else:
+            quot = dquot
+        return quot
+    
+    
+    def _get_triple_quote(self, value):
+        if (value.find('"""') != -1) and (value.find("'''") != -1):
+            raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+        if value.find('"""') == -1:
+            quot = tdquot
+        else:
+            quot = tsquot 
+        return quot
+
+
+    def _handle_value(self, value):
+        """
+        Given a value string, unquote, remove comment,
+        handle lists. (including empty and single member lists)
+        """
+        if self._inspec:
+            # Parsing a configspec so don't handle comments
+            return (value, '')
+        # do we look for lists in values ?
+        if not self.list_values:
+            mat = self._nolistvalue.match(value)
+            if mat is None:
+                raise SyntaxError()
+            # NOTE: we don't unquote here
+            return mat.groups()
+        #
+        mat = self._valueexp.match(value)
+        if mat is None:
+            # the value is badly constructed, probably badly quoted,
+            # or an invalid list
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        (list_values, single, empty_list, comment) = mat.groups()
+        if (list_values == '') and (single is None):
+            # change this if you want to accept empty values
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        # NOTE: note there is no error handling from here if the regex
+        # is wrong: then incorrect values will slip through
+        if empty_list is not None:
+            # the single comma - meaning an empty list
+            return ([], comment)
+        if single is not None:
+            # handle empty values
+            if list_values and not single:
+                # FIXME: the '' is a workaround because our regex now matches
+                #   '' at the end of a list if it has a trailing comma
+                single = None
+            else:
+                single = single or '""'
+                single = self._unquote(single)
+        if list_values == '':
+            # not a list value
+            return (single, comment)
+        the_list = self._listvalueexp.findall(list_values)
+        the_list = [self._unquote(val) for val in the_list]
+        if single is not None:
+            the_list += [single]
+        return (the_list, comment)
+
+
+    def _multiline(self, value, infile, cur_index, maxline):
+        """Extract the value, where we are in a multiline situation."""
+        quot = value[:3]
+        newvalue = value[3:]
+        single_line = self._triple_quote[quot][0]
+        multi_line = self._triple_quote[quot][1]
+        mat = single_line.match(value)
+        if mat is not None:
+            retval = list(mat.groups())
+            retval.append(cur_index)
+            return retval
+        elif newvalue.find(quot) != -1:
+            # somehow the triple quote is missing
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        #
+        while cur_index < maxline:
+            cur_index += 1
+            newvalue += '\n'
+            line = infile[cur_index]
+            if line.find(quot) == -1:
+                newvalue += line
+            else:
+                # end of multiline, process it
+                break
+        else:
+            # we've got to the end of the config, oops...
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        mat = multi_line.match(line)
+        if mat is None:
+            # a badly formed line
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        (value, comment) = mat.groups()
+        return (newvalue + value, comment, cur_index)
+
+
+    def _handle_configspec(self, configspec):
+        """Parse the configspec."""
+        # FIXME: Should we check that the configspec was created with the 
+        #        correct settings ? (i.e. ``list_values=False``)
+        if not isinstance(configspec, ConfigObj):
+            try:
+                configspec = ConfigObj(configspec,
+                                       raise_errors=True,
+                                       file_error=True,
+                                       _inspec=True)
+            except ConfigObjError, e:
+                # FIXME: Should these errors have a reference
+                #        to the already parsed ConfigObj ?
+                raise ConfigspecError('Parsing configspec failed: %s' % e)
+            except IOError, e:
+                raise IOError('Reading configspec failed: %s' % e)
+        
+        self.configspec = configspec
+            
+
+        
+    def _set_configspec(self, section, copy):
+        """
+        Called by validate. Handles setting the configspec on subsections
+        including sections to be validated by __many__
+        """
+        configspec = section.configspec
+        many = configspec.get('__many__')
+        if isinstance(many, dict):
+            for entry in section.sections:
+                if entry not in configspec:
+                    section[entry].configspec = many
+                    
+        for entry in configspec.sections:
+            if entry == '__many__':
+                continue
+            if entry not in section:
+                section[entry] = {}
+                section[entry]._created = True
+                if copy:
+                    # copy comments
+                    section.comments[entry] = configspec.comments.get(entry, [])
+                    section.inline_comments[entry] = configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, '')
+                
+            # Could be a scalar when we expect a section
+            if isinstance(section[entry], Section):
+                section[entry].configspec = configspec[entry]
+                        
+
+    def _write_line(self, indent_string, entry, this_entry, comment):
+        """Write an individual line, for the write method"""
+        # NOTE: the calls to self._quote here handles non-StringType values.
+        if not self.unrepr:
+            val = self._decode_element(self._quote(this_entry))
+        else:
+            val = repr(this_entry)
+        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (indent_string,
+                               self._decode_element(self._quote(entry, multiline=False)),
+                               self._a_to_u(' = '),
+                               val,
+                               self._decode_element(comment))
+
+
+    def _write_marker(self, indent_string, depth, entry, comment):
+        """Write a section marker line"""
+        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (indent_string,
+                               self._a_to_u('[' * depth),
+                               self._quote(self._decode_element(entry), multiline=False),
+                               self._a_to_u(']' * depth),
+                               self._decode_element(comment))
+
+
+    def _handle_comment(self, comment):
+        """Deal with a comment."""
