Merge inbound to mozilla-central. a=merge
authorCiure Andrei <aciure@mozilla.com>
Fri, 08 Jun 2018 00:50:18 +0300
changeset 476050 ea21bf3e665d10066b6dce39873de9b353a12e57
parent 475985 68114b4c0d76f086a3a6a6e8106982ef4023bc13 (current diff)
parent 476049 4d7a8d001f087fc500be3b4ca2469310fa39e6be (diff)
child 476097 5b7b36cff4fc4a74deb69b1eba18842a4912cd2a
child 476115 38c222c1bf73be8ef89397c23c607dfe34d748ab
push id9374
push userjlund@mozilla.com
push dateMon, 18 Jun 2018 21:43:20 +0000
treeherdermozilla-beta@160e085dfb0b [default view] [failures only]
perfherder[talos] [build metrics] [platform microbench] (compared to previous push)
reviewersmerge
milestone62.0a1
first release with
nightly linux32
ea21bf3e665d / 62.0a1 / 20180607220114 / files
nightly linux64
ea21bf3e665d / 62.0a1 / 20180607220114 / files
nightly mac
ea21bf3e665d / 62.0a1 / 20180607220114 / files
nightly win32
ea21bf3e665d / 62.0a1 / 20180607220114 / files
nightly win64
ea21bf3e665d / 62.0a1 / 20180607220114 / files
last release without
nightly linux32
nightly linux64
nightly mac
nightly win32
nightly win64
releases
nightly linux32
nightly linux64
nightly mac
nightly win32
nightly win64
Merge inbound to mozilla-central. a=merge
browser/app/LaunchUnelevated.cpp
browser/app/LaunchUnelevated.h
browser/app/LauncherProcessWin.cpp
browser/app/LauncherProcessWin.h
browser/app/ProcThreadAttributes.h
browser/components/about/aboutcapabilities.manifest
browser/components/about/nsAboutCapabilities.js
build/build-clang/clang-6-pre-linux64.json
dom/base/nsContentUtils.cpp
dom/base/nsDocument.cpp
dom/base/nsIDocument.h
dom/media/tests/mochitest/mochitest.ini
dom/webidl/AboutCapabilities.webidl
--- a/accessible/ipc/moz.build
+++ b/accessible/ipc/moz.build
@@ -54,8 +54,11 @@ if CONFIG['ACCESSIBILITY']:
         '/accessible/base',
         '/accessible/generic',
         '/accessible/xpcom',
     ]
 
 include('/ipc/chromium/chromium-config.mozbuild')
 
 FINAL_LIBRARY = 'xul'
+
+# Add libFuzzer configuration directives
+include('/tools/fuzzing/libfuzzer-config.mozbuild')
--- a/accessible/tests/mochitest/aom/test_general.html
+++ b/accessible/tests/mochitest/aom/test_general.html
@@ -96,12 +96,22 @@
     }
 
     is(anode.attributes.length, attrs.length, "correct number of attributes");
     for (let i = 0; i < attrs.length; i++) {
       ok(attrs.includes(anode.attributes[i]),
          `${anode.attributes[i]} attribute is expected and found`);
     }
 
+    // Check if an AccessibleNode is properly cached.
+    let node = ifrDoc.createElement("div");
+    anode = node.accessibleNode;
+    is(anode, node.accessibleNode, "an AccessibleNode is properly cached");
+
+    // Adopting node to another document doesn't change .accessibleNode
+    anotherDoc = document.implementation.createDocument("", "", null);
+    let adopted_node = anotherDoc.adoptNode(node);
+    is(anode, adopted_node.accessibleNode, "adopting node to another document doesn't change node.accessibleNode");
+
     finish();
   }
   </script>
 </head>
--- a/browser/base/content/browser-menubar.inc
+++ b/browser/base/content/browser-menubar.inc
@@ -6,17 +6,17 @@
        <menubar id="main-menubar"
                 onpopupshowing="if (event.target.parentNode.parentNode == this &amp;&amp;
                                     !('@mozilla.org/widget/nativemenuservice;1' in Cc))
                                   this.setAttribute('openedwithkey',
                                                     event.target.parentNode.openedWithKey);">
             <menu id="file-menu" label="&fileMenu.label;"
                   accesskey="&fileMenu.accesskey;">
               <menupopup id="menu_FilePopup"
-                         onpopupshowing="updateUserContextUIVisibility();">
+                         onpopupshowing="updateFileMenuUserContextUIVisibility('menu_newUserContext');">
                 <menuitem id="menu_newNavigatorTab"
                           label="&tabCmd.label;"
                           command="cmd_newNavigatorTab"
                           key="key_newNavigatorTab"
                           accesskey="&tabCmd.accesskey;"/>
                 <menu id="menu_newUserContext"
                       label="&newUserContext.label;"
                       accesskey="&newUserContext.accesskey;"
--- a/browser/base/content/browser.js
+++ b/browser/base/content/browser.js
@@ -1309,17 +1309,16 @@ var gBrowserInit = {
     // loading the frame script to ensure that we don't miss any
     // message sent between when the frame script is loaded and when
     // the listener is registered.
     DOMEventHandler.init();
     gPageStyleMenu.init();
     LanguageDetectionListener.init();
     BrowserOnClick.init();
     FeedHandler.init();
-    AboutCapabilitiesListener.init();
     TrackingProtection.init();
     CaptivePortalWatcher.init();
     ZoomUI.init(window);
 
     let mm = window.getGroupMessageManager("browsers");
     mm.loadFrameScript("chrome://browser/content/tab-content.js", true);
     mm.loadFrameScript("chrome://browser/content/content.js", true);
     mm.loadFrameScript("chrome://browser/content/content-UITour.js", true);
@@ -1870,18 +1869,16 @@ var gBrowserInit = {
     TabletModeUpdater.uninit();
 
     gTabletModePageCounter.finish();
 
     BrowserOnClick.uninit();
 
     FeedHandler.uninit();
 
-    AboutCapabilitiesListener.uninit();
-
     TrackingProtection.uninit();
 
     CaptivePortalWatcher.uninit();
 
     SidebarUI.uninit();
 
     DownloadsButton.uninit();
 
@@ -4545,26 +4542,33 @@ function updateEditUIVisibility() {
  */
 function openNewUserContextTab(event) {
   openTrustedLinkIn(BROWSER_NEW_TAB_URL, "tab", {
     userContextId: parseInt(event.target.getAttribute("data-usercontextid")),
   });
 }
 
 /**
- * Updates File Menu User Context UI visibility depending on
+ * Updates User Context Menu Item UI visibility depending on
  * privacy.userContext.enabled pref state.
  */
-function updateUserContextUIVisibility() {
-  let menu = document.getElementById("menu_newUserContext");
-  menu.hidden = !Services.prefs.getBoolPref("privacy.userContext.enabled");
+function updateFileMenuUserContextUIVisibility(id) {
+  let menu = document.getElementById(id);
+  menu.hidden = !Services.prefs.getBoolPref("privacy.userContext.enabled", false);
+  // Visibility of File menu item shouldn't change frequently.
   if (PrivateBrowsingUtils.isWindowPrivate(window)) {
     menu.setAttribute("disabled", "true");
   }
 }
+function updateTabMenuUserContextUIVisibility(id) {
+  let menu = document.getElementById(id);
+  // Visibility of Tab menu item can change frequently.
+  menu.hidden = !Services.prefs.getBoolPref("privacy.userContext.enabled", false) ||
+                PrivateBrowsingUtils.isWindowPrivate(window);
+}
 
 /**
  * Updates the User Context UI indicators if the browser is in a non-default context
  */
 function updateUserContextUIIndicator() {
   let hbox = document.getElementById("userContext-icons");
 
   let userContextId = gBrowser.selectedBrowser.getAttribute("usercontextid");
@@ -4588,16 +4592,54 @@ function updateUserContextUIIndicator() 
 
   let indicator = document.getElementById("userContext-indicator");
   indicator.setAttribute("data-identity-icon", identity.icon);
 
   hbox.hidden = false;
 }
 
 /**
+ * Fill 'Reopen in Container' menu.
+ */
+function createReopenInContainerMenu(event) {
+  let currentid = TabContextMenu.contextTab.getAttribute("usercontextid");
+
+  return createUserContextMenu(event, {
+    isContextMenu: true,
+    excludeUserContextId: currentid,
+  });
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reopen the tab in another container.
+ */
+function reopenInContainer(event) {
+  let userContextId = parseInt(event.target.getAttribute("data-usercontextid"));
+  let currentTab = TabContextMenu.contextTab;
+  let isSelected = (gBrowser.selectedTab == currentTab);
+  let uri = currentTab.linkedBrowser.currentURI.spec;
+
+  let newTab = gBrowser.addTab(uri, {
+    userContextId,
+    pinned: currentTab.pinned,
+    index: currentTab._tPos + 1,
+  });
+
+  // Carry over some configuration.
+  if (isSelected) {
+    gBrowser.selectedTab = newTab;
+  }
+  if (currentTab.muted) {
+    if (!newTab.muted) {
+      newTab.toggleMuteAudio(currentTab.muteReason);
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+/**
  * Makes the Character Encoding menu enabled or disabled as appropriate.
  * To be called when the View menu or the app menu is opened.
  */
 function updateCharacterEncodingMenuState() {
   let charsetMenu = document.getElementById("charsetMenu");
   // gBrowser is null on Mac when the menubar shows in the context of
   // non-browser windows. The above elements may be null depending on
   // what parts of the menubar are present. E.g. no app menu on Mac.
@@ -7925,16 +7967,18 @@ var TabContextMenu = {
 
     this.contextTab.toggleMuteMenuItem = toggleMute;
     this._updateToggleMuteMenuItem(this.contextTab);
 
     this.contextTab.addEventListener("TabAttrModified", this);
     aPopupMenu.addEventListener("popuphiding", this);
 
     gSync.updateTabContextMenu(aPopupMenu, this.contextTab);
+
+    updateTabMenuUserContextUIVisibility("context_reopenInContainer");
   },
   handleEvent(aEvent) {
     switch (aEvent.type) {
       case "popuphiding":
         gBrowser.removeEventListener("TabAttrModified", this);
         aEvent.target.removeEventListener("popuphiding", this);
         break;
       case "TabAttrModified":
@@ -8309,49 +8353,16 @@ var PanicButtonNotifier = {
     }
   },
   close() {
     let popup = document.getElementById("panic-button-success-notification");
     popup.hidePopup();
   },
 };
 
-var AboutCapabilitiesListener = {
-  _topics: [
-    "AboutCapabilities:OpenPrivateWindow",
-    "AboutCapabilities:DontShowIntroPanelAgain",
-  ],
-
-  init() {
-    let mm = window.messageManager;
-    for (let topic of this._topics) {
-      mm.addMessageListener(topic, this);
-    }
-  },
-
-  uninit() {
-    let mm = window.messageManager;
-    for (let topic of this._topics) {
-      mm.removeMessageListener(topic, this);
-    }
-  },
-
-  receiveMessage(aMsg) {
-    switch (aMsg.name) {
-      case "AboutCapabilities:OpenPrivateWindow":
-        OpenBrowserWindow({private: true});
-        break;
-
-      case "AboutCapabilities:DontShowIntroPanelAgain":
-        TrackingProtection.dontShowIntroPanelAgain();
-        break;
-    }
-  },
-};
-
 const SafeBrowsingNotificationBox = {
   _currentURIBaseDomain: null,
   show(title, buttons) {
     let uri = gBrowser.currentURI;
 
     // start tracking host so that we know when we leave the domain
     this._currentURIBaseDomain = Services.eTLD.getBaseDomain(uri);
 
--- a/browser/base/content/browser.xul
+++ b/browser/base/content/browser.xul
@@ -105,16 +105,23 @@
                 accesskey="&pinTab.accesskey;"
                 oncommand="gBrowser.pinTab(TabContextMenu.contextTab);"/>
       <menuitem id="context_unpinTab" label="&unpinTab.label;" hidden="true"
                 accesskey="&unpinTab.accesskey;"
                 oncommand="gBrowser.unpinTab(TabContextMenu.contextTab);"/>
       <menuitem id="context_duplicateTab" label="&duplicateTab.label;"
                 accesskey="&duplicateTab.accesskey;"
                 oncommand="duplicateTabIn(TabContextMenu.contextTab, 'tab');"/>
+      <menu id="context_reopenInContainer"
+            label="&reopenInContainer.label;"
+            accesskey="&reopenInContainer.accesskey;"
+            hidden="true">
+        <menupopup oncommand="reopenInContainer(event);"
+                   onpopupshowing="return createReopenInContainerMenu(event);" />
+      </menu>
       <menuitem id="context_openTabInWindow" label="&moveToNewWindow.label;"
                 accesskey="&moveToNewWindow.accesskey;"
                 tbattr="tabbrowser-multiple"
                 oncommand="gBrowser.replaceTabWithWindow(TabContextMenu.contextTab);"/>
       <menuseparator id="context_sendTabToDevice_separator" class="sync-ui-item"/>
       <menu id="context_sendTabToDevice" label="&sendTabToDevice.label;"
             class="sync-ui-item"
             accesskey="&sendTabToDevice.accesskey;">
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/browser/components/about/AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler.jsm
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+/* This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
+ * License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
+ * file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. */
+
+"use strict";
+
+var EXPORTED_SYMBOLS = ["AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler"];
+
+ChromeUtils.import("resource://gre/modules/RemotePageManager.jsm");
+ChromeUtils.import("resource://gre/modules/Services.jsm");
+
+var AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler = {
+  _topics: [
+    "DontShowIntroPanelAgain",
+    "OpenPrivateWindow",
+  ],
+
+  init() {
+    this.pageListener = new RemotePages("about:privatebrowsing");
+    for (let topic of this._topics) {
+      this.pageListener.addMessageListener(topic, this.receiveMessage.bind(this));
+    }
+  },
+
+  uninit() {
+    for (let topic of this._topics) {
+      this.pageListener.removeMessageListener(topic);
+    }
+    this.pageListener.destroy();
+  },
+
+  receiveMessage(aMessage) {
+    switch (aMessage.name) {
+      case "OpenPrivateWindow": {
+        let win = aMessage.target.browser.ownerGlobal;
+        win.OpenBrowserWindow({private: true});
+        break;
+      }
+      case "DontShowIntroPanelAgain": {
+        let win = aMessage.target.browser.ownerGlobal;
+        win.TrackingProtection.dontShowIntroPanelAgain();
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  },
+};
deleted file mode 100644
--- a/browser/components/about/aboutcapabilities.manifest
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,2 +0,0 @@
-component {4c2b1f46-e637-4a91-8108-8a9fb7aab91d} nsAboutCapabilities.js
-contract @mozilla.org/aboutcapabilities;1 {4c2b1f46-e637-4a91-8108-8a9fb7aab91d}
--- a/browser/components/about/moz.build
+++ b/browser/components/about/moz.build
@@ -12,18 +12,17 @@ EXPORTS.mozilla.browser += [
 ]
 
 XPCSHELL_TESTS_MANIFESTS += ['test/unit/xpcshell.ini']
 
 SOURCES += [
     'AboutRedirector.cpp',
 ]
 
-EXTRA_COMPONENTS += [
-    'aboutcapabilities.manifest',
-    'nsAboutCapabilities.js',
+EXTRA_JS_MODULES.aboutpages = [
+    'AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler.jsm',
 ]
 
 FINAL_LIBRARY = 'browsercomps'
 