+        if not comment:
+            return ''
+        start = self.indent_type
+        if not comment.startswith('#'):
+            start += self._a_to_u(' # ')
+        return (start + comment)
+
+
+    # Public methods
+
+    def write(self, outfile=None, section=None):
+        """
+        Write the current ConfigObj as a file
+        
+        tekNico: FIXME: use StringIO instead of real files
+        
+        >>> filename = a.filename
+        >>> a.filename = 'test.ini'
+        >>> a.write()
+        >>> a.filename = filename
+        >>> a == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
+        1
+        >>> import os
+        >>> os.remove('test.ini')
+        """
+        if self.indent_type is None:
+            # this can be true if initialised from a dictionary
+            self.indent_type = DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE
+            
+        out = []
+        cs = self._a_to_u('#')
+        csp = self._a_to_u('# ')
+        if section is None:
+            int_val = self.interpolation
+            self.interpolation = False
+            section = self
+            for line in self.initial_comment:
+                line = self._decode_element(line)
+                stripped_line = line.strip()
+                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
+                    line = csp + line
+                out.append(line)
+                
+        indent_string = self.indent_type * section.depth
+        for entry in (section.scalars + section.sections):
+            if entry in section.defaults:
+                # don't write out default values
+                continue
+            for comment_line in section.comments[entry]:
+                comment_line = self._decode_element(comment_line.lstrip())
+                if comment_line and not comment_line.startswith(cs):
+                    comment_line = csp + comment_line
+                out.append(indent_string + comment_line)
+            this_entry = section[entry]
+            comment = self._handle_comment(section.inline_comments[entry])
+            
+            if isinstance(this_entry, dict):
+                # a section
+                out.append(self._write_marker(
+                    indent_string,
+                    this_entry.depth,
+                    entry,
+                    comment))
+                out.extend(self.write(section=this_entry))
+            else:
+                out.append(self._write_line(
+                    indent_string,
+                    entry,
+                    this_entry,
+                    comment))
+                
+        if section is self:
+            for line in self.final_comment:
+                line = self._decode_element(line)
+                stripped_line = line.strip()
+                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
+                    line = csp + line
+                out.append(line)
+            self.interpolation = int_val
+            
+        if section is not self:
+            return out
+        
+        if (self.filename is None) and (outfile is None):
+            # output a list of lines
+            # might need to encode
+            # NOTE: This will *screw* UTF16, each line will start with the BOM
+            if self.encoding:
+                out = [l.encode(self.encoding) for l in out]
+            if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
+                (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
+                # Add the UTF8 BOM
+                if not out:
+                    out.append('')
+                out[0] = BOM_UTF8 + out[0]
+            return out
+        
+        # Turn the list to a string, joined with correct newlines
+        newline = self.newlines or os.linesep
+        if (getattr(outfile, 'mode', None) is not None and outfile.mode == 'w'
+            and sys.platform == 'win32' and newline == '\r\n'):
+            # Windows specific hack to avoid writing '\r\r\n'
+            newline = '\n'
+        output = self._a_to_u(newline).join(out)
+        if self.encoding:
+            output = output.encode(self.encoding)
+        if self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or match_utf8(self.encoding)):
+            # Add the UTF8 BOM
+            output = BOM_UTF8 + output
+            
+        if not output.endswith(newline):
+            output += newline
+        if outfile is not None:
+            outfile.write(output)
+        else:
+            h = open(self.filename, 'wb')
+            h.write(output)
+            h.close()
+
+
+    def validate(self, validator, preserve_errors=False, copy=False,
+                 section=None):
+        """
+        Test the ConfigObj against a configspec.
+        
+        It uses the ``validator`` object from *validate.py*.
+        
+        To run ``validate`` on the current ConfigObj, call: ::
+        
+            test = config.validate(validator)
+        
+        (Normally having previously passed in the configspec when the ConfigObj
+        was created - you can dynamically assign a dictionary of checks to the
+        ``configspec`` attribute of a section though).
+        
+        It returns ``True`` if everything passes, or a dictionary of
+        pass/fails (True/False). If every member of a subsection passes, it
+        will just have the value ``True``. (It also returns ``False`` if all
+        members fail).
+        
+        In addition, it converts the values from strings to their native
+        types if their checks pass (and ``stringify`` is set).
+        
+        If ``preserve_errors`` is ``True`` (``False`` is default) then instead
+        of a marking a fail with a ``False``, it will preserve the actual
+        exception object. This can contain info about the reason for failure.
+        For example the ``VdtValueTooSmallError`` indicates that the value
+        supplied was too small. If a value (or section) is missing it will
+        still be marked as ``False``.
+        
+        You must have the validate module to use ``preserve_errors=True``.
+        
+        You can then use the ``flatten_errors`` function to turn your nested
+        results dictionary into a flattened list of failures - useful for
+        displaying meaningful error messages.
+        """
+        if section is None:
+            if self.configspec is None:
+                raise ValueError('No configspec supplied.')
+            if preserve_errors:
+                # We do this once to remove a top level dependency on the validate module
+                # Which makes importing configobj faster
+                from validate import VdtMissingValue
+                self._vdtMissingValue = VdtMissingValue
+                
+            section = self
+
+            if copy:
+                section.initial_comment = section.configspec.initial_comment
+                section.final_comment = section.configspec.final_comment
+                section.encoding = section.configspec.encoding
+                section.BOM = section.configspec.BOM
+                section.newlines = section.configspec.newlines
+                section.indent_type = section.configspec.indent_type
+            
+        #
+        # section.default_values.clear() #??
+        configspec = section.configspec
+        self._set_configspec(section, copy)
+
+        
+        def validate_entry(entry, spec, val, missing, ret_true, ret_false):
+            section.default_values.pop(entry, None)
+                
+            try:
+                section.default_values[entry] = validator.get_default_value(configspec[entry])
+            except (KeyError, AttributeError, validator.baseErrorClass):
+                # No default, bad default or validator has no 'get_default_value'
+                # (e.g. SimpleVal)
+                pass
+            
+            try:
+                check = validator.check(spec,
+                                        val,
+                                        missing=missing
+                                        )
+            except validator.baseErrorClass, e:
+                if not preserve_errors or isinstance(e, self._vdtMissingValue):
+                    out[entry] = False
+                else:
+                    # preserve the error
+                    out[entry] = e
+                    ret_false = False
+                ret_true = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                out[entry] = True
+                if self.stringify or missing:
+                    # if we are doing type conversion
+                    # or the value is a supplied default
+                    if not self.stringify:
+                        if isinstance(check, (list, tuple)):
+                            # preserve lists
+                            check = [self._str(item) for item in check]
+                        elif missing and check is None:
+                            # convert the None from a default to a ''
+                            check = ''
+                        else:
+                            check = self._str(check)
+                    if (check != val) or missing:
+                        section[entry] = check
+                if not copy and missing and entry not in section.defaults:
+                    section.defaults.append(entry)
+            return ret_true, ret_false
+        
+        #
+        out = {}
+        ret_true = True
+        ret_false = True
+        
+        unvalidated = [k for k in section.scalars if k not in configspec]
+        incorrect_sections = [k for k in configspec.sections if k in section.scalars]        
+        incorrect_scalars = [k for k in configspec.scalars if k in section.sections]
+        
+        for entry in configspec.scalars:
+            if entry in ('__many__', '___many___'):
+                # reserved names
+                continue
+            if (not entry in section.scalars) or (entry in section.defaults):
+                # missing entries
+                # or entries from defaults
+                missing = True
+                val = None
+                if copy and entry not in section.scalars:
+                    # copy comments
+                    section.comments[entry] = (
+                        configspec.comments.get(entry, []))
+                    section.inline_comments[entry] = (
+                        configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, ''))
+                #
+            else:
+                missing = False
+                val = section[entry]
+            
+            ret_true, ret_false = validate_entry(entry, configspec[entry], val, 
+                                                 missing, ret_true, ret_false)
+        
+        many = None
+        if '__many__' in configspec.scalars:
+            many = configspec['__many__']
+        elif '___many___' in configspec.scalars:
+            many = configspec['___many___']
+        
+        if many is not None:
+            for entry in unvalidated:
+                val = section[entry]
+                ret_true, ret_false = validate_entry(entry, many, val, False,
+                                                     ret_true, ret_false)
+            unvalidated = []
+
+        for entry in incorrect_scalars:
+            ret_true = False
+            if not preserve_errors:
+                out[entry] = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                msg = 'Value %r was provided as a section' % entry
+                out[entry] = validator.baseErrorClass(msg)
+        for entry in incorrect_sections:
+            ret_true = False
+            if not preserve_errors:
+                out[entry] = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                msg = 'Section %r was provided as a single value' % entry
+                out[entry] = validator.baseErrorClass(msg)
+                
+        # Missing sections will have been created as empty ones when the
+        # configspec was read.