 LOCAL_INCLUDES += [
     '../build',
 ]
deleted file mode 100644
--- a/browser/components/about/nsAboutCapabilities.js
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,73 +0,0 @@
-/* -*- indent-tabs-mode: nil; js-indent-level: 4 -*- */
-/* This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
- * License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
- * file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. */
-
-ChromeUtils.import("resource://gre/modules/Services.jsm");
-ChromeUtils.import("resource://gre/modules/XPCOMUtils.jsm");
-ChromeUtils.import("resource://gre/modules/PrivateBrowsingUtils.jsm");
-ChromeUtils.defineModuleGetter(this, "AsyncPrefs",
-  "resource://gre/modules/AsyncPrefs.jsm");
-
-function nsAboutCapabilities() {
-}
-
-nsAboutCapabilities.prototype = {
-  init(window) {
-    this.window = window;
-    try {
-      let docShell = window.document.docShell
-                           .QueryInterface(Ci.nsIInterfaceRequestor);
-      this.mm = docShell.getInterface(Ci.nsIContentFrameMessageManager);
-    } catch (e) {
-      Cu.reportError(e);
-    }
-  },
-
-  getBoolPref(aPref, aDefaultValue) {
-    return Services.prefs.getBoolPref(aPref, aDefaultValue);
-  },
-
-  setBoolPref(aPref, aValue) {
-    return new this.window.Promise(function(resolve) {
-      AsyncPrefs.set(aPref, aValue).then(function() {
-        resolve();
-      });
-    });
-  },
-
-  getCharPref(aPref, aDefaultValue) {
-    return Services.prefs.getCharPref(aPref, aDefaultValue);
-  },
-
-  setCharPref(aPref, aValue) {
-    return new this.window.Promise(function(resolve) {
-      AsyncPrefs.set(aPref, aValue).then(function() {
-        resolve();
-      });
-    });
-  },
-
-  getStringFromBundle(aStrBundle, aStr) {
-    let bundle = Services.strings.createBundle(aStrBundle);
-    return bundle.GetStringFromName(aStr);
-  },
-
-  formatURLPref(aFormatURL) {
-    return Services.urlFormatter.formatURLPref(aFormatURL);
-  },
-
-  sendAsyncMessage(aMessage, aParams) {
-    this.mm.sendAsyncMessage("AboutCapabilities:" + aMessage, aParams);
-  },
-
-  isWindowPrivate() {
-    return PrivateBrowsingUtils.isContentWindowPrivate(this.window);
-  },
-
-  contractID: "@mozilla.org/aboutcapabilities;1",
-  classID: Components.ID("{4c2b1f46-e637-4a91-8108-8a9fb7aab91d}"),
-  QueryInterface: ChromeUtils.generateQI([Ci.nsIDOMGlobalPropertyInitializer])
-};
-
-this.NSGetFactory = XPCOMUtils.generateNSGetFactory([nsAboutCapabilities]);
--- a/browser/components/contextualidentity/test/browser/browser.ini
+++ b/browser/components/contextualidentity/test/browser/browser.ini
@@ -30,8 +30,9 @@ tags = openwindow
 [browser_middleClick.js]
 [browser_imageCache.js]
 [browser_count_and_remove.js]
 [browser_relatedTab.js]
 [browser_saveLink.js]
 support-files =
   saveLink.sjs
   !/toolkit/content/tests/browser/common/mockTransfer.js
+[browser_reopenIn.js]
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/browser/components/contextualidentity/test/browser/browser_reopenIn.js
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+"use strict";
+
+const TEST_HOST = "example.com";
+const TEST_URL = "http://" + TEST_HOST + "/browser/browser/components/contextualidentity/test/browser/";
+
+async function openTabMenuFor(tab) {
+  let tabMenu = tab.ownerDocument.getElementById("tabContextMenu");
+
+  let tabMenuShown = BrowserTestUtils.waitForEvent(tabMenu, "popupshown");
+  EventUtils.synthesizeMouseAtCenter(tab, {type: "contextmenu"},
+                                     tab.ownerGlobal);
+  await tabMenuShown;
+
+  return tabMenu;
+}
+
+async function openReopenMenuForTab(tab) {
+  openTabMenuFor(tab);
+
+  let reopenItem = tab.ownerDocument.getElementById("context_reopenInContainer");
+  ok(!reopenItem.hidden, "Reopen in Container item should be shown");
+
+  let reopenMenu = reopenItem.getElementsByTagName("menupopup")[0];
+  let reopenMenuShown = BrowserTestUtils.waitForEvent(reopenMenu, "popupshown");
+  EventUtils.synthesizeMouseAtCenter(reopenItem, {type: "mousemove"},
+                                     tab.ownerGlobal);
+  await reopenMenuShown;
+
+  return reopenMenu;
+}
+
+function checkMenuItem(reopenMenu, shown, hidden) {
+  for (let id of shown) {
+    ok(reopenMenu.querySelector(`menuitem[data-usercontextid="${id}"]`),
+       `User context id ${id} should exist`);
+  }
+  for (let id of hidden) {
+    ok(!reopenMenu.querySelector(`menuitem[data-usercontextid="${id}"]`),
+       `User context id ${id} shouldn't exist`);
+  }
+}
+
+function openTabInContainer(gBrowser, reopenMenu, id) {
+  let tabPromise = BrowserTestUtils.waitForNewTab(gBrowser, TEST_URL, true);
+  let menuitem = reopenMenu.querySelector(`menuitem[data-usercontextid="${id}"]`);
+  EventUtils.synthesizeMouseAtCenter(menuitem, {}, menuitem.ownerGlobal);
+  return tabPromise;
+}
+
+add_task(async function testReopen() {
+  await SpecialPowers.pushPrefEnv({"set": [
+      ["privacy.userContext.enabled", true],
+  ]});
+
+  let tab = await BrowserTestUtils.openNewForegroundTab({
+    gBrowser,
+    url: TEST_URL,
+  });
+  ok(!tab.hasAttribute("usercontextid"), "Tab with No Container should be opened");
+
+  let reopenMenu = await openReopenMenuForTab(tab);
+  checkMenuItem(reopenMenu, [1, 2, 3, 4], [0]);
+
+  let containerTab = await openTabInContainer(gBrowser, reopenMenu, "1");
+
+  is(containerTab.getAttribute("usercontextid"), "1",
+     "Tab with UCI=1 should be opened");
+  is(containerTab.linkedBrowser.currentURI.spec, TEST_URL,
+     "Same page should be opened");
+
+  reopenMenu = await openReopenMenuForTab(containerTab);
+  checkMenuItem(reopenMenu, [0, 2, 3, 4], [1]);
+
+  let noContainerTab = await openTabInContainer(gBrowser, reopenMenu, "0");
+
+  ok(!noContainerTab.hasAttribute("usercontextid"),
+     "Tab with no UCI should be opened");
+  is(noContainerTab.linkedBrowser.currentURI.spec, TEST_URL,
+     "Same page should be opened");
+
+  BrowserTestUtils.removeTab(tab);
+  BrowserTestUtils.removeTab(containerTab);
+  BrowserTestUtils.removeTab(noContainerTab);
+});
+
+add_task(async function testDisabled() {
+  await SpecialPowers.pushPrefEnv({"set": [
+      ["privacy.userContext.enabled", false],
+  ]});
+
+  let tab = await BrowserTestUtils.openNewForegroundTab({
+    gBrowser,
+    url: TEST_URL,
+  });
+  ok(!tab.hasAttribute("usercontextid"), "Tab with No Container should be opened");
+
+  openTabMenuFor(tab);
+  let reopenItem = document.getElementById("context_reopenInContainer");
+  ok(reopenItem.hidden, "Reopen in Container item should be hidden");
+
+  // Close the tab menu.
+  EventUtils.synthesizeKey("KEY_Escape");
+
+  BrowserTestUtils.removeTab(tab);
+});
+
+add_task(async function testPrivateMode() {
+  await SpecialPowers.pushPrefEnv({"set": [
+      ["privacy.userContext.enabled", true],
+  ]});
+
+  let privateWindow = await BrowserTestUtils.openNewBrowserWindow({private: true});
+  let tab = await BrowserTestUtils.openNewForegroundTab({
+    gBrowser: privateWindow.gBrowser,
+    url: TEST_URL,
+  });
+  ok(!tab.hasAttribute("usercontextid"), "Tab with No Container should be opened");
+
+  openTabMenuFor(tab);
+  let reopenItem = privateWindow.document.getElementById("context_reopenInContainer");
+  ok(reopenItem.hidden, "Reopen in Container item should be hidden");
+
+  // Close the tab menu.
+  EventUtils.synthesizeKey("KEY_Escape");
+
+  await BrowserTestUtils.closeWindow(privateWindow);
+});
--- a/browser/components/extensions/test/browser/browser_ext_devtools_panel.js
+++ b/browser/components/extensions/test/browser/browser_ext_devtools_panel.js
@@ -501,18 +501,18 @@ add_task(async function test_devtools_pa
     hasDevToolsAPINamespace,
   } = await extension.awaitMessage("devtools_panel_loaded");
 
   is(panelShownURL, panelLoadedURL, "Got the expected panel URL on the first load");
   ok(hasDevToolsAPINamespace, "The devtools panel has the devtools API on the first load");
 
   const originalToolboxHostType = toolbox.hostType;
 
-  info("Switch the toolbox from docked on bottom to docked on side");
-  toolbox.switchHost("side");
+  info("Switch the toolbox from docked on bottom to docked on right");
+  toolbox.switchHost("right");
 
   info("Wait for the panel to emit hide, show and load messages once docked on side");
   await extension.awaitMessage("devtools_panel_hidden");
   const dockedOnSideShownURL = await extension.awaitMessage("devtools_panel_shown");
 
   is(dockedOnSideShownURL, panelShownURL,
      "Got the expected panel url once the panel shown event has been emitted on toolbox host changed");
 
--- a/browser/components/nsBrowserGlue.js
+++ b/browser/components/nsBrowserGlue.js
@@ -84,16 +84,17 @@ XPCOMUtils.defineLazyServiceGetters(this
 });
 XPCOMUtils.defineLazyGetter(this, "WeaveService", () =>
   Cc["@mozilla.org/weave/service;1"].getService().wrappedJSObject
 );
 
 // lazy module getters
 
 XPCOMUtils.defineLazyModuleGetters(this, {
+  AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler: "resource:///modules/aboutpages/AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler.jsm",
   AddonManager: "resource://gre/modules/AddonManager.jsm",
   AppMenuNotifications: "resource://gre/modules/AppMenuNotifications.jsm",
   AsyncPrefs: "resource://gre/modules/AsyncPrefs.jsm",
   AsyncShutdown: "resource://gre/modules/AsyncShutdown.jsm",
   AutoCompletePopup: "resource://gre/modules/AutoCompletePopup.jsm",
   Blocklist: "resource://gre/modules/Blocklist.jsm",
   BookmarkHTMLUtils: "resource://gre/modules/BookmarkHTMLUtils.jsm",
   BookmarkJSONUtils: "resource://gre/modules/BookmarkJSONUtils.jsm",
@@ -1049,16 +1050,18 @@ BrowserGlue.prototype = {
     if (Services.prefs.prefHasUserValue("services.sync.username")) {
       WeaveService.init();
     }
 
     PageThumbs.init();
 
     NewTabUtils.init();
 
+    AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler.init();
+
     PageActions.init();
 
     this._firstWindowTelemetry(aWindow);
     this._firstWindowLoaded();
 
     // Set the default favicon size for UI views that use the page-icon protocol.
     PlacesUtils.favicons.setDefaultIconURIPreferredSize(16 * aWindow.devicePixelRatio);
 
@@ -1101,16 +1104,17 @@ BrowserGlue.prototype = {
     BrowserUsageTelemetry.uninit();
     // Only uninit PingCentre if the getter has initialized it
     if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(this, "pingCentre")) {
       this.pingCentre.uninit();
     }
 
     PageThumbs.uninit();
     NewTabUtils.uninit();
+    AboutPrivateBrowsingHandler.uninit();
     AutoCompletePopup.uninit();
     DateTimePickerHelper.uninit();
 
     // Browser errors are only collected on Nightly
     if (AppConstants.NIGHTLY_BUILD && AppConstants.MOZ_DATA_REPORTING) {
       this.browserErrorReporter.uninit();
     }
 
--- a/browser/components/privatebrowsing/content/aboutPrivateBrowsing.js
+++ b/browser/components/privatebrowsing/content/aboutPrivateBrowsing.js
@@ -1,62 +1,61 @@
 /* This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
  * License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
  * file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. */
 
+/* eslint-env mozilla/frame-script */
+
 const FAVICON_QUESTION = "chrome://global/skin/icons/question-32.png";
-const STRING_BUNDLE = "chrome://browser/locale/aboutPrivateBrowsing.properties";
 const TP_ENABLED_PREF = "privacy.trackingprotection.enabled";
 const TP_PB_ENABLED_PREF = "privacy.trackingprotection.pbmode.enabled";
 
 function updateTPInfo() {
-  let aboutCapabilities = document.aboutCapabilities;
   let tpButton = document.getElementById("tpButton");
   let tpToggle = document.getElementById("tpToggle");
   let title = document.getElementById("title");
   let titleTracking = document.getElementById("titleTracking");
   let tpSubHeader = document.getElementById("tpSubHeader");
 
-  let globalTrackingEnabled = aboutCapabilities.getBoolPref(TP_ENABLED_PREF, null);
-  let trackingEnabled = globalTrackingEnabled ||
-                        aboutCapabilities.getBoolPref(TP_PB_ENABLED_PREF, null);
+  let globalTrackingEnabled = RPMGetBoolPref(TP_ENABLED_PREF);
+  let trackingEnabled = globalTrackingEnabled || RPMGetBoolPref(TP_PB_ENABLED_PREF);
 