+        for entry in section.sections:
+            # FIXME: this means DEFAULT is not copied in copy mode
+            if section is self and entry == 'DEFAULT':
+                continue
+            if section[entry].configspec is None:
+                unvalidated.append(entry)
+                continue
+            if copy:
+                section.comments[entry] = configspec.comments.get(entry, [])
+                section.inline_comments[entry] = configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, '')
+            check = self.validate(validator, preserve_errors=preserve_errors, copy=copy, section=section[entry])
+            out[entry] = check
+            if check == False:
+                ret_true = False
+            elif check == True:
+                ret_false = False
+            else:
+                ret_true = False
+        
+        section.extra_values = unvalidated
+        if preserve_errors and not section._created:
+            # If the section wasn't created (i.e. it wasn't missing)
+            # then we can't return False, we need to preserve errors
+            ret_false = False
+        #
+        if ret_false and preserve_errors and out:
+            # If we are preserving errors, but all
+            # the failures are from missing sections / values
+            # then we can return False. Otherwise there is a
+            # real failure that we need to preserve.
+            ret_false = not any(out.values())
+        if ret_true:
+            return True
+        elif ret_false:
+            return False
+        return out
+
+
+    def reset(self):
+        """Clear ConfigObj instance and restore to 'freshly created' state."""
+        self.clear()
+        self._initialise()
+        # FIXME: Should be done by '_initialise', but ConfigObj constructor (and reload)
+        #        requires an empty dictionary
+        self.configspec = None
+        # Just to be sure ;-)
+        self._original_configspec = None
+        
+        
+    def reload(self):
+        """
+        Reload a ConfigObj from file.
+        
+        This method raises a ``ReloadError`` if the ConfigObj doesn't have
+        a filename attribute pointing to a file.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(self.filename, basestring):
+            raise ReloadError()
+
+        filename = self.filename
+        current_options = {}
+        for entry in OPTION_DEFAULTS:
+            if entry == 'configspec':
+                continue
+            current_options[entry] = getattr(self, entry)
+            
+        configspec = self._original_configspec
+        current_options['configspec'] = configspec
+            
+        self.clear()
+        self._initialise(current_options)
+        self._load(filename, configspec)
+        
+
+
+class SimpleVal(object):
+    """
+    A simple validator.
+    Can be used to check that all members expected are present.
+    
+    To use it, provide a configspec with all your members in (the value given
+    will be ignored). Pass an instance of ``SimpleVal`` to the ``validate``
+    method of your ``ConfigObj``. ``validate`` will return ``True`` if all
+    members are present, or a dictionary with True/False meaning
+    present/missing. (Whole missing sections will be replaced with ``False``)
+    """
+    
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.baseErrorClass = ConfigObjError
+    
+    def check(self, check, member, missing=False):
+        """A dummy check method, always returns the value unchanged."""
+        if missing:
+            raise self.baseErrorClass()
+        return member
+
+
+def flatten_errors(cfg, res, levels=None, results=None):
+    """
+    An example function that will turn a nested dictionary of results
+    (as returned by ``ConfigObj.validate``) into a flat list.
+    
+    ``cfg`` is the ConfigObj instance being checked, ``res`` is the results
+    dictionary returned by ``validate``.
+    
+    (This is a recursive function, so you shouldn't use the ``levels`` or
+    ``results`` arguments - they are used by the function.)
+    
+    Returns a list of keys that failed. Each member of the list is a tuple::
+    
+        ([list of sections...], key, result)
+    
+    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=False`` (the default)
+    then ``result`` will always be ``False``.
+
+    *list of sections* is a flattened list of sections that the key was found
+    in.
+    
+    If the section was missing (or a section was expected and a scalar provided
+    - or vice-versa) then key will be ``None``.
+    
+    If the value (or section) was missing then ``result`` will be ``False``.
+    
+    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=True`` and a value
+    was present, but failed the check, then ``result`` will be the exception
+    object returned. You can use this as a string that describes the failure.
+    
+    For example *The value "3" is of the wrong type*.
+    """
+    if levels is None:
+        # first time called
+        levels = []
+        results = []
+    if res == True:
+        return results
+    if res == False or isinstance(res, Exception):
+        results.append((levels[:], None, res))
+        if levels:
+            levels.pop()
+        return results
+    for (key, val) in res.items():
+        if val == True:
+            continue
+        if isinstance(cfg.get(key), dict):
+            # Go down one level
+            levels.append(key)
+            flatten_errors(cfg[key], val, levels, results)
+            continue
+        results.append((levels[:], key, val))
+    #
+    # Go up one level
+    if levels:
+        levels.pop()
+    #
+    return results
+
+
+def get_extra_values(conf, _prepend=()):
+    """
+    Find all the values and sections not in the configspec from a validated
+    ConfigObj.
+    
+    ``get_extra_values`` returns a list of tuples where each tuple represents
+    either an extra section, or an extra value.
+    
+    The tuples contain two values, a tuple representing the section the value 
+    is in and the name of the extra values. For extra values in the top level
+    section the first member will be an empty tuple. For values in the 'foo'
+    section the first member will be ``('foo',)``. For members in the 'bar'
+    subsection of the 'foo' section the first member will be ``('foo', 'bar')``.
+    
+    NOTE: If you call ``get_extra_values`` on a ConfigObj instance that hasn't
+    been validated it will return an empty list.
+    """
+    out = []
+    
+    out.extend([(_prepend, name) for name in conf.extra_values])
+    for name in conf.sections:
+        if name not in conf.extra_values:
+            out.extend(get_extra_values(conf[name], _prepend + (name,)))
+    return out
+
+
+"""*A programming language is a medium of expression.* - Paul Graham"""
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/setup.py
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+# setup.py
+# Install script for ConfigObj
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Mark Andrews, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         mark AT la-la DOT com
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# This software is licensed under the terms of the BSD license.