   // if tracking protection is enabled globally we don't even give the user
   // a choice here by hiding the toggle completely.
   tpButton.classList.toggle("hide", globalTrackingEnabled);
   tpToggle.checked = trackingEnabled;
   title.classList.toggle("hide", trackingEnabled);
   titleTracking.classList.toggle("hide", !trackingEnabled);
   tpSubHeader.classList.toggle("tp-off", !trackingEnabled);
 }
 
 document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
-  let aboutCapabilities = document.aboutCapabilities;
-  if (!aboutCapabilities.isWindowPrivate()) {
+  if (!RPMIsWindowPrivate()) {
     document.documentElement.classList.remove("private");
     document.documentElement.classList.add("normal");
     document.getElementById("favicon").setAttribute("href", FAVICON_QUESTION);
     document.getElementById("startPrivateBrowsing").addEventListener("click", function() {
-      aboutCapabilities.sendAsyncMessage("OpenPrivateWindow", null);
+      sendAsyncMessage("OpenPrivateWindow");
     });
     return;
   }
 
   document.getElementById("startTour").addEventListener("click", function() {
-    aboutCapabilities.sendAsyncMessage("DontShowIntroPanelAgain", null);
+    sendAsyncMessage("DontShowIntroPanelAgain");
   });
   document.getElementById("startTour").setAttribute("href",
-    aboutCapabilities.formatURLPref("privacy.trackingprotection.introURL"));
+    RPMGetFormatURLPref("privacy.trackingprotection.introURL"));
+
   document.getElementById("learnMore").setAttribute("href",
-    aboutCapabilities.formatURLPref("app.support.baseURL") + "private-browsing");
+    RPMGetFormatURLPref("app.support.baseURL") + "private-browsing");
 
   let tpToggle = document.getElementById("tpToggle");
   document.getElementById("tpButton").addEventListener("click", () => {
     tpToggle.click();
   });
   tpToggle.addEventListener("change", function() {
-    aboutCapabilities.setBoolPref(TP_PB_ENABLED_PREF, tpToggle.checked).then(function() {
+    RPMSetBoolPref(TP_PB_ENABLED_PREF, tpToggle.checked).then(function() {
       updateTPInfo();
     });
   });
 
   updateTPInfo();
 });
--- a/browser/installer/package-manifest.in
+++ b/browser/installer/package-manifest.in
@@ -184,18 +184,16 @@
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/devtools-startup.manifest
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/devtools-startup.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdebugging-registration.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdebugging.manifest
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdevtools-registration.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdevtools.manifest
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdevtoolstoolbox-registration.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutdevtoolstoolbox.manifest
-@RESPATH@/browser/components/nsAboutCapabilities.js
-@RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutcapabilities.manifest
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/aboutNewTabService.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/NewTabComponents.manifest
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/EnterprisePolicies.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/EnterprisePoliciesContent.js
 @RESPATH@/browser/components/EnterprisePolicies.manifest
 @RESPATH@/components/Downloads.manifest
 @RESPATH@/components/DownloadLegacy.js
 @RESPATH@/components/PageThumbsComponents.manifest
--- a/browser/locales/en-US/chrome/browser/browser.dtd
+++ b/browser/locales/en-US/chrome/browser/browser.dtd
@@ -51,16 +51,18 @@ can reach it easily. -->
 <!ENTITY  sendPageToDevice.label             "Send Page to Device">
 <!ENTITY  sendPageToDevice.accesskey         "n">
 <!ENTITY  sendLinkToDevice.label             "Send Link to Device">
 <!ENTITY  sendLinkToDevice.accesskey         "n">
 <!ENTITY  sendToDeviceFeedback.label         "Sent!">
 <!ENTITY  sendToDeviceOfflineFeedback.label  "Queued (offline)">
 <!ENTITY  moveToNewWindow.label              "Move to New Window">
 <!ENTITY  moveToNewWindow.accesskey          "W">
+<!ENTITY  reopenInContainer.label            "Reopen in Container">
+<!ENTITY  reopenInContainer.accesskey        "e">
 <!ENTITY  bookmarkAllTabs.label              "Bookmark All Tabs…">
 <!ENTITY  bookmarkAllTabs.accesskey          "T">
 <!ENTITY  undoCloseTab.label                 "Undo Close Tab">
 <!ENTITY  undoCloseTab.accesskey             "U">
 <!ENTITY  closeTab.label                     "Close Tab">
 <!ENTITY  closeTab.accesskey                 "c">
 <!ENTITY  hiddenTabs.label                   "Hidden Tabs">
 
--- a/browser/tools/mozscreenshots/mozscreenshots/extension/configurations/DevTools.jsm
+++ b/browser/tools/mozscreenshots/mozscreenshots/extension/configurations/DevTools.jsm
@@ -46,17 +46,17 @@ var DevTools = {
         Services.prefs.clearUserPref("devtools.toolbox.footer.height");
         await gDevTools.showToolbox(getTargetForSelectedTab(), "inspector", "bottom");
         await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 1000));
       },
     },
     sideToolbox: {
       selectors: [selectToolbox],
       async applyConfig() {
-        await gDevTools.showToolbox(getTargetForSelectedTab(), "inspector", "side");
+        await gDevTools.showToolbox(getTargetForSelectedTab(), "inspector", "right");
         await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 500));
       },
     },
     undockedToolbox: {
       selectors: [selectToolbox],
       windowType: "devtools:toolbox",
       async applyConfig() {
         await gDevTools.showToolbox(getTargetForSelectedTab(), "inspector", "window");
--- a/db/sqlite3/src/sqlite3.c
+++ b/db/sqlite3/src/sqlite3.c
@@ -1,11 +1,11 @@
 /******************************************************************************
 ** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
-** version 3.23.1.  By combining all the individual C code files into this
+** version 3.24.0.  By combining all the individual C code files into this
 ** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a single translation
 ** unit.  This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
 ** possible if the files were compiled separately.  Performance improvements
 ** of 5% or more are commonly seen when SQLite is compiled as a single
 ** translation unit.
 **
 ** This file is all you need to compile SQLite.  To use SQLite in other
 ** programs, you need this file and the "sqlite3.h" header file that defines
@@ -306,16 +306,19 @@ static const char * const sqlite3azCompi
   "ENABLE_SELECTTRACE",
 #endif
 #if SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION
   "ENABLE_SESSION",
 #endif
 #if SQLITE_ENABLE_SNAPSHOT
   "ENABLE_SNAPSHOT",
 #endif
+#if SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  "ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES",
+#endif
 #if SQLITE_ENABLE_SQLLOG
   "ENABLE_SQLLOG",
 #endif
 #if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4)
   "ENABLE_STAT4",
 #elif defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3)
   "ENABLE_STAT3",
 #endif
@@ -1142,19 +1145,19 @@ extern "C" {
 ** or SHA3-256 hash of the entire source tree.  If the source code has
 ** been edited in any way since it was last checked in, then the last
 ** four hexadecimal digits of the hash may be modified.
 **
 ** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
 ** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
 ** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
 */
-#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.23.1"
-#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3023001
-#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2018-04-10 17:39:29 4bb2294022060e61de7da5c227a69ccd846ba330e31626ebcd59a94efd148b3b"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION        "3.24.0"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3024000
+#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID      "2018-06-04 19:24:41 c7ee0833225bfd8c5ec2f9bf62b97c4e04d03bd9566366d5221ac8fb199a87ca"
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
 ** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version sqlite3_sourceid
 **
 ** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
 ** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
 ** but are associated with the library instead of the header file.  ^(Cautious
@@ -1523,23 +1526,25 @@ SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_GETTEMPPATH       (SQLITE_IOERR | (25<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_CONVPATH          (SQLITE_IOERR | (26<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_VNODE             (SQLITE_IOERR | (27<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_AUTH              (SQLITE_IOERR | (28<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_BEGIN_ATOMIC      (SQLITE_IOERR | (29<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_COMMIT_ATOMIC     (SQLITE_IOERR | (30<<8))
 #define SQLITE_IOERR_ROLLBACK_ATOMIC   (SQLITE_IOERR | (31<<8))
 #define SQLITE_LOCKED_SHAREDCACHE      (SQLITE_LOCKED |  (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_LOCKED_VTAB             (SQLITE_LOCKED |  (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_BUSY_RECOVERY           (SQLITE_BUSY   |  (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_BUSY_SNAPSHOT           (SQLITE_BUSY   |  (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_NOTEMPDIR      (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_ISDIR          (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_FULLPATH       (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (3<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_CONVPATH       (SQLITE_CANTOPEN | (4<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB            (SQLITE_CORRUPT | (1<<8))
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT_SEQUENCE        (SQLITE_CORRUPT | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_RECOVERY       (SQLITE_READONLY | (1<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_CANTLOCK       (SQLITE_READONLY | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_ROLLBACK       (SQLITE_READONLY | (3<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_DBMOVED        (SQLITE_READONLY | (4<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_CANTINIT       (SQLITE_READONLY | (5<<8))
 #define SQLITE_READONLY_DIRECTORY      (SQLITE_READONLY | (6<<8))
 #define SQLITE_ABORT_ROLLBACK          (SQLITE_ABORT | (2<<8))
 #define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_CHECK        (SQLITE_CONSTRAINT | (1<<8))
@@ -2949,16 +2954,32 @@ struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
 ** exceeds this threshold, at which point they are written to disk.
 ** Or if the threshold is -1, statement journals are always held
 ** exclusively in memory.
 ** Since many statement journals never become large, setting the spill
 ** threshold to a value such as 64KiB can greatly reduce the amount of
 ** I/O required to support statement rollback.
 ** The default value for this setting is controlled by the
 ** [SQLITE_STMTJRNL_SPILL] compile-time option.
+**
+** [[SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE]]
+** <dt>SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE
+** <dd>The SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE option accepts a single parameter
+** of type (int) - the new value of the sorter-reference size threshold.
+** Usually, when SQLite uses an external sort to order records according
+** to an ORDER BY clause, all fields required by the caller are present in the
+** sorted records. However, if SQLite determines based on the declared type
+** of a table column that its values are likely to be very large - larger
+** than the configured sorter-reference size threshold - then a reference
+** is stored in each sorted record and the required column values loaded
+** from the database as records are returned in sorted order. The default
+** value for this option is to never use this optimization. Specifying a 
+** negative value for this option restores the default behaviour.
+** This option is only available if SQLite is compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES] compile-time option.
 ** </dl>
 */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD  1  /* nil */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD   2  /* nil */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED    3  /* nil */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC        4  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC     5  /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH       6  /* No longer used */
@@ -2978,16 +2999,17 @@ struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_COVERING_INDEX_SCAN 20  /* int */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_SQLLOG       21  /* xSqllog, void* */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_MMAP_SIZE    22  /* sqlite3_int64, sqlite3_int64 */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_WIN32_HEAPSIZE      23  /* int nByte */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE_HDRSZ        24  /* int *psz */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_PMASZ               25  /* unsigned int szPma */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_STMTJRNL_SPILL      26  /* int nByte */
 #define SQLITE_CONFIG_SMALL_MALLOC        27  /* boolean */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE      28  /* int nByte */
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Configuration Options
 **
 ** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
 ** can be passed as the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_config()] interface.
 **
 ** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
@@ -3114,28 +3136,44 @@ struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
 ** option is used to set or clear (the default) a flag that governs this
 ** behavior. The first parameter passed to this operation is an integer -
 ** positive to enable output for trigger programs, or zero to disable it,
 ** or negative to leave the setting unchanged.
 ** The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which is written 
 ** 0 or 1 to indicate whether output-for-triggers has been disabled - 0 if 
 ** it is not disabled, 1 if it is.  
 ** </dd>
+**
+** <dt>SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE</dt>
+** <dd> Set the SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE flag and then run
+** [VACUUM] in order to reset a database back to an empty database
+** with no schema and no content. The following process works even for
+** a badly corrupted database file:
+** <ol>
+** <li> sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE, 1, 0);
+** <li> [sqlite3_exec](db, "[VACUUM]", 0, 0, 0);
+** <li> sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE, 0, 0);
+** </ol>
+** Because resetting a database is destructive and irreversible, the
+** process requires the use of this obscure API and multiple steps to help
+** ensure that it does not happen by accident.
+** </dd>
 ** </dl>
 */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAINDBNAME            1000 /* const char* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE             1001 /* void* int int */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FKEY           1002 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_TRIGGER        1003 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FTS3_TOKENIZER 1004 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION 1005 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_NO_CKPT_ON_CLOSE      1006 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_QPSG           1007 /* int int* */
 #define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRIGGER_EQP           1008 /* int int* */
-#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAX                   1008 /* Largest DBCONFIG */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE        1009 /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_MAX                   1009 /* Largest DBCONFIG */
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes
 ** METHOD: sqlite3
 **
 ** ^The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
 ** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. ^The extended result
 ** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility.
@@ -6512,16 +6550,51 @@ SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_temp_directory;
 ** using [sqlite3_free].
 ** Hence, if this variable is modified directly, either it should be
 ** made NULL or made to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]
 ** or else the use of the [data_store_directory pragma] should be avoided.
 */
 SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_data_directory;
 
 /*
+** CAPI3REF: Win32 Specific Interface
+**
+** These interfaces are available only on Windows.  The
+** [sqlite3_win32_set_directory] interface is used to set the value associated
+** with the [sqlite3_temp_directory] or [sqlite3_data_directory] variable, to
+** zValue, depending on the value of the type parameter.  The zValue parameter
+** should be NULL to cause the previous value to be freed via [sqlite3_free];
+** a non-NULL value will be copied into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]
+** prior to being used.  The [sqlite3_win32_set_directory] interface returns
+** [SQLITE_OK] to indicate success, [SQLITE_ERROR] if the type is unsupported,
+** or [SQLITE_NOMEM] if memory could not be allocated.  The value of the
+** [sqlite3_data_directory] variable is intended to act as a replacement for
+** the current directory on the sub-platforms of Win32 where that concept is
+** not present, e.g. WinRT and UWP.  The [sqlite3_win32_set_directory8] and
+** [sqlite3_win32_set_directory16] interfaces behave exactly the same as the
+** sqlite3_win32_set_directory interface except the string parameter must be
+** UTF-8 or UTF-16, respectively.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory(
+  unsigned long type, /* Identifier for directory being set or reset */
+  void *zValue        /* New value for directory being set or reset */
+);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory8(unsigned long type, const char *zValue);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory16(unsigned long type, const void *zValue);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Win32 Directory Types
+**
+** These macros are only available on Windows.  They define the allowed values
+** for the type argument to the [sqlite3_win32_set_directory] interface.
+*/
+#define SQLITE_WIN32_DATA_DIRECTORY_TYPE  1
+#define SQLITE_WIN32_TEMP_DIRECTORY_TYPE  2
+
+/*
 ** CAPI3REF: Test For Auto-Commit Mode
 ** KEYWORDS: {autocommit mode}
 ** METHOD: sqlite3
 **
 ** ^The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interface returns non-zero or
 ** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
 ** respectively.  ^Autocommit mode is on by default.
 ** ^Autocommit mode is disabled by a [BEGIN] statement.
@@ -7243,16 +7316,20 @@ struct sqlite3_index_info {
   /* Fields below are only available in SQLite 3.9.0 and later */
   int idxFlags;              /* Mask of SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_* flags */
   /* Fields below are only available in SQLite 3.10.0 and later */
   sqlite3_uint64 colUsed;    /* Input: Mask of columns used by statement */
 };
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Scan Flags
+**
+** Virtual table implementations are allowed to set the 
+** [sqlite3_index_info].idxFlags field to some combination of
+** these bits.
 */
 #define SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE      1     /* Scan visits at most 1 row */
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Constraint Operator Codes
 **
 ** These macros defined the allowed values for the
 ** [sqlite3_index_info].aConstraint[].op field.  Each value represents
@@ -8018,31 +8095,214 @@ SQLITE_API int sqlite3_test_control(int 
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BITVEC_TEST              8
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_INSTALL            9
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BENIGN_MALLOC_HOOKS     10
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PENDING_BYTE            11
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ASSERT                  12
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ALWAYS                  13
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_RESERVE                 14
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS           15
-#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ISKEYWORD               16
+#define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ISKEYWORD               16  /* NOT USED */
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SCRATCHMALLOC           17  /* NOT USED */
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LOCALTIME_FAULT         18
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_EXPLAIN_STMT            19  /* NOT USED */
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ONCE_RESET_THRESHOLD    19
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_NEVER_CORRUPT           20
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_VDBE_COVERAGE           21
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BYTEORDER               22
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ISINIT                  23
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SORTER_MMAP             24
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER                25
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PARSER_COVERAGE         26
 #define SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LAST                    26  /* Largest TESTCTRL */
 
 /*
+** CAPI3REF: SQL Keyword Checking
+**
+** These routines provide access to the set of SQL language keywords 
+** recognized by SQLite.  Applications can uses these routines to determine
+** whether or not a specific identifier needs to be escaped (for example,
+** by enclosing in double-quotes) so as not to confuse the parser.
+**
+** The sqlite3_keyword_count() interface returns the number of distinct
+** keywords understood by SQLite.
+**
+** The sqlite3_keyword_name(N,Z,L) interface finds the N-th keyword and
+** makes *Z point to that keyword expressed as UTF8 and writes the number
+** of bytes in the keyword into *L.  The string that *Z points to is not
+** zero-terminated.  The sqlite3_keyword_name(N,Z,L) routine returns
+** SQLITE_OK if N is within bounds and SQLITE_ERROR if not. If either Z
+** or L are NULL or invalid pointers then calls to
+** sqlite3_keyword_name(N,Z,L) result in undefined behavior.
+**
+** The sqlite3_keyword_check(Z,L) interface checks to see whether or not
+** the L-byte UTF8 identifier that Z points to is a keyword, returning non-zero
+** if it is and zero if not.
+**
+** The parser used by SQLite is forgiving.  It is often possible to use
+** a keyword as an identifier as long as such use does not result in a
+** parsing ambiguity.  For example, the statement
+** "CREATE TABLE BEGIN(REPLACE,PRAGMA,END);" is accepted by SQLite, and
+** creates a new table named "BEGIN" with three columns named
+** "REPLACE", "PRAGMA", and "END".  Nevertheless, best practice is to avoid
+** using keywords as identifiers.  Common techniques used to avoid keyword
+** name collisions include:
+** <ul>
+** <li> Put all identifier names inside double-quotes.  This is the official
+**      SQL way to escape identifier names.
+** <li> Put identifier names inside &#91;...&#93;.  This is not standard SQL,
+**      but it is what SQL Server does and so lots of programmers use this
+**      technique.
+** <li> Begin every identifier with the letter "Z" as no SQL keywords start
+**      with "Z".
+** <li> Include a digit somewhere in every identifier name.
+** </ul>
+**
+** Note that the number of keywords understood by SQLite can depend on
+** compile-time options.  For example, "VACUUM" is not a keyword if
+** SQLite is compiled with the [-DSQLITE_OMIT_VACUUM] option.  Also,
+** new keywords may be added to future releases of SQLite.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_keyword_count(void);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_keyword_name(int,const char**,int*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_keyword_check(const char*,int);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Dynamic String Object
+** KEYWORDS: {dynamic string}
+**
+** An instance of the sqlite3_str object contains a dynamically-sized
+** string under construction.
+**
+** The lifecycle of an sqlite3_str object is as follows:
+** <ol>
+** <li> ^The sqlite3_str object is created using [sqlite3_str_new()].
+** <li> ^Text is appended to the sqlite3_str object using various
+** methods, such as [sqlite3_str_appendf()].
+** <li> ^The sqlite3_str object is destroyed and the string it created
+** is returned using the [sqlite3_str_finish()] interface.
+** </ol>
+*/
+typedef struct sqlite3_str sqlite3_str;
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Create A New Dynamic String Object
+** CONSTRUCTOR: sqlite3_str
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_new(D)] interface allocates and initializes
+** a new [sqlite3_str] object.  To avoid memory leaks, the object returned by
+** [sqlite3_str_new()] must be freed by a subsequent call to 
+** [sqlite3_str_finish(X)].
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_new(D)] interface always returns a pointer to a
+** valid [sqlite3_str] object, though in the event of an out-of-memory
+** error the returned object might be a special singleton that will
+** silently reject new text, always return SQLITE_NOMEM from 
+** [sqlite3_str_errcode()], always return 0 for 
+** [sqlite3_str_length()], and always return NULL from
+** [sqlite3_str_finish(X)].  It is always safe to use the value
+** returned by [sqlite3_str_new(D)] as the sqlite3_str parameter
+** to any of the other [sqlite3_str] methods.
+**
+** The D parameter to [sqlite3_str_new(D)] may be NULL.  If the
+** D parameter in [sqlite3_str_new(D)] is not NULL, then the maximum
+** length of the string contained in the [sqlite3_str] object will be
+** the value set for [sqlite3_limit](D,[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]) instead
+** of [SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH].
+*/
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_str *sqlite3_str_new(sqlite3*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Finalize A Dynamic String
+** DESTRUCTOR: sqlite3_str
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface destroys the sqlite3_str object X
+** and returns a pointer to a memory buffer obtained from [sqlite3_malloc64()]
+** that contains the constructed string.  The calling application should
+** pass the returned value to [sqlite3_free()] to avoid a memory leak.
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface may return a NULL pointer if any
+** errors were encountered during construction of the string.  ^The
+** [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface will also return a NULL pointer if the
+** string in [sqlite3_str] object X is zero bytes long.
+*/
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_str_finish(sqlite3_str*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Add Content To A Dynamic String
+** METHOD: sqlite3_str
+**
+** These interfaces add content to an sqlite3_str object previously obtained
+** from [sqlite3_str_new()].
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_appendf(X,F,...)] and 
+** [sqlite3_str_vappendf(X,F,V)] interfaces uses the [built-in printf]
+** functionality of SQLite to append formatted text onto the end of 
+** [sqlite3_str] object X.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_append(X,S,N)] method appends exactly N bytes from string S
+** onto the end of the [sqlite3_str] object X.  N must be non-negative.
+** S must contain at least N non-zero bytes of content.  To append a
+** zero-terminated string in its entirety, use the [sqlite3_str_appendall()]
+** method instead.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_appendall(X,S)] method appends the complete content of
+** zero-terminated string S onto the end of [sqlite3_str] object X.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_appendchar(X,N,C)] method appends N copies of the
+** single-byte character C onto the end of [sqlite3_str] object X.
+** ^This method can be used, for example, to add whitespace indentation.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_reset(X)] method resets the string under construction
+** inside [sqlite3_str] object X back to zero bytes in length.  
+**
+** These methods do not return a result code.  ^If an error occurs, that fact
+** is recorded in the [sqlite3_str] object and can be recovered by a
+** subsequent call to [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)].
+*/
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendf(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, ...);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_vappendf(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, va_list);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_append(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn, int N);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendall(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendchar(sqlite3_str*, int N, char C);
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_reset(sqlite3_str*);
+
+/*
+** CAPI3REF: Status Of A Dynamic String
+** METHOD: sqlite3_str
+**
+** These interfaces return the current status of an [sqlite3_str] object.
+**
+** ^If any prior errors have occurred while constructing the dynamic string
+** in sqlite3_str X, then the [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)] method will return
+** an appropriate error code.  ^The [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)] method returns
+** [SQLITE_NOMEM] following any out-of-memory error, or
+** [SQLITE_TOOBIG] if the size of the dynamic string exceeds
+** [SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH], or [SQLITE_OK] if there have been no errors.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_length(X)] method returns the current length, in bytes,
+** of the dynamic string under construction in [sqlite3_str] object X.
+** ^The length returned by [sqlite3_str_length(X)] does not include the
+** zero-termination byte.
+**
+** ^The [sqlite3_str_value(X)] method returns a pointer to the current
+** content of the dynamic string under construction in X.  The value
+** returned by [sqlite3_str_value(X)] is managed by the sqlite3_str object X
+** and might be freed or altered by any subsequent method on the same
+** [sqlite3_str] object.  Applications must not used the pointer returned
+** [sqlite3_str_value(X)] after any subsequent method call on the same
+** object.  ^Applications may change the content of the string returned
+** by [sqlite3_str_value(X)] as long as they do not write into any bytes
+** outside the range of 0 to [sqlite3_str_length(X)] and do not read or
+** write any byte after any subsequent sqlite3_str method call.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_str_errcode(sqlite3_str*);
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_str_length(sqlite3_str*);
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_str_value(sqlite3_str*);
+
+/*
 ** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status
 **
 ** ^These interfaces are used to retrieve runtime status information
 ** about the performance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
 ** highwater marks.  ^The first argument is an integer code for
 ** the specific parameter to measure.  ^(Recognized integer codes
 ** are of the form [status parameters | SQLITE_STATUS_...].)^
 ** ^The current value of the parameter is returned into *pCurrent.
@@ -9301,21 +9561,21 @@ SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict(
 
 /*
 ** CAPI3REF: Determine If Virtual Table Column Access Is For UPDATE
 **
 ** If the sqlite3_vtab_nochange(X) routine is called within the [xColumn]
 ** method of a [virtual table], then it returns true if and only if the
 ** column is being fetched as part of an UPDATE operation during which the
 ** column value will not change.  Applications might use this to substitute
-** a lighter-weight value to return that the corresponding [xUpdate] method
-** understands as a "no-change" value.
+** a return value that is less expensive to compute and that the corresponding
+** [xUpdate] method understands as a "no-change" value.
 **
 ** If the [xColumn] method calls sqlite3_vtab_nochange() and finds that
-** the column is not changed by the UPDATE statement, they the xColumn
+** the column is not changed by the UPDATE statement, then the xColumn
 ** method can optionally return without setting a result, without calling
 ** any of the [sqlite3_result_int|sqlite3_result_xxxxx() interfaces].
 ** In that case, [sqlite3_value_nochange(X)] will return true for the
 ** same column in the [xUpdate] method.
 */
 SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vtab_nochange(sqlite3_context*);
 
 /*
@@ -9800,17 +10060,17 @@ SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL int sqlit
 ** are made, and the sqlite3_serialize() function will return a pointer
 ** to the contiguous memory representation of the database that SQLite
 ** is currently using for that database, or NULL if the no such contiguous
 ** memory representation of the database exists.  A contiguous memory
 ** representation of the database will usually only exist if there has
 ** been a prior call to [sqlite3_deserialize(D,S,...)] with the same
 ** values of D and S.
 ** The size of the database is written into *P even if the 
-** SQLITE_SERIALIZE_NOCOPY bit is set but no contigious copy
+** SQLITE_SERIALIZE_NOCOPY bit is set but no contiguous copy
 ** of the database exists.
 **
 ** A call to sqlite3_serialize(D,S,P,F) might return NULL even if the
 ** SQLITE_SERIALIZE_NOCOPY bit is omitted from argument F if a memory
 ** allocation error occurs.
 **
 ** This interface is only available if SQLite is compiled with the
 ** [SQLITE_ENABLE_DESERIALIZE] option.
@@ -12936,117 +13196,119 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Has
 #define TK_EQ                              53
 #define TK_GT                              54
 #define TK_LE                              55
 #define TK_LT                              56
 #define TK_GE                              57
 #define TK_ESCAPE                          58
 #define TK_ID                              59
 #define TK_COLUMNKW                        60
-#define TK_FOR                             61
-#define TK_IGNORE                          62
-#define TK_INITIALLY                       63
-#define TK_INSTEAD                         64
-#define TK_NO                              65
-#define TK_KEY                             66
-#define TK_OF                              67
-#define TK_OFFSET                          68
-#define TK_PRAGMA                          69
-#define TK_RAISE                           70
-#define TK_RECURSIVE                       71
-#define TK_REPLACE                         72
-#define TK_RESTRICT                        73
-#define TK_ROW                             74
-#define TK_TRIGGER                         75
-#define TK_VACUUM                          76
-#define TK_VIEW                            77
-#define TK_VIRTUAL                         78
-#define TK_WITH                            79
-#define TK_REINDEX                         80
-#define TK_RENAME                          81
-#define TK_CTIME_KW                        82
-#define TK_ANY                             83
-#define TK_BITAND                          84
-#define TK_BITOR                           85
-#define TK_LSHIFT                          86
-#define TK_RSHIFT                          87
-#define TK_PLUS                            88
-#define TK_MINUS                           89
-#define TK_STAR                            90
-#define TK_SLASH                           91
-#define TK_REM                             92
-#define TK_CONCAT                          93
-#define TK_COLLATE                         94
-#define TK_BITNOT                          95
-#define TK_INDEXED                         96
-#define TK_STRING                          97
-#define TK_JOIN_KW                         98
-#define TK_CONSTRAINT                      99
-#define TK_DEFAULT                        100
-#define TK_NULL                           101
-#define TK_PRIMARY                        102
-#define TK_UNIQUE                         103
-#define TK_CHECK                          104
-#define TK_REFERENCES                     105
-#define TK_AUTOINCR                       106
-#define TK_ON                             107
-#define TK_INSERT                         108
-#define TK_DELETE                         109
-#define TK_UPDATE                         110
-#define TK_SET                            111
-#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     112
-#define TK_FOREIGN                        113
-#define TK_DROP                           114
-#define TK_UNION                          115
-#define TK_ALL                            116
-#define TK_EXCEPT                         117
-#define TK_INTERSECT                      118
-#define TK_SELECT                         119
-#define TK_VALUES                         120
-#define TK_DISTINCT                       121
-#define TK_DOT                            122
-#define TK_FROM                           123
-#define TK_JOIN                           124
-#define TK_USING                          125
-#define TK_ORDER                          126
-#define TK_GROUP                          127
-#define TK_HAVING                         128
-#define TK_LIMIT                          129
-#define TK_WHERE                          130
-#define TK_INTO                           131
-#define TK_FLOAT                          132
-#define TK_BLOB                           133
-#define TK_INTEGER                        134
-#define TK_VARIABLE                       135
-#define TK_CASE                           136
-#define TK_WHEN                           137
-#define TK_THEN                           138
-#define TK_ELSE                           139
-#define TK_INDEX                          140
-#define TK_ALTER                          141
-#define TK_ADD                            142
-#define TK_TRUEFALSE                      143
-#define TK_ISNOT                          144
-#define TK_FUNCTION                       145
-#define TK_COLUMN                         146
-#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   147
-#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     148
-#define TK_UMINUS                         149
-#define TK_UPLUS                          150
-#define TK_TRUTH                          151
-#define TK_REGISTER                       152
-#define TK_VECTOR                         153
-#define TK_SELECT_COLUMN                  154
-#define TK_IF_NULL_ROW                    155
-#define TK_ASTERISK                       156
-#define TK_SPAN                           157
-#define TK_END_OF_FILE                    158
-#define TK_UNCLOSED_STRING                159
-#define TK_SPACE                          160
-#define TK_ILLEGAL                        161
+#define TK_DO                              61
+#define TK_FOR                             62
+#define TK_IGNORE                          63
+#define TK_INITIALLY                       64
+#define TK_INSTEAD                         65
+#define TK_NO                              66
+#define TK_KEY                             67
+#define TK_OF                              68
+#define TK_OFFSET                          69
+#define TK_PRAGMA                          70
+#define TK_RAISE                           71
+#define TK_RECURSIVE                       72
+#define TK_REPLACE                         73
+#define TK_RESTRICT                        74
+#define TK_ROW                             75
+#define TK_TRIGGER                         76
+#define TK_VACUUM                          77
+#define TK_VIEW                            78
+#define TK_VIRTUAL                         79
+#define TK_WITH                            80
+#define TK_REINDEX                         81
+#define TK_RENAME                          82
+#define TK_CTIME_KW                        83
+#define TK_ANY                             84
+#define TK_BITAND                          85
+#define TK_BITOR                           86
+#define TK_LSHIFT                          87
+#define TK_RSHIFT                          88
+#define TK_PLUS                            89
+#define TK_MINUS                           90
+#define TK_STAR                            91
+#define TK_SLASH                           92
+#define TK_REM                             93
+#define TK_CONCAT                          94
+#define TK_COLLATE                         95
+#define TK_BITNOT                          96
+#define TK_ON                              97
+#define TK_INDEXED                         98
+#define TK_STRING                          99
+#define TK_JOIN_KW                        100
+#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     101
+#define TK_DEFAULT                        102
+#define TK_NULL                           103
+#define TK_PRIMARY                        104
+#define TK_UNIQUE                         105
+#define TK_CHECK                          106
+#define TK_REFERENCES                     107
+#define TK_AUTOINCR                       108
+#define TK_INSERT                         109
+#define TK_DELETE                         110
+#define TK_UPDATE                         111
+#define TK_SET                            112
+#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     113
+#define TK_FOREIGN                        114
+#define TK_DROP                           115
+#define TK_UNION                          116
+#define TK_ALL                            117
+#define TK_EXCEPT                         118
+#define TK_INTERSECT                      119
+#define TK_SELECT                         120
+#define TK_VALUES                         121
+#define TK_DISTINCT                       122
+#define TK_DOT                            123
+#define TK_FROM                           124
+#define TK_JOIN                           125
+#define TK_USING                          126
+#define TK_ORDER                          127
+#define TK_GROUP                          128
+#define TK_HAVING                         129
+#define TK_LIMIT                          130
+#define TK_WHERE                          131
+#define TK_INTO                           132
+#define TK_NOTHING                        133
+#define TK_FLOAT                          134
+#define TK_BLOB                           135
+#define TK_INTEGER                        136
+#define TK_VARIABLE                       137
+#define TK_CASE                           138
+#define TK_WHEN                           139
+#define TK_THEN                           140
+#define TK_ELSE                           141
+#define TK_INDEX                          142
+#define TK_ALTER                          143
+#define TK_ADD                            144
+#define TK_TRUEFALSE                      145
+#define TK_ISNOT                          146
+#define TK_FUNCTION                       147
+#define TK_COLUMN                         148
+#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   149
+#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     150
+#define TK_UMINUS                         151
+#define TK_UPLUS                          152
+#define TK_TRUTH                          153
+#define TK_REGISTER                       154
+#define TK_VECTOR                         155
+#define TK_SELECT_COLUMN                  156
+#define TK_IF_NULL_ROW                    157
+#define TK_ASTERISK                       158
+#define TK_SPAN                           159
+#define TK_END_OF_FILE                    160
+#define TK_UNCLOSED_STRING                161
+#define TK_SPACE                          162
+#define TK_ILLEGAL                        163
 