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+
+import sys
+from distutils.core import setup
+from configobj import __version__ as VERSION
+
+NAME = 'configobj'
+
+MODULES = 'configobj', 'validate'
+
+DESCRIPTION = 'Config file reading, writing and validation.'
+
+URL = 'http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html'
+
+DOWNLOAD_URL = "http://www.voidspace.org.uk/downloads/configobj-%s.zip" % VERSION
+
+LONG_DESCRIPTION = """**ConfigObj** is a simple but powerful config file reader and writer: an *ini
+file round tripper*. Its main feature is that it is very easy to use, with a
+straightforward programmer's interface and a simple syntax for config files.
+It has lots of other features though :
+
+* Nested sections (subsections), to any level
+* List values
+* Multiple line values
+* Full Unicode support
+* String interpolation (substitution)
+* Integrated with a powerful validation system
+
+    - including automatic type checking/conversion
+    - and allowing default values
+    - repeated sections
+
+* All comments in the file are preserved
+* The order of keys/sections is preserved
+* Powerful ``unrepr`` mode for storing/retrieving Python data-types
+
+| Release 4.7.2 fixes several bugs in 4.7.1
+| Release 4.7.1 fixes a bug with the deprecated options keyword in
+| 4.7.0.
+| Release 4.7.0 improves performance adds features for validation and
+| fixes some bugs."""
+
+CLASSIFIERS = [
+    'Development Status :: 6 - Mature',
+    'Intended Audience :: Developers',
+    'License :: OSI Approved :: BSD License',
+    'Programming Language :: Python',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.3',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.4',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.5',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6',
+    'Operating System :: OS Independent',
+    'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries',
+    'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules',
+]
+
+AUTHOR = 'Michael Foord & Nicola Larosa'
+
+AUTHOR_EMAIL = 'fuzzyman@voidspace.org.uk'
+
+KEYWORDS = "config, ini, dictionary, application, admin, sysadmin, configuration, validation".split(', ')
+
+
+setup(name=NAME,
+      version=VERSION,
+      description=DESCRIPTION,
+      long_description=LONG_DESCRIPTION,
+      download_url=DOWNLOAD_URL,
+      author=AUTHOR,
+      author_email=AUTHOR_EMAIL,
+      url=URL,
+      py_modules=MODULES,
+      classifiers=CLASSIFIERS,
+      keywords=KEYWORDS
+     )
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/validate.py
@@ -0,0 +1,1450 @@
+# validate.py
+# A Validator object
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Mark Andrews, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         mark AT la-la DOT com
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# This software is licensed under the terms of the BSD license.
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+# Basically you're free to copy, modify, distribute and relicense it,
+# So long as you keep a copy of the license with it.
+
+# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
+# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
+# ConfigObj mailing list:
+# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
+# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.
+
+"""
+    The Validator object is used to check that supplied values 
+    conform to a specification.
+    
+    The value can be supplied as a string - e.g. from a config file.
+    In this case the check will also *convert* the value to
+    the required type. This allows you to add validation
+    as a transparent layer to access data stored as strings.
+    The validation checks that the data is correct *and*
+    converts it to the expected type.
+    
+    Some standard checks are provided for basic data types.
+    Additional checks are easy to write. They can be
+    provided when the ``Validator`` is instantiated or
+    added afterwards.
+    
+    The standard functions work with the following basic data types :
+    
+    * integers
+    * floats
+    * booleans
+    * strings
+    * ip_addr
+    
+    plus lists of these datatypes
+    
+    Adding additional checks is done through coding simple functions.
+    
+    The full set of standard checks are : 
+    
+    * 'integer': matches integer values (including negative)
+                 Takes optional 'min' and 'max' arguments : ::
+    
+                   integer()
+                   integer(3, 9)  # any value from 3 to 9
+                   integer(min=0) # any positive value
+                   integer(max=9)
+    
+    * 'float': matches float values
+               Has the same parameters as the integer check.
+    
+    * 'boolean': matches boolean values - ``True`` or ``False``
+                 Acceptable string values for True are :
+                   true, on, yes, 1
+                 Acceptable string values for False are :
+                   false, off, no, 0
+    
+                 Any other value raises an error.
+    
+    * 'ip_addr': matches an Internet Protocol address, v.4, represented
+                 by a dotted-quad string, i.e. '1.2.3.4'.
+    
+    * 'string': matches any string.
+                Takes optional keyword args 'min' and 'max'
+                to specify min and max lengths of the string.
+    
+    * 'list': matches any list.
+              Takes optional keyword args 'min', and 'max' to specify min and
+              max sizes of the list. (Always returns a list.)
+    
+    * 'tuple': matches any tuple.
+              Takes optional keyword args 'min', and 'max' to specify min and
+              max sizes of the tuple. (Always returns a tuple.)
+    
+    * 'int_list': Matches a list of integers.
+                  Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'float_list': Matches a list of floats.
+                    Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'bool_list': Matches a list of boolean values.
+                   Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'ip_addr_list': Matches a list of IP addresses.
+                     Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'string_list': Matches a list of strings.
+                     Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'mixed_list': Matches a list with different types in 
+                    specific positions. List size must match
+                    the number of arguments.
+    
+                    Each position can be one of :
+                    'integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean'
+    
+                    So to specify a list with two strings followed
+                    by two integers, you write the check as : ::
+    
+                      mixed_list('string', 'string', 'integer', 'integer')
+    
+    * 'pass': This check matches everything ! It never fails
+              and the value is unchanged.
+    
+              It is also the default if no check is specified.
+    
+    * 'option': This check matches any from a list of options.
+                You specify this check with : ::
+    
+                  option('option 1', 'option 2', 'option 3')
+    
+    You can supply a default value (returned if no value is supplied)
+    using the default keyword argument.
+    
+    You specify a list argument for default using a list constructor syntax in
+    the check : ::
+    
+        checkname(arg1, arg2, default=list('val 1', 'val 2', 'val 3'))
+    
+    A badly formatted set of arguments will raise a ``VdtParamError``.