 /* The token codes above must all fit in 8 bits */
 #define TKFLG_MASK           0xff  
 
 /* Flags that can be added to a token code when it is not
 ** being stored in a u8: */
 #define TKFLG_DONTFOLD       0x100  /* Omit constant folding optimizations */
 
@@ -13157,16 +13419,23 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Has
 ** The default value of "20" was choosen to minimize the run-time of the
 ** speedtest1 test program with options: --shrink-memory --reprepare
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_PCACHE_INITSZ
 # define SQLITE_DEFAULT_PCACHE_INITSZ 20
 #endif
 
 /*
+** Default value for the SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE option.
+*/
+#ifndef SQLITE_DEFAULT_SORTERREF_SIZE
+# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_SORTERREF_SIZE 0x7fffffff
+#endif
+
+/*
 ** The compile-time options SQLITE_MMAP_READWRITE and 
 ** SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE are not compatible with one another.
 ** You must choose one or the other (or neither) but not both.
 */
 #if defined(SQLITE_MMAP_READWRITE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE)
 #error Cannot use both SQLITE_MMAP_READWRITE and SQLITE_ENABLE_BATCH_ATOMIC_WRITE
 #endif
 
@@ -13605,25 +13874,26 @@ typedef struct Parse Parse;
 typedef struct PreUpdate PreUpdate;
 typedef struct PrintfArguments PrintfArguments;
 typedef struct RowSet RowSet;
 typedef struct Savepoint Savepoint;
 typedef struct Select Select;
 typedef struct SQLiteThread SQLiteThread;
 typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
 typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
-typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
+typedef struct sqlite3_str StrAccum; /* Internal alias for sqlite3_str */
 typedef struct Table Table;
 typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
 typedef struct Token Token;
 typedef struct TreeView TreeView;
 typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
 typedef struct TriggerPrg TriggerPrg;
 typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
 typedef struct UnpackedRecord UnpackedRecord;
+typedef struct Upsert Upsert;
 typedef struct VTable VTable;
 typedef struct VtabCtx VtabCtx;
 typedef struct Walker Walker;
 typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
 typedef struct With With;
 
 /* A VList object records a mapping between parameters/variables/wildcards
 ** in the SQL statement (such as $abc, @pqr, or :xyz) and the integer
@@ -13896,34 +14166,49 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDelete(Bt
 #define BTREE_SAVEPOSITION 0x02  /* Leave cursor pointing at NEXT or PREV */
 #define BTREE_AUXDELETE    0x04  /* not the primary delete operation */
 #define BTREE_APPEND       0x08  /* Insert is likely an append */
 
 /* An instance of the BtreePayload object describes the content of a single
 ** entry in either an index or table btree.
 **
 ** Index btrees (used for indexes and also WITHOUT ROWID tables) contain
-** an arbitrary key and no data.  These btrees have pKey,nKey set to their
-** key and pData,nData,nZero set to zero.
+** an arbitrary key and no data.  These btrees have pKey,nKey set to the
+** key and the pData,nData,nZero fields are uninitialized.  The aMem,nMem
+** fields give an array of Mem objects that are a decomposition of the key.
+** The nMem field might be zero, indicating that no decomposition is available.
 **
 ** Table btrees (used for rowid tables) contain an integer rowid used as
 ** the key and passed in the nKey field.  The pKey field is zero.  
 ** pData,nData hold the content of the new entry.  nZero extra zero bytes
 ** are appended to the end of the content when constructing the entry.
+** The aMem,nMem fields are uninitialized for table btrees.
+**
+** Field usage summary:
+**
+**               Table BTrees                   Index Btrees
+**
+**   pKey        always NULL                    encoded key
+**   nKey        the ROWID                      length of pKey
+**   pData       data                           not used
+**   aMem        not used                       decomposed key value
+**   nMem        not used                       entries in aMem
+**   nData       length of pData                not used
+**   nZero       extra zeros after pData        not used
 **
 ** This object is used to pass information into sqlite3BtreeInsert().  The
 ** same information used to be passed as five separate parameters.  But placing
 ** the information into this object helps to keep the interface more 
 ** organized and understandable, and it also helps the resulting code to
 ** run a little faster by using fewer registers for parameter passing.
 */
 struct BtreePayload {
   const void *pKey;       /* Key content for indexes.  NULL for tables */
   sqlite3_int64 nKey;     /* Size of pKey for indexes.  PRIMARY KEY for tabs */
-  const void *pData;      /* Data for tables.  NULL for indexes */
+  const void *pData;      /* Data for tables. */
   sqlite3_value *aMem;    /* First of nMem value in the unpacked pKey */
   u16 nMem;               /* Number of aMem[] value.  Might be zero */
   int nData;              /* Size of pData.  0 if none. */
   int nZero;              /* Extra zero data appended after pData,nData */
 };
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(BtCursor*, const BtreePayload *pPayload,
                        int flags, int seekResult);
@@ -14271,32 +14556,32 @@ typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;
 #define OP_SCopy          76 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
 #define OP_IntCopy        77 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1]                      */
 #define OP_ResultRow      78 /* synopsis: output=r[P1@P2]                  */
 #define OP_CollSeq        79
 #define OP_AddImm         80 /* synopsis: r[P1]=r[P1]+P2                   */
 #define OP_RealAffinity   81
 #define OP_Cast           82 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1])                  */
 #define OP_Permutation    83
-#define OP_BitAnd         84 /* same as TK_BITAND, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2] */
-#define OP_BitOr          85 /* same as TK_BITOR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2] */
-#define OP_ShiftLeft      86 /* same as TK_LSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1] */
-#define OP_ShiftRight     87 /* same as TK_RSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1] */
-#define OP_Add            88 /* same as TK_PLUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2] */
-#define OP_Subtract       89 /* same as TK_MINUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1] */
-#define OP_Multiply       90 /* same as TK_STAR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2] */
-#define OP_Divide         91 /* same as TK_SLASH, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1] */
-#define OP_Remainder      92 /* same as TK_REM, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1] */
-#define OP_Concat         93 /* same as TK_CONCAT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1] */
-#define OP_Compare        94 /* synopsis: r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]            */
-#define OP_BitNot         95 /* same as TK_BITNOT, synopsis: r[P1]= ~r[P1] */
-#define OP_IsTrue         96 /* synopsis: r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4 */
-#define OP_String8        97 /* same as TK_STRING, synopsis: r[P2]='P4'    */
-#define OP_Offset         98 /* synopsis: r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)        */
-#define OP_Column         99 /* synopsis: r[P3]=PX                         */
+#define OP_Compare        84 /* synopsis: r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]            */
+#define OP_BitAnd         85 /* same as TK_BITAND, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2] */
+#define OP_BitOr          86 /* same as TK_BITOR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2] */
+#define OP_ShiftLeft      87 /* same as TK_LSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1] */
+#define OP_ShiftRight     88 /* same as TK_RSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1] */
+#define OP_Add            89 /* same as TK_PLUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2] */
+#define OP_Subtract       90 /* same as TK_MINUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1] */
+#define OP_Multiply       91 /* same as TK_STAR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2] */
+#define OP_Divide         92 /* same as TK_SLASH, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1] */
+#define OP_Remainder      93 /* same as TK_REM, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1] */
+#define OP_Concat         94 /* same as TK_CONCAT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1] */
+#define OP_IsTrue         95 /* synopsis: r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4 */
+#define OP_BitNot         96 /* same as TK_BITNOT, synopsis: r[P1]= ~r[P1] */
+#define OP_Offset         97 /* synopsis: r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)        */
+#define OP_Column         98 /* synopsis: r[P3]=PX                         */
+#define OP_String8        99 /* same as TK_STRING, synopsis: r[P2]='P4'    */
 #define OP_Affinity      100 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1@P2])               */
 #define OP_MakeRecord    101 /* synopsis: r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])            */
 #define OP_Count         102 /* synopsis: r[P2]=count()                    */
 #define OP_ReadCookie    103
 #define OP_SetCookie     104
 #define OP_ReopenIdx     105 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
 #define OP_OpenRead      106 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
 #define OP_OpenWrite     107 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3                   */
@@ -14319,19 +14604,19 @@ typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;
 #define OP_RowData       124 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data                       */
 #define OP_Rowid         125 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
 #define OP_NullRow       126
 #define OP_SeekEnd       127
 #define OP_SorterInsert  128 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
 #define OP_IdxInsert     129 /* synopsis: key=r[P2]                        */
 #define OP_IdxDelete     130 /* synopsis: key=r[P2@P3]                     */
 #define OP_DeferredSeek  131 /* synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed    */
-#define OP_Real          132 /* same as TK_FLOAT, synopsis: r[P2]=P4       */
-#define OP_IdxRowid      133 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
-#define OP_Destroy       134
+#define OP_IdxRowid      132 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid                      */
+#define OP_Destroy       133
+#define OP_Real          134 /* same as TK_FLOAT, synopsis: r[P2]=P4       */
 #define OP_Clear         135
 #define OP_ResetSorter   136
 #define OP_CreateBtree   137 /* synopsis: r[P2]=root iDb=P1 flags=P3       */
 #define OP_SqlExec       138
 #define OP_ParseSchema   139
 #define OP_LoadAnalysis  140
 #define OP_DropTable     141
 #define OP_DropIndex     142
@@ -14358,16 +14643,17 @@ typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;
 #define OP_PureFunc0     163
 #define OP_Function0     164 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
 #define OP_PureFunc      165
 #define OP_Function      166 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])             */
 #define OP_Trace         167
 #define OP_CursorHint    168
 #define OP_Noop          169
 #define OP_Explain       170
+#define OP_Abortable     171
 
 /* Properties such as "out2" or "jump" that are specified in
 ** comments following the "case" for each opcode in the vdbe.c
 ** are encoded into bitvectors as follows:
 */
 #define OPFLG_JUMP        0x01  /* jump:  P2 holds jmp target */
 #define OPFLG_IN1         0x02  /* in1:   P1 is an input */
 #define OPFLG_IN2         0x04  /* in2:   P2 is an input */
@@ -14380,28 +14666,28 @@ typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;
 /*  16 */ 0x03, 0x03, 0x01, 0x12, 0x01, 0x03, 0x03, 0x01,\
 /*  24 */ 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09,\
 /*  32 */ 0x09, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01,\
 /*  40 */ 0x01, 0x01, 0x23, 0x26, 0x26, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x01,\
 /*  48 */ 0x03, 0x03, 0x03, 0x03, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b,\
 /*  56 */ 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x03, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02,\
 /*  64 */ 0x02, 0x08, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00,\
 /*  72 */ 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/*  80 */ 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x00, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26,\
-/*  88 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x00, 0x12,\
-/*  96 */ 0x12, 0x10, 0x20, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
+/*  80 */ 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26,\
+/*  88 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x12,\
+/*  96 */ 0x12, 0x20, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
 /* 104 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 112 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 120 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 128 */ 0x04, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00,\
 /* 136 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 144 */ 0x00, 0x06, 0x10, 0x00, 0x04, 0x1a, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 152 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
 /* 160 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
-/* 168 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,}
+/* 168 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,}
 
 /* The sqlite3P2Values() routine is able to run faster if it knows
 ** the value of the largest JUMP opcode.  The smaller the maximum
 ** JUMP opcode the better, so the mkopcodeh.tcl script that
 ** generated this include file strives to group all JUMP opcodes
 ** together near the beginning of the list.
 */
 #define SQLITE_MX_JUMP_OPCODE  62  /* Maximum JUMP opcode */
@@ -14433,17 +14719,34 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(Vdbe*,int);
 #if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_TEST_REALLOC_STRESS)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoMallocRequired(Vdbe *p, int N);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoResultRow(Vdbe *p);
 #else
 # define sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoMallocRequired(A,B)
 # define sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoResultRow(A)
 #endif
-SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp, int iLineno);
+#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(Vdbe *p, int);
+#else
+# define sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(A,B)
+#endif
+SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp,int iLineno);
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeExplain(Parse*,u8,const char*,...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeExplainPop(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3VdbeExplainParent(Parse*);
+# define ExplainQueryPlan(P)        sqlite3VdbeExplain P
+# define ExplainQueryPlanPop(P)     sqlite3VdbeExplainPop(P)
+# define ExplainQueryPlanParent(P)  sqlite3VdbeExplainParent(P)
+#else
+# define ExplainQueryPlan(P)
+# define ExplainQueryPlanPop(P)
+# define ExplainQueryPlanParent(P) 0
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeAddParseSchemaOp(Vdbe*,int,char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe*, u32 addr, u8);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P1);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P2);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P3);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe*, u16 P5);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr);
@@ -14456,16 +14759,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeGetOp(
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRunOnlyOnce(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeReusable(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDelete(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeClearObject(sqlite3*,Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMakeReady(Vdbe*,Parse*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFinalize(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe*, int);
+#ifdef SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3VdbeLabelHasBeenResolved(Vdbe*,int);
+#endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(Vdbe*);
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3VdbeAssertMayAbort(Vdbe *, int);
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResetStepResult(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRewind(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(Vdbe*,int);
@@ -15590,17 +15896,17 @@ struct sqlite3 {
   u8 mallocFailed;              /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
   u8 bBenignMalloc;             /* Do not require OOMs if true */
   u8 dfltLockMode;              /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */
   signed char nextAutovac;      /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
   u8 suppressErr;               /* Do not issue error messages if true */
   u8 vtabOnConflict;            /* Value to return for s3_vtab_on_conflict() */
   u8 isTransactionSavepoint;    /* True if the outermost savepoint is a TS */
   u8 mTrace;                    /* zero or more SQLITE_TRACE flags */
-  u8 skipBtreeMutex;            /* True if no shared-cache backends */
+  u8 noSharedCache;             /* True if no shared-cache backends */
   u8 nSqlExec;                  /* Number of pending OP_SqlExec opcodes */
   int nextPagesize;             /* Pagesize after VACUUM if >0 */
   u32 magic;                    /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
   int nChange;                  /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
   int nTotalChange;             /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
   int aLimit[SQLITE_N_LIMIT];   /* Limits */
   int nMaxSorterMmap;           /* Maximum size of regions mapped by sorter */
   struct sqlite3InitInfo {      /* Information used during initialization */
@@ -15734,32 +16040,34 @@ struct sqlite3 {
 #define SQLITE_LoadExtFunc    0x00020000  /* Enable load_extension() SQL func */
 #define SQLITE_EnableTrigger  0x00040000  /* True to enable triggers */
 #define SQLITE_DeferFKs       0x00080000  /* Defer all FK constraints */
 #define SQLITE_QueryOnly      0x00100000  /* Disable database changes */
 #define SQLITE_CellSizeCk     0x00200000  /* Check btree cell sizes on load */
 #define SQLITE_Fts3Tokenizer  0x00400000  /* Enable fts3_tokenizer(2) */
 #define SQLITE_EnableQPSG     0x00800000  /* Query Planner Stability Guarantee*/
 #define SQLITE_TriggerEQP     0x01000000  /* Show trigger EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
+#define SQLITE_ResetDatabase  0x02000000  /* Reset the database */
 