+"""
+
+__version__ = '1.0.1'
+
+
+__all__ = (
+    '__version__',
+    'dottedQuadToNum',
+    'numToDottedQuad',
+    'ValidateError',
+    'VdtUnknownCheckError',
+    'VdtParamError',
+    'VdtTypeError',
+    'VdtValueError',
+    'VdtValueTooSmallError',
+    'VdtValueTooBigError',
+    'VdtValueTooShortError',
+    'VdtValueTooLongError',
+    'VdtMissingValue',
+    'Validator',
+    'is_integer',
+    'is_float',
+    'is_boolean',
+    'is_list',
+    'is_tuple',
+    'is_ip_addr',
+    'is_string',
+    'is_int_list',
+    'is_bool_list',
+    'is_float_list',
+    'is_string_list',
+    'is_ip_addr_list',
+    'is_mixed_list',
+    'is_option',
+    '__docformat__',
+)
+
+
+import re
+
+
+_list_arg = re.compile(r'''
+    (?:
+        ([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*)\s*=\s*list\(
+            (
+                (?:
+                    \s*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)  # unquoted
+                    )
+                    \s*,\s*
+                )*
+                (?:
+                    (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                    (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                    (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)  # unquoted
+                )?                          # last one
+            )
+        \)
+    )
+''', re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)    # two groups
+
+_list_members = re.compile(r'''
+    (
+        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+        (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)       # unquoted
+    )
+    (?:
+    (?:\s*,\s*)|(?:\s*$)            # comma
+    )
+''', re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)    # one group
+
+_paramstring = r'''
+    (?:
+        (
+            (?:
+                [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*\s*=\s*list\(
+                    (?:
+                        \s*
+                        (?:
+                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                            (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)       # unquoted
+                        )
+                        \s*,\s*
+                    )*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)       # unquoted
+                    )?                              # last one
+                \)
+            )|
+            (?:
+                (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)|       # unquoted
+                (?:                         # keyword argument
+                    [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*\s*=\s*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)       # unquoted
+                    )
+                )
+            )
+        )
+        (?:
+            (?:\s*,\s*)|(?:\s*$)            # comma
+        )
+    )
+    '''
+
+_matchstring = '^%s*' % _paramstring
+
+# Python pre 2.2.1 doesn't have bool
+try:
+    bool
+except NameError:
+    def bool(val):
+        """Simple boolean equivalent function. """
+        if val:
+            return 1
+        else:
+            return 0
+
+
+def dottedQuadToNum(ip):
+    """
+    Convert decimal dotted quad string to long integer
+    
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum('1 '))
+    1
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum(' 1.2'))
+    16777218
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum(' 1.2.3 '))
+    16908291
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum('1.2.3.4'))
+    16909060
+    >>> dottedQuadToNum('255.255.255.255')
+    4294967295L
+    >>> dottedQuadToNum('255.255.255.256')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good dotted-quad IP: 255.255.255.256
+    """
+    
+    # import here to avoid it when ip_addr values are not used
+    import socket, struct
+    
+    try:
+        return struct.unpack('!L',
+            socket.inet_aton(ip.strip()))[0]
+    except socket.error:
+        # bug in inet_aton, corrected in Python 2.4
+        if ip.strip() == '255.255.255.255':
+            return 0xFFFFFFFFL
+        else:
+            raise ValueError('Not a good dotted-quad IP: %s' % ip)
+    return
+
+
+def numToDottedQuad(num):
+    """
+    Convert long int to dotted quad string
+    
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(-1L)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good numeric IP: -1
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(1L)
+    '0.0.0.1'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16777218L)
+    '1.0.0.2'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16908291L)
+    '1.2.0.3'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16909060L)
+    '1.2.3.4'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(4294967295L)
+    '255.255.255.255'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(4294967296L)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good numeric IP: 4294967296
+    """
+    
+    # import here to avoid it when ip_addr values are not used
+    import socket, struct
+    
+    # no need to intercept here, 4294967295L is fine
+    if num > 4294967295L or num < 0:
+        raise ValueError('Not a good numeric IP: %s' % num)
+    try:
+        return socket.inet_ntoa(
+            struct.pack('!L', long(num)))
+    except (socket.error, struct.error, OverflowError):
+        raise ValueError('Not a good numeric IP: %s' % num)
+
+
+class ValidateError(Exception):
+    """
+    This error indicates that the check failed.
+    It can be the base class for more specific errors.
+    
+    Any check function that fails ought to raise this error.
+    (or a subclass)
+    
+    >>> raise ValidateError
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValidateError
+    """
+
+
+class VdtMissingValue(ValidateError):
+    """No value was supplied to a check that needed one."""
+
+
+class VdtUnknownCheckError(ValidateError):
+    """An unknown check function was requested"""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtUnknownCheckError('yoda')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the check "%s" is unknown.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtParamError(SyntaxError):
+    """An incorrect parameter was passed"""
+
+    def __init__(self, name, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtParamError('yoda', 'jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtParamError: passed an incorrect value "jedi" for parameter "yoda".
+        """
+        SyntaxError.__init__(self, 'passed an incorrect value "%s" for parameter "%s".' % (value, name))
+
+
+class VdtTypeError(ValidateError):
+    """The value supplied was of the wrong type"""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtTypeError('jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtTypeError: the value "jedi" is of the wrong type.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is of the wrong type.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueError(ValidateError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was not an allowed value."""
+    
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueError('jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueError: the value "jedi" is unacceptable.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is unacceptable.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooSmallError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too small."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooSmallError('0')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "0" is too small.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too small.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooBigError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too big."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooBigError('1')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooBigError: the value "1" is too big.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too big.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooShortError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too short."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooShortError('jed')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooShortError: the value "jed" is too short.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(
+            self,
+            'the value "%s" is too short.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooLongError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too long."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooLongError('jedie')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooLongError: the value "jedie" is too long.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too long.' % (value,))
+
+
+class Validator(object):
+    """
+    Validator is an object that allows you to register a set of 'checks'.
+    These checks take input and test that it conforms to the check.
+    
+    This can also involve converting the value from a string into
+    the correct datatype.
+    
+    The ``check`` method takes an input string which configures which
+    check is to be used and applies that check to a supplied value.
+    
+    An example input string would be:
+    'int_range(param1, param2)'
+    
+    You would then provide something like:
+    
+    >>> def int_range_check(value, min, max):
+    ...     # turn min and max from strings to integers
+    ...     min = int(min)
+    ...     max = int(max)
+    ...     # check that value is of the correct type.
+    ...     # possible valid inputs are integers or strings
+    ...     # that represent integers
+    ...     if not isinstance(value, (int, long, basestring)):
+    ...         raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    ...     elif isinstance(value, basestring):
+    ...         # if we are given a string
+    ...         # attempt to convert to an integer
+    ...         try:
+    ...             value = int(value)
+    ...         except ValueError:
+    ...             raise VdtValueError(value)
+    ...     # check the value is between our constraints
+    ...     if not min <= value:
+    ...          raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    ...     if not value <= max:
+    ...          raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    ...     return value
+    
+    >>> fdict = {'int_range': int_range_check}
+    >>> vtr1 = Validator(fdict)
+    >>> vtr1.check('int_range(20, 40)', '30')
+    30
+    >>> vtr1.check('int_range(20, 40)', '60')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "60" is too big.