 /* Flags used only if debugging */
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 #define SQLITE_SqlTrace       0x08000000  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
 #define SQLITE_VdbeListing    0x10000000  /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
 #define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      0x20000000  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
 #define SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace 0x40000000  /* Trace sqlite3VdbeAddOp() calls */
 #define SQLITE_VdbeEQP        0x80000000  /* Debug EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
 #endif
 
 /*
 ** Allowed values for sqlite3.mDbFlags
 */
 #define DBFLAG_SchemaChange   0x0001  /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
 #define DBFLAG_PreferBuiltin  0x0002  /* Preference to built-in funcs */
 #define DBFLAG_Vacuum         0x0004  /* Currently in a VACUUM */
+#define DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk  0x0008  /* Schema is known to be valid */
 
 /*
 ** Bits of the sqlite3.dbOptFlags field that are used by the
 ** sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS,...) interface to
 ** selectively disable various optimizations.
 */
 #define SQLITE_QueryFlattener 0x0001   /* Query flattening */
 #define SQLITE_ColumnCache    0x0002   /* Column cache */
@@ -15995,16 +16303,17 @@ struct Column {
 };
 
 /* Allowed values for Column.colFlags:
 */
 #define COLFLAG_PRIMKEY  0x0001    /* Column is part of the primary key */
 #define COLFLAG_HIDDEN   0x0002    /* A hidden column in a virtual table */
 #define COLFLAG_HASTYPE  0x0004    /* Type name follows column name */
 #define COLFLAG_UNIQUE   0x0008    /* Column def contains "UNIQUE" or "PK" */
+#define COLFLAG_SORTERREF 0x0010   /* Use sorter-refs with this column */
 
 /*
 ** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
 ** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
 ** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
 **
 ** If CollSeq.xCmp is NULL, it means that the
 ** collating sequence is undefined.  Indices built on an undefined
@@ -16282,23 +16591,22 @@ struct FKey {
 ** of action to take.
 */
 #define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
 #define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
 #define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
 #define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
 #define OE_Ignore   4   /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
 #define OE_Replace  5   /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */
-
-#define OE_Restrict 6   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
-#define OE_SetNull  7   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
-#define OE_SetDflt  8   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
-#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */
-
-#define OE_Default  10  /* Do whatever the default action is */
+#define OE_Update   6   /* Process as a DO UPDATE in an upsert */
+#define OE_Restrict 7   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
+#define OE_SetNull  8   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
+#define OE_SetDflt  9   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
+#define OE_Cascade  10  /* Cascade the changes */
+#define OE_Default  11  /* Do whatever the default action is */
 
 
 /*
 ** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
 ** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the
 ** comparison of the two index keys.
 **
 ** Note that aSortOrder[] and aColl[] have nField+1 slots.  There
@@ -16735,16 +17043,17 @@ struct ExprList {
   struct ExprList_item { /* For each expression in the list */
     Expr *pExpr;            /* The parse tree for this expression */
     char *zName;            /* Token associated with this expression */
     char *zSpan;            /* Original text of the expression */
     u8 sortOrder;           /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
     unsigned done :1;       /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
     unsigned bSpanIsTab :1; /* zSpan holds DB.TABLE.COLUMN */
     unsigned reusable :1;   /* Constant expression is reusable */
+    unsigned bSorterRef :1; /* Defer evaluation until after sorting */
     union {
       struct {
         u16 iOrderByCol;      /* For ORDER BY, column number in result set */
         u16 iAlias;           /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
       } x;
       int iConstExprReg;      /* Register in which Expr value is cached */
     } u;
   } a[1];                  /* One slot for each expression in the list */
@@ -16834,19 +17143,16 @@ struct SrcList {
       u8 jointype;      /* Type of join between this table and the previous */
       unsigned notIndexed :1;    /* True if there is a NOT INDEXED clause */
       unsigned isIndexedBy :1;   /* True if there is an INDEXED BY clause */
       unsigned isTabFunc :1;     /* True if table-valued-function syntax */
       unsigned isCorrelated :1;  /* True if sub-query is correlated */
       unsigned viaCoroutine :1;  /* Implemented as a co-routine */
       unsigned isRecursive :1;   /* True for recursive reference in WITH */
     } fg;
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-    u8 iSelectId;     /* If pSelect!=0, the id of the sub-select in EQP */
-#endif
     int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
     Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
     IdList *pUsing;   /* The USING clause of a join */
     Bitmask colUsed;  /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N of pTab is used */
     union {
       char *zIndexedBy;    /* Identifier from "INDEXED BY <zIndex>" clause */
       ExprList *pFuncArg;  /* Arguments to table-valued-function */
     } u1;
@@ -16918,18 +17224,21 @@ struct SrcList {
 ** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
 ** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
 ** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
 ** subqueries looking for a match.
 */
 struct NameContext {
   Parse *pParse;       /* The parser */
   SrcList *pSrcList;   /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
-  ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of result-set columns */
-  AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
+  union {
+    ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of result-set columns */
+    AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
+    Upsert *pUpsert;     /* ON CONFLICT clause information from an upsert */
+  } uNC;
   NameContext *pNext;  /* Next outer name context.  NULL for outermost */
   int nRef;            /* Number of names resolved by this context */
   int nErr;            /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
   u16 ncFlags;         /* Zero or more NC_* flags defined below */
 };
 
 /*
 ** Allowed values for the NameContext, ncFlags field.
@@ -16941,28 +17250,58 @@ struct NameContext {
 */
 #define NC_AllowAgg  0x0001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
 #define NC_PartIdx   0x0002  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
 #define NC_IsCheck   0x0004  /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
 #define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
 #define NC_HasAgg    0x0010  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
 #define NC_IdxExpr   0x0020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
 #define NC_VarSelect 0x0040  /* A correlated subquery has been seen */
+#define NC_UEList    0x0080  /* True if uNC.pEList is used */
+#define NC_UAggInfo  0x0100  /* True if uNC.pAggInfo is used */
+#define NC_UUpsert   0x0200  /* True if uNC.pUpsert is used */
 #define NC_MinMaxAgg 0x1000  /* min/max aggregates seen.  See note above */
 #define NC_Complex   0x2000  /* True if a function or subquery seen */
 
 /*
+** An instance of the following object describes a single ON CONFLICT
+** clause in an upsert.
+**
+** The pUpsertTarget field is only set if the ON CONFLICT clause includes
+** conflict-target clause.  (In "ON CONFLICT(a,b)" the "(a,b)" is the
+** conflict-target clause.)  The pUpsertTargetWhere is the optional
+** WHERE clause used to identify partial unique indexes.
+**
+** pUpsertSet is the list of column=expr terms of the UPDATE statement. 
+** The pUpsertSet field is NULL for a ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING.  The
+** pUpsertWhere is the WHERE clause for the UPDATE and is NULL if the
+** WHERE clause is omitted.
+*/
+struct Upsert {
+  ExprList *pUpsertTarget;  /* Optional description of conflicting index */
+  Expr *pUpsertTargetWhere; /* WHERE clause for partial index targets */
+  ExprList *pUpsertSet;     /* The SET clause from an ON CONFLICT UPDATE */
+  Expr *pUpsertWhere;       /* WHERE clause for the ON CONFLICT UPDATE */
+  /* The fields above comprise the parse tree for the upsert clause.
+  ** The fields below are used to transfer information from the INSERT
+  ** processing down into the UPDATE processing while generating code.
+  ** Upsert owns the memory allocated above, but not the memory below. */
+  Index *pUpsertIdx;        /* Constraint that pUpsertTarget identifies */
+  SrcList *pUpsertSrc;      /* Table to be updated */
+  int regData;              /* First register holding array of VALUES */
+  int iDataCur;             /* Index of the data cursor */
+  int iIdxCur;              /* Index of the first index cursor */
+};
+
+/*
 ** An instance of the following structure contains all information
 ** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
 **
-** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause.  nOffset is set to 0.
-** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
-** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
-** offset).  But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
-** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
+** See the header comment on the computeLimitRegisters() routine for a
+** detailed description of the meaning of the iLimit and iOffset fields.
 **
 ** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
 ** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
 ** the P4_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later.  Neither the KeyInfo nor
 ** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
 ** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
 ** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
 ** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
@@ -17012,18 +17351,17 @@ struct Select {
 #define SF_MultiValue     0x00400  /* Single VALUES term with multiple rows */
 #define SF_NestedFrom     0x00800  /* Part of a parenthesized FROM clause */
 #define SF_MinMaxAgg      0x01000  /* Aggregate containing min() or max() */
 #define SF_Recursive      0x02000  /* The recursive part of a recursive CTE */
 #define SF_FixedLimit     0x04000  /* nSelectRow set by a constant LIMIT */
 #define SF_MaybeConvert   0x08000  /* Need convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
 #define SF_Converted      0x10000  /* By convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
 #define SF_IncludeHidden  0x20000  /* Include hidden columns in output */
-#define SF_ComplexResult  0x40000  /* Result set contains subquery or function */
-
+#define SF_ComplexResult  0x40000  /* Result contains subquery or function */
 
 /*
 ** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
 ** by one of the following macros.  The "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result
 ** Type".
 **
 **     SRT_Union       Store results as a key in a temporary index
 **                     identified by pDest->iSDParm.
@@ -17283,18 +17621,17 @@ struct Parse {
   u8 iPkSortOrder;          /* ASC or DESC for INTEGER PRIMARY KEY */
   u8 explain;               /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
   u8 declareVtab;           /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
   int nVtabLock;            /* Number of virtual tables to lock */
 #endif
   int nHeight;              /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-  int iSelectId;            /* ID of current select for EXPLAIN output */
-  int iNextSelectId;        /* Next available select ID for EXPLAIN output */
+  int addrExplain;          /* Address of current OP_Explain opcode */
 #endif
   VList *pVList;            /* Mapping between variable names and numbers */
   Vdbe *pReprepare;         /* VM being reprepared (sqlite3Reprepare()) */
   const char *zTail;        /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
   Table *pNewTable;         /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
   Trigger *pNewTrigger;     /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
   const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
@@ -17443,18 +17780,19 @@ struct Trigger {
  */
 struct TriggerStep {
   u8 op;               /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
   u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
   Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
   Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
   char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
   Expr *pWhere;        /* The WHERE clause for DELETE or UPDATE steps */
-  ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE. */
+  ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE */
   IdList *pIdList;     /* Column names for INSERT */
+  Upsert *pUpsert;     /* Upsert clauses on an INSERT */
   char *zSpan;         /* Original SQL text of this command */
   TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
   TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
 };
 
 /*
 ** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
 ** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
@@ -17469,27 +17807,25 @@ struct DbFixer {
   const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
   const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
 };
 
 /*
 ** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
 ** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
 */
-struct StrAccum {
+struct sqlite3_str {
   sqlite3 *db;         /* Optional database for lookaside.  Can be NULL */
   char *zText;         /* The string collected so far */
   u32  nAlloc;         /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
   u32  mxAlloc;        /* Maximum allowed allocation.  0 for no malloc usage */
   u32  nChar;          /* Length of the string so far */
-  u8   accError;       /* STRACCUM_NOMEM or STRACCUM_TOOBIG */
+  u8   accError;       /* SQLITE_NOMEM or SQLITE_TOOBIG */
   u8   printfFlags;    /* SQLITE_PRINTF flags below */
 };
-#define STRACCUM_NOMEM   1
-#define STRACCUM_TOOBIG  2
 #define SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL 0x01  /* Internal-use-only converters allowed */
 #define SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC  0x02  /* SQL function arguments to VXPrintf */
 #define SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED 0x04  /* True if xText is allocated space */
 
 #define isMalloced(X)  (((X)->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED)!=0)
 
 
 /*
@@ -17556,16 +17892,17 @@ struct Sqlite3Config {
   void (*xVdbeBranch)(void*,int iSrcLine,u8 eThis,u8 eMx);  /* Callback */
   void *pVdbeBranchArg;                                     /* 1st argument */
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
   int (*xTestCallback)(int);        /* Invoked by sqlite3FaultSim() */
 #endif
   int bLocaltimeFault;              /* True to fail localtime() calls */
   int iOnceResetThreshold;          /* When to reset OP_Once counters */
+  u32 szSorterRef;                  /* Min size in bytes to use sorter-refs */
 };
 
 /*
 ** This macro is used inside of assert() statements to indicate that
 ** the assert is only valid on a well-formed database.  Instead of:
 **
 **     assert( X );
 **
@@ -17847,18 +18184,16 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3IsNaN(double
 ** functions arguments that are the parameters to the printf() function.
 */
 struct PrintfArguments {
   int nArg;                /* Total number of arguments */
   int nUsed;               /* Number of arguments used so far */
   sqlite3_value **apArg;   /* The argument values */
 };
 
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, va_list);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, ...);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
 #if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
 #endif
 #if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
 #endif
@@ -17976,17 +18311,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeDropTable
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTable(sqlite3*, Table*);
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(Parse *pParse);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(Parse *pParse);
 #else
 # define sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(X)
 # define sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(X)
 #endif
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, Select*, IdList*, int, Upsert*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int*,int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListEnlarge(sqlite3*, SrcList*, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*,
                                       Token*, Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(Parse *, SrcList *, Token *);
@@ -18006,17 +18341,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
 #if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*,char*);
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList*, Expr*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*,Expr*,int,ExprList*,Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*,Expr*,int,ExprList*,Expr*,
+                   Upsert*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,ExprList*,u16,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE LogEst sqlite3WhereOutputRowCount(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsDistinct(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsOrdered(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereOrderedInnerLoop(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsSorted(WhereInfo*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereContinueLabel(WhereInfo*);
@@ -18099,17 +18435,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr*, char);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(
     Parse*,Table*,Trigger*,int,int,int,i16,u8,u8,u8,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int, int*,Index*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolvePartIdxLabel(Parse*,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int*,int,int,int,int,
-                                     u8,u8,int,int*,int*);
+                                     u8,u8,int,int*,int*,Upsert*);
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NULL_TRIM
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3SetMakeRecordP5(Vdbe*,Table*);
 #else
 # define sqlite3SetMakeRecordP5(A,B)
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,int*,int,int,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, u8, int, u8*, int*, int*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
@@ -18152,17 +18488,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE   Trigger *sqlite3Trigger
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, Trigger *, int, ExprList*, int, Table *,
                             int, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(Parse *, Trigger *, Table *, int, int, int);
   void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*,
                                         const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
-                                        Select*,u8,const char*,const char*);
+                                        Select*,u8,Upsert*,
+                                        const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, u8,
                                         const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*,
                                         const char*,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   u32 sqlite3TriggerColmask(Parse*,Trigger*,ExprList*,int,int,Table*,int);
 # define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel ? (p)->pToplevel : (p))
@@ -18338,17 +18675,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprNam
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(Parse*, u8, CollSeq *, const char*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const char*, u8*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const char*, Column*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*, sqlite3_file*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDbName(sqlite3 *, const char *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteIndexSamples(sqlite3*,Index*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
@@ -18363,27 +18700,24 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOf
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
 #endif
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *,
   void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
   void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*),
   FuncDestructor *pDestructor
 );
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NoopDestructor(void*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, sqlite3*, char*, int, int);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum*,const char*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum*,int,char);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCheckIN(Parse*, Expr*);
@@ -18400,20 +18734,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFre
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(sqlite3*, Index*, int);
 #endif
 
 /*
 ** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
 */
 #ifndef SQLITE_AMALGAMATION
-SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64), Parse*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
 #endif
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token);
 #ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ParserStackPeak(void*);
 #endif
 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*);
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
 #else
@@ -18469,17 +18803,16 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabBeginPars
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabFinishParse(Parse*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgInit(Parse*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgExtend(Parse*, Token*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallCreate(sqlite3*, int, const char *, char **);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallConnect(Parse*, Table*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallDestroy(sqlite3*, int, const char *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabBegin(sqlite3 *, VTable *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3InvalidFunction(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(Vdbe*, const char*, int);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TransferBindings(sqlite3_stmt *, sqlite3_stmt *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserReset(Parse*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
@@ -18491,16 +18824,28 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3WalDefaultHo
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CTE
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   With *sqlite3WithAdd(Parse*,With*,Token*,ExprList*,Select*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3WithDelete(sqlite3*,With*);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3WithPush(Parse*, With*, u8);
 #else
 #define sqlite3WithPush(x,y,z)
 #define sqlite3WithDelete(x,y)
 #endif
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   Upsert *sqlite3UpsertNew(sqlite3*,ExprList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UpsertDelete(sqlite3*,Upsert*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   Upsert *sqlite3UpsertDup(sqlite3*,Upsert*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3UpsertAnalyzeTarget(Parse*,SrcList*,Upsert*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UpsertDoUpdate(Parse*,Upsert*,Table*,Index*,int);
+#else
+#define sqlite3UpsertNew(v,w,x,y,z) ((Upsert*)0)
+#define sqlite3UpsertDelete(x,y)
+#define sqlite3UpsertDup(x,y)       ((Upsert*)0)
+#endif
+
 
 /* Declarations for functions in fkey.c. All of these are replaced by
 ** no-op macros if OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is defined. In this case no foreign
 ** key functionality is available. If OMIT_TRIGGER is defined but
 ** OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is not, only some of the functions are no-oped. In
 ** this case foreign keys are parsed, but no other functionality is
 ** provided (enforcement of FK constraints requires the triggers sub-system).
 */
@@ -18923,17 +19268,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE SQLITE_WSD struct Sqlite3
 #ifdef SQLITE_VDBE_COVERAGE
    0,                         /* xVdbeBranch */
    0,                         /* pVbeBranchArg */
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
    0,                         /* xTestCallback */
 #endif
    0,                         /* bLocaltimeFault */
-   0x7ffffffe                 /* iOnceResetThreshold */
+   0x7ffffffe,                /* iOnceResetThreshold */
+   SQLITE_DEFAULT_SORTERREF_SIZE   /* szSorterRef */
 };
 
 /*
 ** Hash table for global functions - functions common to all
 ** database connections.  After initialization, this table is
 ** read-only.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDefHash sqlite3BuiltinFunctions;
@@ -19386,16 +19732,17 @@ struct Vdbe {
   Mem *aVar;              /* Values for the OP_Variable opcode. */
   VList *pVList;          /* Name of variables */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
   i64 startTime;          /* Time when query started - used for profiling */
 #endif
   int nOp;                /* Number of instructions in the program */
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
   int rcApp;              /* errcode set by sqlite3_result_error_code() */
+  u32 nWrite;             /* Number of write operations that have occurred */
 #endif
   u16 nResColumn;         /* Number of columns in one row of the result set */
   u8 errorAction;         /* Recovery action to do in case of an error */
   u8 minWriteFileFormat;  /* Minimum file format for writable database files */
   u8 prepFlags;           /* SQLITE_PREPARE_* flags */
   bft expired:1;          /* True if the VM needs to be recompiled */
   bft doingRerun:1;       /* True if rerunning after an auto-reprepare */
   bft explain:2;          /* True if EXPLAIN present on SQL command */
@@ -19521,16 +19868,24 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterInit
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSorterReset(sqlite3 *, VdbeSorter *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(const VdbeCursor *, Mem *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(sqlite3 *, const VdbeCursor *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(const VdbeCursor *, int *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(const VdbeCursor *, Mem *);
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSorterCompare(const VdbeCursor *, Mem *, int, int *);
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(Vdbe*, VdbeCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(Vdbe*);
+#else
+# define sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(V,C)
+# define sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(V)
+#endif
+
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) 
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeEnter(Vdbe*);
 #else
 # define sqlite3VdbeEnter(X)
 #endif
 
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE>0
 SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeLeave(Vdbe*);
@@ -24213,17 +24568,16 @@ SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite
 SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
   assert( p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld );
   return p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld(p);
 }
 #endif
 
 #endif /* !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) */
 
-
 /************** End of mutex.c ***********************************************/
 /************** Begin file mutex_noop.c **************************************/
 /*
 ** 2008 October 07
 **
 ** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
 ** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
 **
@@ -26377,17 +26731,17 @@ static char et_getdigit(LONGDOUBLE_TYPE 
   return (char)digit;
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */
 
 /*
 ** Set the StrAccum object to an error mode.
 */
 static void setStrAccumError(StrAccum *p, u8 eError){
-  assert( eError==STRACCUM_NOMEM || eError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG );
+  assert( eError==SQLITE_NOMEM || eError==SQLITE_TOOBIG );
   p->accError = eError;
   p->nAlloc = 0;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Extra argument values from a PrintfArguments object
 */
 static sqlite3_int64 getIntArg(PrintfArguments *p){
@@ -26411,18 +26765,18 @@ static char *getTextArg(PrintfArguments 
 #ifndef SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE
 # define SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE 70
 #endif
 #define etBUFSIZE SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE  /* Size of the output buffer */
 
 /*
 ** Render a string given by "fmt" into the StrAccum object.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
-  StrAccum *pAccum,          /* Accumulate results here */
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_vappendf(
+  sqlite3_str *pAccum,       /* Accumulate results here */
   const char *fmt,           /* Format string */
   va_list ap                 /* arguments */
 ){
   int c;                     /* Next character in the format string */
   char *bufpt;               /* Pointer to the conversion buffer */
   int precision;             /* Precision of the current field */
   int length;                /* Length of the field */
   int idx;                   /* A general purpose loop counter */
@@ -26469,21 +26823,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
   for(; (c=(*fmt))!=0; ++fmt){
     if( c!='%' ){
       bufpt = (char *)fmt;
 #if HAVE_STRCHRNUL
       fmt = strchrnul(fmt, '%');
 #else
       do{ fmt++; }while( *fmt && *fmt != '%' );
 #endif
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, (int)(fmt - bufpt));
+      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, (int)(fmt - bufpt));
       if( *fmt==0 ) break;
     }
     if( (c=(*++fmt))==0 ){
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, "%", 1);
+      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, "%", 1);
       break;
     }
     /* Find out what flags are present */
     flag_leftjustify = flag_prefix = cThousand =
      flag_alternateform = flag_altform2 = flag_zeropad = 0;
     done = 0;
     do{
       switch( c ){
@@ -26651,17 +27005,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
         }
         if( precision<etBUFSIZE-10-etBUFSIZE/3 ){
           nOut = etBUFSIZE;
           zOut = buf;
         }else{
           u64 n = (u64)precision + 10 + precision/3;
           zOut = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
           if( zOut==0 ){
-            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
             return;
           }
           nOut = (int)n;
         }
         bufpt = &zOut[nOut-1];
         if( xtype==etORDINAL ){
           static const char zOrd[] = "thstndrd";
           int x = (int)(longvalue % 10);
@@ -26776,17 +27130,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
           e2 = 0;
         }else{
           e2 = exp;
         }
         if( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width > etBUFSIZE - 15 ){
           bufpt = zExtra 
               = sqlite3Malloc( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width+15 );
           if( bufpt==0 ){
-            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
             return;
           }
         }
         zOut = bufpt;
         nsd = 16 + flag_altform2*10;
         flag_dp = (precision>0 ?1:0) | flag_alternateform | flag_altform2;
         /* The sign in front of the number */
         if( prefix ){
@@ -26908,21 +27262,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
             buf[2] = 0x80 + (u8)((ch>>6) & 0x3f);
             buf[3] = 0x80 + (u8)(ch & 0x3f);
             length = 4;
           }
         }
         if( precision>1 ){
           width -= precision-1;
           if( width>1 && !flag_leftjustify ){
-            sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width-1, ' ');
+            sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width-1, ' ');
             width = 0;
           }
           while( precision-- > 1 ){
-            sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, buf, length);
+            sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, buf, length);
           }
         }
         bufpt = buf;
         flag_altform2 = 1;
         goto adjust_width_for_utf8;
       case etSTRING:
       case etDYNSTRING:
         if( bArgList ){
@@ -26998,17 +27352,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
             while( (escarg[i+1]&0xc0)==0x80 ){ i++; }
           }
         }
         needQuote = !isnull && xtype==etSQLESCAPE2;
         n += i + 3;
         if( n>etBUFSIZE ){
           bufpt = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
           if( bufpt==0 ){
-            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
             return;
           }
         }else{
           bufpt = buf;
         }
         j = 0;
         if( needQuote ) bufpt[j++] = q;
         k = i;
@@ -27022,36 +27376,36 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
         goto adjust_width_for_utf8;
       }
       case etTOKEN: {
         Token *pToken;
         if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
         pToken = va_arg(ap, Token*);
         assert( bArgList==0 );
         if( pToken && pToken->n ){
-          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, (const char*)pToken->z, pToken->n);
+          sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, (const char*)pToken->z, pToken->n);
         }
         length = width = 0;
         break;
       }
       case etSRCLIST: {
         SrcList *pSrc;
         int k;
         struct SrcList_item *pItem;
         if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
         pSrc = va_arg(ap, SrcList*);
         k = va_arg(ap, int);
         pItem = &pSrc->a[k];
         assert( bArgList==0 );
         assert( k>=0 && k<pSrc->nSrc );
         if( pItem->zDatabase ){
-          sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pAccum, pItem->zDatabase);
-          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, ".", 1);
-        }
-        sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pAccum, pItem->zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendall(pAccum, pItem->zDatabase);
+          sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, ".", 1);
+        }
+        sqlite3_str_appendall(pAccum, pItem->zName);
         length = width = 0;
         break;
       }
       default: {
         assert( xtype==etINVALID );
         return;
       }
     }/* End switch over the format type */
@@ -27060,21 +27414,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
     ** "length" characters long.  The field width is "width".  Do
     ** the output.  Both length and width are in bytes, not characters,
     ** at this point.  If the "!" flag was present on string conversions
     ** indicating that width and precision should be expressed in characters,
     ** then the values have been translated prior to reaching this point.
     */
     width -= length;
     if( width>0 ){
-      if( !flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width, ' ');
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, length);
-      if( flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width, ' ');
-    }else{
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, length);
+      if( !flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width, ' ');
+      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, length);
+      if( flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width, ' ');
+    }else{
+      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, length);
     }
 
     if( zExtra ){
       sqlite3DbFree(pAccum->db, zExtra);
       zExtra = 0;
     }
   }/* End for loop over the format string */
 } /* End of function */
@@ -27085,149 +27439,191 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(
 **
 ** Return the number of bytes of text that StrAccum is able to accept
 ** after the attempted enlargement.  The value returned might be zero.
 */
 static int sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(StrAccum *p, int N){
   char *zNew;
   assert( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc ); /* Only called if really needed */
   if( p->accError ){
-    testcase(p->accError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
-    testcase(p->accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+    testcase(p->accError==SQLITE_TOOBIG);
+    testcase(p->accError==SQLITE_NOMEM);
     return 0;
   }
   if( p->mxAlloc==0 ){
     N = p->nAlloc - p->nChar - 1;
-    setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
+    setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_TOOBIG);
     return N;
   }else{
     char *zOld = isMalloced(p) ? p->zText : 0;
     i64 szNew = p->nChar;
     szNew += N + 1;
     if( szNew+p->nChar<=p->mxAlloc ){
       /* Force exponential buffer size growth as long as it does not overflow,
       ** to avoid having to call this routine too often */
       szNew += p->nChar;
     }
     if( szNew > p->mxAlloc ){
-      sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
-      setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
+      sqlite3_str_reset(p);
+      setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_TOOBIG);
       return 0;
     }else{
       p->nAlloc = (int)szNew;
     }
     if( p->db ){
       zNew = sqlite3DbRealloc(p->db, zOld, p->nAlloc);
     }else{
       zNew = sqlite3_realloc64(zOld, p->nAlloc);
     }
     if( zNew ){
       assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 );
       if( !isMalloced(p) && p->nChar>0 ) memcpy(zNew, p->zText, p->nChar);
       p->zText = zNew;
       p->nAlloc = sqlite3DbMallocSize(p->db, zNew);
       p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
     }else{
-      sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
-      setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+      sqlite3_str_reset(p);
+      setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_NOMEM);
       return 0;
     }
   }
   return N;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Append N copies of character c to the given string buffer.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum *p, int N, char c){
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendchar(sqlite3_str *p, int N, char c){
   testcase( p->nChar + (i64)N > 0x7fffffff );
   if( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc && (N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N))<=0 ){
     return;
   }
   while( (N--)>0 ) p->zText[p->nChar++] = c;
 }
 
 /*
 ** The StrAccum "p" is not large enough to accept N new bytes of z[].
 ** So enlarge if first, then do the append.
 **
-** This is a helper routine to sqlite3StrAccumAppend() that does special-case
+** This is a helper routine to sqlite3_str_append() that does special-case
 ** work (enlarging the buffer) using tail recursion, so that the
-** sqlite3StrAccumAppend() routine can use fast calling semantics.
+** sqlite3_str_append() routine can use fast calling semantics.
 */
 static void SQLITE_NOINLINE enlargeAndAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
   N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N);
   if( N>0 ){
     memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar], z, N);
     p->nChar += N;
   }
 }
 
 /*
 ** Append N bytes of text from z to the StrAccum object.  Increase the
 ** size of the memory allocation for StrAccum if necessary.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_append(sqlite3_str *p, const char *z, int N){
   assert( z!=0 || N==0 );
   assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 || p->accError );
   assert( N>=0 );
   assert( p->accError==0 || p->nAlloc==0 );
   if( p->nChar+N >= p->nAlloc ){
     enlargeAndAppend(p,z,N);
   }else if( N ){
     assert( p->zText );
     p->nChar += N;
     memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar-N], z, N);
   }
 }
 