+    
+    New functions can be added with : ::
+    
+    >>> vtr2 = Validator()       
+    >>> vtr2.functions['int_range'] = int_range_check
+    
+    Or by passing in a dictionary of functions when Validator 
+    is instantiated.
+    
+    Your functions *can* use keyword arguments,
+    but the first argument should always be 'value'.
+    
+    If the function doesn't take additional arguments,
+    the parentheses are optional in the check.
+    It can be written with either of : ::
+    
+        keyword = function_name
+        keyword = function_name()
+    
+    The first program to utilise Validator() was Michael Foord's
+    ConfigObj, an alternative to ConfigParser which supports lists and
+    can validate a config file using a config schema.
+    For more details on using Validator with ConfigObj see:
+    http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+    """
+
+    # this regex does the initial parsing of the checks
+    _func_re = re.compile(r'(.+?)\((.*)\)', re.DOTALL)
+
+    # this regex takes apart keyword arguments
+    _key_arg = re.compile(r'^([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*)\s*=\s*(.*)$',  re.DOTALL)
+
+
+    # this regex finds keyword=list(....) type values
+    _list_arg = _list_arg
+
+    # this regex takes individual values out of lists - in one pass
+    _list_members = _list_members
+
+    # These regexes check a set of arguments for validity
+    # and then pull the members out
+    _paramfinder = re.compile(_paramstring, re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)
+    _matchfinder = re.compile(_matchstring, re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)
+
+
+    def __init__(self, functions=None):
+        """
+        >>> vtri = Validator()
+        """
+        self.functions = {
+            '': self._pass,
+            'integer': is_integer,
+            'float': is_float,
+            'boolean': is_boolean,
+            'ip_addr': is_ip_addr,
+            'string': is_string,
+            'list': is_list,
+            'tuple': is_tuple,
+            'int_list': is_int_list,
+            'float_list': is_float_list,
+            'bool_list': is_bool_list,
+            'ip_addr_list': is_ip_addr_list,
+            'string_list': is_string_list,
+            'mixed_list': is_mixed_list,
+            'pass': self._pass,
+            'option': is_option,
+            'force_list': force_list,
+        }
+        if functions is not None:
+            self.functions.update(functions)
+        # tekNico: for use by ConfigObj
+        self.baseErrorClass = ValidateError
+        self._cache = {}
+
+
+    def check(self, check, value, missing=False):
+        """
+        Usage: check(check, value)
+        
+        Arguments:
+            check: string representing check to apply (including arguments)
+            value: object to be checked
+        Returns value, converted to correct type if necessary
+        
+        If the check fails, raises a ``ValidateError`` subclass.
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('yoda', '')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        >>> vtor.check('yoda()', '')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('string(default="")', '', missing=True)
+        ''
+        """
+        fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_with_caching(check)
+            
+        if missing:
+            if default is None:
+                # no information needed here - to be handled by caller
+                raise VdtMissingValue()
+            value = self._handle_none(default)
+        
+        if value is None:
+            return None
+        
+        return self._check_value(value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs)
+
+
+    def _handle_none(self, value):
+        if value == 'None':
+            return None
+        elif value in ("'None'", '"None"'):
+            # Special case a quoted None
+            value = self._unquote(value)
+        return value
+
+
+    def _parse_with_caching(self, check):
+        if check in self._cache:
+            fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._cache[check]
+            # We call list and dict below to work with *copies* of the data
+            # rather than the original (which are mutable of course)
+            fun_args = list(fun_args)
+            fun_kwargs = dict(fun_kwargs)
+        else:
+            fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_check(check)
+            fun_kwargs = dict([(str(key), value) for (key, value) in fun_kwargs.items()])
+            self._cache[check] = fun_name, list(fun_args), dict(fun_kwargs), default
+        return fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default
+        
+        
+    def _check_value(self, value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs):
+        try:
+            fun = self.functions[fun_name]
+        except KeyError:
+            raise VdtUnknownCheckError(fun_name)
+        else:
+            return fun(value, *fun_args, **fun_kwargs)
+
+
+    def _parse_check(self, check):
+        fun_match = self._func_re.match(check)
+        if fun_match:
+            fun_name = fun_match.group(1)
+            arg_string = fun_match.group(2)
+            arg_match = self._matchfinder.match(arg_string)
+            if arg_match is None:
+                # Bad syntax
+                raise VdtParamError('Bad syntax in check "%s".' % check)
+            fun_args = []
+            fun_kwargs = {}
+            # pull out args of group 2
+            for arg in self._paramfinder.findall(arg_string):
+                # args may need whitespace removing (before removing quotes)
+                arg = arg.strip()
+                listmatch = self._list_arg.match(arg)
+                if listmatch:
+                    key, val = self._list_handle(listmatch)
+                    fun_kwargs[key] = val
+                    continue
+                keymatch = self._key_arg.match(arg)
+                if keymatch:
+                    val = keymatch.group(2)
+                    if not val in ("'None'", '"None"'):
+                        # Special case a quoted None
+                        val = self._unquote(val)
+                    fun_kwargs[keymatch.group(1)] = val
+                    continue
+                
+                fun_args.append(self._unquote(arg))
+        else:
+            # allows for function names without (args)
+            return check, (), {}, None
+
+        # Default must be deleted if the value is specified too,
+        # otherwise the check function will get a spurious "default" keyword arg
+        default = fun_kwargs.pop('default', None)
+        return fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default
+
+
+    def _unquote(self, val):
+        """Unquote a value if necessary."""
+        if (len(val) >= 2) and (val[0] in ("'", '"')) and (val[0] == val[-1]):
+            val = val[1:-1]
+        return val
+
+
+    def _list_handle(self, listmatch):
+        """Take apart a ``keyword=list('val, 'val')`` type string."""
+        out = []
+        name = listmatch.group(1)
+        args = listmatch.group(2)
+        for arg in self._list_members.findall(args):
+            out.append(self._unquote(arg))
+        return name, out
+
+
+    def _pass(self, value):
+        """
+        Dummy check that always passes
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('', 0)
+        0
+        >>> vtor.check('', '0')
+        '0'
+        """
+        return value
+    
+    
+    def get_default_value(self, check):
+        """
+        Given a check, return the default value for the check
+        (converted to the right type).
+        
+        If the check doesn't specify a default value then a
+        ``KeyError`` will be raised.
+        """
+        fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_with_caching(check)
+        if default is None:
+            raise KeyError('Check "%s" has no default value.' % check)
+        value = self._handle_none(default)
+        if value is None:
+            return value
+        return self._check_value(value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs)
+
+
+def _is_num_param(names, values, to_float=False):
+    """
+    Return numbers from inputs or raise VdtParamError.
+    
+    Lets ``None`` pass through.
+    Pass in keyword argument ``to_float=True`` to
+    use float for the conversion rather than int.
+    
+    >>> _is_num_param(('', ''), (0, 1.0))
+    [0, 1]
+    >>> _is_num_param(('', ''), (0, 1.0), to_float=True)
+    [0.0, 1.0]
+    >>> _is_num_param(('a'), ('a'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtParamError: passed an incorrect value "a" for parameter "a".
+    """
+    fun = to_float and float or int
+    out_params = []
+    for (name, val) in zip(names, values):
+        if val is None:
+            out_params.append(val)
+        elif isinstance(val, (int, long, float, basestring)):
+            try:
+                out_params.append(fun(val))
+            except ValueError, e:
+                raise VdtParamError(name, val)
+        else:
+            raise VdtParamError(name, val)
+    return out_params
+
+
+# built in checks
+# you can override these by setting the appropriate name
+# in Validator.functions
+# note: if the params are specified wrongly in your input string,
+#       you will also raise errors.
+
+def is_integer(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    A check that tests that a given value is an integer (int, or long)
+    and optionally, between bounds. A negative value is accepted, while
+    a float will fail.
+    
+    If the value is a string, then the conversion is done - if possible.
+    Otherwise a VdtError is raised.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '-1')
+    -1
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '0')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', 9)
+    9
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', 'a')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '2.2')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "2.2" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', '20')
+    20
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', '15')
+    15
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', '9')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', 9)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', '35')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35" is too big.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', 35)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35" is too big.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(0, 9)', False)
+    0
+    """
+    (min_val, max_val) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    if not isinstance(value, (int, long, basestring)):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        # if it's a string - does it represent an integer ?
+        try:
+            value = int(value)
+        except ValueError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if (min_val is not None) and (value < min_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    if (max_val is not None) and (value > max_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_float(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    A check that tests that a given value is a float
+    (an integer will be accepted), and optionally - that it is between bounds.
+    
+    If the value is a string, then the conversion is done - if possible.
+    Otherwise a VdtError is raised.
+    
+    This can accept negative values.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '2')
+    2.0
+    
+    From now on we multiply the value to avoid comparing decimals
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '-6.8') * 10
+    -68.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '12.2') * 10
+    122.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', 8.4) * 10
+    84.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', 'a')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('float(10.1)', '10.2') * 10
+    102.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float(max=20.2)', '15.1') * 10
+    151.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float(10.0)', '9.0')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9.0" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('float(max=20.0)', '35.0')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35.0" is too big.
+    """
+    (min_val, max_val) = _is_num_param(
+        ('min', 'max'), (min, max), to_float=True)
+    if not isinstance(value, (int, long, float, basestring)):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if not isinstance(value, float):
+        # if it's a string - does it represent a float ?
+        try:
+            value = float(value)
+        except ValueError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if (min_val is not None) and (value < min_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    if (max_val is not None) and (value > max_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+bool_dict = {
+    True: True, 'on': True, '1': True, 'true': True, 'yes': True, 
+    False: False, 'off': False, '0': False, 'false': False, 'no': False,
+}
+
+
+def is_boolean(value):
+    """
+    Check if the value represents a boolean.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 0)
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', False)
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '0')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'off')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'false')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'no')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'nO')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'NO')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 1)
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', True)
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '1')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'on')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'true')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'yes')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'Yes')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'YES')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'up')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "up" is of the wrong type.
+    
+    """
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        try:
+            return bool_dict[value.lower()]
+        except KeyError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    # we do an equality test rather than an identity test
+    # this ensures Python 2.2 compatibilty
+    # and allows 0 and 1 to represent True and False
+    if value == False:
+        return False
+    elif value == True:
+        return True
+    else:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+
+
+def is_ip_addr(value):
+    """
+    Check that the supplied value is an Internet Protocol address, v.4,
+    represented by a dotted-quad string, i.e. '1.2.3.4'.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1 ')
+    '1'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', ' 1.2')
+    '1.2'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', ' 1.2.3 ')
+    '1.2.3'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1.2.3.4')
+    '1.2.3.4'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '0.0.0.0')
+    '0.0.0.0'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '255.255.255.255')
+    '255.255.255.255'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '255.255.255.256')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "255.255.255.256" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1.2.3.4.5')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "1.2.3.4.5" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    value = value.strip()
+    try:
+        dottedQuadToNum(value)
+    except ValueError:
+        raise VdtValueError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of values.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    It does no check on list members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('list', (1, 2))
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('list', [1, 2])
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('list(3)', (1, 2))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2)" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('list(max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check('list(min=3, max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4))
+    [1, 2, 3, 4]
+    >>> vtor.check('list', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('list', '12')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "12" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    (min_len, max_len) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    try:
+        num_members = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if min_len is not None and num_members < min_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    if max_len is not None and num_members > max_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    return list(value)
+
+
+def is_tuple(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a tuple of values.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    It does no check on members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', ())
+    ()
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', [])
+    ()
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', (1, 2))
+    (1, 2)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', [1, 2])
+    (1, 2)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(3)', (1, 2))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2)" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(min=3, max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4))
+    (1, 2, 3, 4)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', '12')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "12" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return tuple(is_list(value, min, max))
+
+
+def is_string(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the supplied value is a string.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('string', '0')
+    '0'
+    >>> vtor.check('string', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('string(2)', '12')
+    '12'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(2)', '1')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "1" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('string(min=2, max=3)', '123')
+    '123'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(min=2, max=3)', '1234')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "1234" is too long.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    (min_len, max_len) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    try:
+        num_members = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if min_len is not None and num_members < min_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    if max_len is not None and num_members > max_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_int_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of integers.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is an integer.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', (1, 2))
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [1, 2])
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [1, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_integer(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_bool_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of booleans.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a boolean.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check('bool_list', (True, False))
+    >>> check_res == [True, False]
+    1
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check('bool_list', [True, False])
+    >>> check_res == [True, False]
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', [True, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_boolean(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_float_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of floats.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a float.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', (1, 2.0))
+    [1.0, 2.0]
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [1, 2.0])
+    [1.0, 2.0]
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [1, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_float(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_string_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of strings.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a string.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ('a', 'b'))
+    ['a', 'b']
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ['a', 1])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "1" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', 'hello')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "hello" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    return [is_string(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_ip_addr_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of IP addresses.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is an IP address.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ('1.2.3.4', '5.6.7.8'))
+    ['1.2.3.4', '5.6.7.8']
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ['a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "a" is unacceptable.
+    """
+    return [is_ip_addr(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def force_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that a value is a list, coercing strings into
+    a list with one member. Useful where users forget the
+    trailing comma that turns a single value into a list.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    A minumum of greater than one will fail if the user only supplies a
+    string.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', 'hello')
+    ['hello']
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+        value = [value]
+    return is_list(value, min, max)
+    
+    
+
+fun_dict = {
+    'integer': is_integer,
+    'float': is_float,
+    'ip_addr': is_ip_addr,
+    'string': is_string,
+    'boolean': is_boolean,
+}
+
+
+def is_mixed_list(value, *args):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list.
+    Allow specifying the type of each member.
+    Work on lists of specific lengths.
+    
+    You specify each member as a positional argument specifying type
+    
+    Each type should be one of the following strings :
+      'integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean'
+    
+    So you can specify a list of two strings, followed by
+    two integers as :
+    
+      mixed_list('string', 'string', 'integer', 'integer')
+    
+    The length of the list must match the number of positional
+    arguments you supply.
+    
+    >>> mix_str = "mixed_list('integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean')"
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True))
+    >>> check_res == [1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True]
+    1
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check(mix_str, ('1', '2.0', '1.2.3.4', 'a', 'True'))
+    >>> check_res == [1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True]
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, ('b', 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "b" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a')" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', 1, 'b'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', 1, 'b')" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    
+    This test requires an elaborate setup, because of a change in error string
+    output from the interpreter between Python 2.2 and 2.3 .
+    
+    >>> res_seq = (
+    ...     'passed an incorrect value "',
+    ...     'yoda',
+    ...     '" for parameter "mixed_list".',
+    ... )
+    >>> res_str = "'".join(res_seq)
+    >>> try:
+    ...     vtor.check('mixed_list("yoda")', ('a'))
+    ... except VdtParamError, err:
+    ...     str(err) == res_str
+    1
+    """
+    try:
+        length = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if length < len(args):
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    elif length > len(args):
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    try:
+        return [fun_dict[arg](val) for arg, val in zip(args, value)]
+    except KeyError, e:
+        raise VdtParamError('mixed_list', e)
+
+
+def is_option(value, *options):
+    """
+    This check matches the value to any of a set of options.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 'yoda')
+    'yoda'
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 'jed')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "jed" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if not value in options:
+        raise VdtValueError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def _test(value, *args, **keywargs):
+    """
+    A function that exists for test purposes.
+    
+    >>> checks = [
+    ...     '3, 6, min=1, max=3, test=list(a, b, c)',
+    ...     '3',
+    ...     '3, 6',
+    ...     '3,',
+    ...     'min=1, test="a b c"',
+    ...     'min=5, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     'min=1, max=3, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     'min=-100, test=-99',
+    ...     'min=1, max=3',
+    ...     '3, 6, test="36"',
+    ...     '3, 6, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     '3, max=3, test=list("a", "b", "c")',
+    ...     '''3, max=3, test=list("'a'", 'b', "x=(c)")''',
+    ...     "test='x=fish(3)'",
+    ...    ]
+    >>> v = Validator({'test': _test})
+    >>> for entry in checks:
+    ...     print v.check(('test(%s)' % entry), 3)
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': ['a', 'b', 'c'], 'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, ('3',), {})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {})
+    (3, ('3',), {})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a b c', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a, b, c', 'min': '5'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a, b, c', 'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, (), {'test': '-99', 'min': '-100'})
+    (3, (), {'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': '36'})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': 'a, b, c'})
+    (3, ('3',), {'test': ['a', 'b', 'c'], 'max': '3'})
+    (3, ('3',), {'test': ["'a'", 'b', 'x=(c)'], 'max': '3'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'x=fish(3)'})
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check('integer(default=6)', '3')
+    3
+    >>> v.check('integer(default=6)', None, True)
+    6
+    >>> v.get_default_value('integer(default=6)')
+    6
+    >>> v.get_default_value('float(default=6)')
+    6.0
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass(default=None)')
+    >>> v.get_default_value("string(default='None')")
+    'None'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    KeyError: 'Check "pass" has no default value.'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass(default=list(1, 2, 3, 4))')
+    ['1', '2', '3', '4']
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check("pass(default=None)", None, True)
+    >>> v.check("pass(default='None')", None, True)
+    'None'
+    >>> v.check('pass(default="None")', None, True)
+    'None'
+    >>> v.check('pass(default=list(1, 2, 3, 4))', None, True)
+    ['1', '2', '3', '4']
+    
+    Bug test for unicode arguments
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check(u'string(min=4)', u'test')
+    u'test'
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.get_default_value(u'string(min=4, default="1234")')
+    u'1234'
+    >>> v.check(u'string(min=4, default="1234")', u'test')
+    u'test'
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> default = v.get_default_value('string(default=None)')
+    >>> default == None
+    1
+    """
+    return (value, args, keywargs)
+
+
+def _test2():
+    """
+    >>> 
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.get_default_value('string(default="#ff00dd")')
+    '#ff00dd'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('integer(default=3) # comment')
+    3
+    """
+
+def _test3():
+    r"""
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="")', '', missing=True)
+    ''
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="\n")', '', missing=True)
+    '\n'
+    >>> print vtor.check('string(default="\n")', '', missing=True),
+    <BLANKLINE>
+    >>> vtor.check('string()', '\n')
+    '\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="\n\n\n")', '', missing=True)
+    '\n\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string()', 'random \n text goes here\n\n')
+    'random \n text goes here\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default=" \nrandom text\ngoes \n here\n\n ")',
+    ... '', missing=True)
+    ' \nrandom text\ngoes \n here\n\n '
+    >>> vtor.check("string(default='\n\n\n')", '', missing=True)
+    '\n\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check("option('\n','a','b',default='\n')", '', missing=True)
+    '\n'
+    >>> vtor.check("string_list()", ['foo', '\n', 'bar'])
+    ['foo', '\n', 'bar']
+    >>> vtor.check("string_list(default=list('\n'))", '', missing=True)
+    ['\n']
+    """
+    
+    
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    # run the code tests in doctest format
+    import sys
+    import doctest
+    m = sys.modules.get('__main__')
+    globs = m.__dict__.copy()
+    globs.update({
+        'vtor': Validator(),
+    })
+    doctest.testmod(m, globs=globs)