 /*
 ** Append the complete text of zero-terminated string z[] to the p string.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum *p, const char *z){
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, z, sqlite3Strlen30(z));
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendall(sqlite3_str *p, const char *z){
+  sqlite3_str_append(p, z, sqlite3Strlen30(z));
 }
 
 
 /*
 ** Finish off a string by making sure it is zero-terminated.
 ** Return a pointer to the resulting string.  Return a NULL
 ** pointer if any kind of error was encountered.
 */
 static SQLITE_NOINLINE char *strAccumFinishRealloc(StrAccum *p){
   char *zText;
   assert( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) );
   zText = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(p->db, p->nChar+1 );
   if( zText ){
     memcpy(zText, p->zText, p->nChar+1);
     p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
   }else{
-    setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
+    setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_NOMEM);
   }
   p->zText = zText;
   return zText;
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum *p){
   if( p->zText ){
     p->zText[p->nChar] = 0;
     if( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) ){
       return strAccumFinishRealloc(p);
     }
   }
   return p->zText;
 }
 
 /*
+** This singleton is an sqlite3_str object that is returned if
+** sqlite3_malloc() fails to provide space for a real one.  This
+** sqlite3_str object accepts no new text and always returns
+** an SQLITE_NOMEM error.
+*/
+static sqlite3_str sqlite3OomStr = {
+   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, SQLITE_NOMEM, 0
+};
+
+/* Finalize a string created using sqlite3_str_new().
+*/
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_str_finish(sqlite3_str *p){
+  char *z;
+  if( p!=0 && p!=&sqlite3OomStr ){
+    z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(p);
+    sqlite3_free(p);
+  }else{
+    z = 0;
+  }
+  return z;
+}
+
+/* Return any error code associated with p */
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_str_errcode(sqlite3_str *p){
+  return p ? p->accError : SQLITE_NOMEM;
+}
+
+/* Return the current length of p in bytes */
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_str_length(sqlite3_str *p){
+  return p ? p->nChar : 0;
+}
+
+/* Return the current value for p */
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_str_value(sqlite3_str *p){
+  if( p==0 || p->nChar==0 ) return 0;
+  p->zText[p->nChar] = 0;
+  return p->zText;
+}
+
+/*
 ** Reset an StrAccum string.  Reclaim all malloced memory.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum *p){
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_reset(StrAccum *p){
   if( isMalloced(p) ){
     sqlite3DbFree(p->db, p->zText);
     p->printfFlags &= ~SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
   }
+  p->nAlloc = 0;
+  p->nChar = 0;
   p->zText = 0;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Initialize a string accumulator.
 **
 ** p:     The accumulator to be initialized.
 ** db:    Pointer to a database connection.  May be NULL.  Lookaside
@@ -27245,31 +27641,43 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumInit(
   p->db = db;
   p->nAlloc = n;
   p->mxAlloc = mx;
   p->nChar = 0;
   p->accError = 0;
   p->printfFlags = 0;
 }
 
+/* Allocate and initialize a new dynamic string object */
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_str *sqlite3_str_new(sqlite3 *db){
+  sqlite3_str *p = sqlite3_malloc64(sizeof(*p));
+  if( p ){
+    sqlite3StrAccumInit(p, 0, 0, 0,
+            db ? db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH] : SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
+  }else{
+    p = &sqlite3OomStr;
+  }
+  return p;
+}
+
 /*
 ** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
 ** %-conversion extensions.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
   char *z;
   char zBase[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE];
   StrAccum acc;
   assert( db!=0 );
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, db, zBase, sizeof(zBase),
                       db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
   acc.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL;
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
   z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
-  if( acc.accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
+  if( acc.accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
     sqlite3OomFault(db);
   }
   return z;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
 ** %-conversion extensions.
@@ -27297,17 +27705,17 @@ SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const 
     (void)SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT;
     return 0;
   }
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
   if( sqlite3_initialize() ) return 0;
 #endif
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
   z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
   return z;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Print into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc()().  Omit the internal
 ** %-conversion extensions.
 */
@@ -27342,17 +27750,17 @@ SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vsnprintf(int n
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_API_ARMOR
   if( zBuf==0 || zFormat==0 ) {
     (void)SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT;
     if( zBuf ) zBuf[0] = 0;
     return zBuf;
   }
 #endif
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, n, 0);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
   zBuf[acc.nChar] = 0;
   return zBuf;
 }
 SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int n, char *zBuf, const char *zFormat, ...){
   char *z;
   va_list ap;
   va_start(ap,zFormat);
   z = sqlite3_vsnprintf(n, zBuf, zFormat, ap);
@@ -27364,27 +27772,27 @@ SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int n,
 ** This is the routine that actually formats the sqlite3_log() message.
 ** We house it in a separate routine from sqlite3_log() to avoid using
 ** stack space on small-stack systems when logging is disabled.
 **
 ** sqlite3_log() must render into a static buffer.  It cannot dynamically
 ** allocate memory because it might be called while the memory allocator
 ** mutex is held.
 **
-** sqlite3VXPrintf() might ask for *temporary* memory allocations for
+** sqlite3_str_vappendf() might ask for *temporary* memory allocations for
 ** certain format characters (%q) or for very large precisions or widths.
 ** Care must be taken that any sqlite3_log() calls that occur while the
 ** memory mutex is held do not use these mechanisms.
 */
 static void renderLogMsg(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
   StrAccum acc;                          /* String accumulator */
   char zMsg[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE*3];    /* Complete log message */
 
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zMsg, sizeof(zMsg), 0);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
   sqlite3GlobalConfig.xLog(sqlite3GlobalConfig.pLogArg, iErrCode,
                            sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
 }
 
 /*
 ** Format and write a message to the log if logging is enabled.
 */
 SQLITE_API void sqlite3_log(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, ...){
@@ -27403,40 +27811,40 @@ SQLITE_API void sqlite3_log(int iErrCode
 ** and segfaults if you give it a long long int.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
   va_list ap;
   StrAccum acc;
   char zBuf[500];
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
   va_start(ap,zFormat);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
   va_end(ap);
   sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
 #ifdef SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC
   {
     extern void SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(const char *zBuf, int nBuf);
     SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(zBuf, sizeof(zBuf));
   }
 #else
   fprintf(stdout,"%s", zBuf);
   fflush(stdout);
 #endif
 }
 #endif
 
 
 /*
-** variable-argument wrapper around sqlite3VXPrintf().  The bFlags argument
+** variable-argument wrapper around sqlite3_str_vappendf(). The bFlags argument
 ** can contain the bit SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL enable internal formats.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
+SQLITE_API void sqlite3_str_appendf(StrAccum *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
   va_list ap;
   va_start(ap,zFormat);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(p, zFormat, ap);
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(p, zFormat, ap);
   va_end(ap);
 }
 
 /************** End of printf.c **********************************************/
 /************** Begin file treeview.c ****************************************/
 /*
 ** 2015-06-08
 **
@@ -27492,25 +27900,27 @@ static void sqlite3TreeViewPop(TreeView 
 static void sqlite3TreeViewLine(TreeView *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
   va_list ap;
   int i;
   StrAccum acc;
   char zBuf[500];
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
   if( p ){
     for(i=0; i<p->iLevel && i<sizeof(p->bLine)-1; i++){
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|   " : "    ", 4);
-    }
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|-- " : "'-- ", 4);
-  }
-  va_start(ap, zFormat);
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
-  va_end(ap);
-  assert( acc.nChar>0 );
-  if( zBuf[acc.nChar-1]!='\n' ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, "\n", 1);
+      sqlite3_str_append(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|   " : "    ", 4);
+    }
+    sqlite3_str_append(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|-- " : "'-- ", 4);
+  }
+  if( zFormat!=0 ){
+    va_start(ap, zFormat);
+    sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
+    va_end(ap);
+    assert( acc.nChar>0 );
+    sqlite3_str_append(&acc, "\n", 1);
+  }
   sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
   fprintf(stdout,"%s", zBuf);
   fflush(stdout);
 }
 
 /*
 ** Shorthand for starting a new tree item that consists of a single label
 */
@@ -27533,27 +27943,27 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewWith(
   }
   if( pWith->nCte>0 ){
     pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 1);
     for(i=0; i<pWith->nCte; i++){
       StrAccum x;
       char zLine[1000];
       const struct Cte *pCte = &pWith->a[i];
       sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s", pCte->zName);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s", pCte->zName);
       if( pCte->pCols && pCte->pCols->nExpr>0 ){
         char cSep = '(';
         int j;
         for(j=0; j<pCte->pCols->nExpr; j++){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zName);
           cSep = ',';
         }
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ")");
-      }
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " AS");
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ")");
+      }
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " AS");
       sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
       sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<pWith->nCte-1);
       sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pCte->pSelect, 0);
       sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
     }
     sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
   }
 }
@@ -27608,30 +28018,30 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewSelec
       int i;
       pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, (n--)>0);
       sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FROM");
       for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
         struct SrcList_item *pItem = &p->pSrc->a[i];
         StrAccum x;
         char zLine[100];
         sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "{%d,*}", pItem->iCursor);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "{%d,*}", pItem->iCursor);
         if( pItem->zDatabase ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " %s.%s", pItem->zDatabase, pItem->zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " %s.%s", pItem->zDatabase, pItem->zName);
         }else if( pItem->zName ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " %s", pItem->zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " %s", pItem->zName);
         }
         if( pItem->pTab ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " tabname=%Q", pItem->pTab->zName);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " tabname=%Q", pItem->pTab->zName);
         }
         if( pItem->zAlias ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " (AS %s)", pItem->zAlias);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " (AS %s)", pItem->zAlias);
         }
         if( pItem->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " LEFT-JOIN");
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " LEFT-JOIN");
         }
         sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
         sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<p->pSrc->nSrc-1); 
         if( pItem->pSelect ){
           sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pItem->pSelect, 0);
         }
         if( pItem->fg.isTabFunc ){
           sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, pItem->u1.pFuncArg, 0, "func-args:");
@@ -27970,26 +28380,31 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewBareE
   if( pList==0 ){
     sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s (empty)", zLabel);
   }else{
     int i;
     sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s", zLabel);
     for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
       int j = pList->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol;
       char *zName = pList->a[i].zName;
+      int moreToFollow = i<pList->nExpr - 1;
       if( j || zName ){
-        sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 0);
-      }
-      if( zName ){
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "AS %s", zName);
-      }
-      if( j ){
-        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "iOrderByCol=%d", j);
-      }
-      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pList->a[i].pExpr, i<pList->nExpr-1);
+        sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, moreToFollow);
+        moreToFollow = 0;
+        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, 0);
+        if( zName ){
+          fprintf(stdout, "AS %s ", zName);
+        }
+        if( j ){
+          fprintf(stdout, "iOrderByCol=%d", j);
+        }
+        fprintf(stdout, "\n");
+        fflush(stdout);
+      }
+      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pList->a[i].pExpr, moreToFollow);
       if( j || zName ){
         sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
       }
     }
   }
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(
   TreeView *pView,
@@ -30945,32 +31360,32 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3Opcode
     /*  76 */ "SCopy"            OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
     /*  77 */ "IntCopy"          OpHelp("r[P2]=r[P1]"),
     /*  78 */ "ResultRow"        OpHelp("output=r[P1@P2]"),
     /*  79 */ "CollSeq"          OpHelp(""),
     /*  80 */ "AddImm"           OpHelp("r[P1]=r[P1]+P2"),
     /*  81 */ "RealAffinity"     OpHelp(""),
     /*  82 */ "Cast"             OpHelp("affinity(r[P1])"),
     /*  83 */ "Permutation"      OpHelp(""),
-    /*  84 */ "BitAnd"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]"),
-    /*  85 */ "BitOr"            OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]"),
-    /*  86 */ "ShiftLeft"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]"),
-    /*  87 */ "ShiftRight"       OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]"),
-    /*  88 */ "Add"              OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]"),
-    /*  89 */ "Subtract"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]"),
-    /*  90 */ "Multiply"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]"),
-    /*  91 */ "Divide"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]"),
-    /*  92 */ "Remainder"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]"),
-    /*  93 */ "Concat"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1]"),
-    /*  94 */ "Compare"          OpHelp("r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]"),
-    /*  95 */ "BitNot"           OpHelp("r[P1]= ~r[P1]"),
-    /*  96 */ "IsTrue"           OpHelp("r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4"),
-    /*  97 */ "String8"          OpHelp("r[P2]='P4'"),
-    /*  98 */ "Offset"           OpHelp("r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)"),
-    /*  99 */ "Column"           OpHelp("r[P3]=PX"),
+    /*  84 */ "Compare"          OpHelp("r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3]"),
+    /*  85 */ "BitAnd"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]"),
+    /*  86 */ "BitOr"            OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]"),
+    /*  87 */ "ShiftLeft"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]"),
+    /*  88 */ "ShiftRight"       OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]"),
+    /*  89 */ "Add"              OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]"),
+    /*  90 */ "Subtract"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]"),
+    /*  91 */ "Multiply"         OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]"),
+    /*  92 */ "Divide"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]"),
+    /*  93 */ "Remainder"        OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]"),
+    /*  94 */ "Concat"           OpHelp("r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1]"),
+    /*  95 */ "IsTrue"           OpHelp("r[P2] = coalesce(r[P1]==TRUE,P3) ^ P4"),
+    /*  96 */ "BitNot"           OpHelp("r[P1]= ~r[P1]"),
+    /*  97 */ "Offset"           OpHelp("r[P3] = sqlite_offset(P1)"),
+    /*  98 */ "Column"           OpHelp("r[P3]=PX"),
+    /*  99 */ "String8"          OpHelp("r[P2]='P4'"),
     /* 100 */ "Affinity"         OpHelp("affinity(r[P1@P2])"),
     /* 101 */ "MakeRecord"       OpHelp("r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2])"),
     /* 102 */ "Count"            OpHelp("r[P2]=count()"),
     /* 103 */ "ReadCookie"       OpHelp(""),
     /* 104 */ "SetCookie"        OpHelp(""),
     /* 105 */ "ReopenIdx"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
     /* 106 */ "OpenRead"         OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
     /* 107 */ "OpenWrite"        OpHelp("root=P2 iDb=P3"),
@@ -30993,19 +31408,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3Opcode
     /* 124 */ "RowData"          OpHelp("r[P2]=data"),
     /* 125 */ "Rowid"            OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
     /* 126 */ "NullRow"          OpHelp(""),
     /* 127 */ "SeekEnd"          OpHelp(""),
     /* 128 */ "SorterInsert"     OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
     /* 129 */ "IdxInsert"        OpHelp("key=r[P2]"),
     /* 130 */ "IdxDelete"        OpHelp("key=r[P2@P3]"),
     /* 131 */ "DeferredSeek"     OpHelp("Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed"),
-    /* 132 */ "Real"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
-    /* 133 */ "IdxRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
-    /* 134 */ "Destroy"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 132 */ "IdxRowid"         OpHelp("r[P2]=rowid"),
+    /* 133 */ "Destroy"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 134 */ "Real"             OpHelp("r[P2]=P4"),
     /* 135 */ "Clear"            OpHelp(""),
     /* 136 */ "ResetSorter"      OpHelp(""),
     /* 137 */ "CreateBtree"      OpHelp("r[P2]=root iDb=P1 flags=P3"),
     /* 138 */ "SqlExec"          OpHelp(""),
     /* 139 */ "ParseSchema"      OpHelp(""),
     /* 140 */ "LoadAnalysis"     OpHelp(""),
     /* 141 */ "DropTable"        OpHelp(""),
     /* 142 */ "DropIndex"        OpHelp(""),
@@ -31032,16 +31447,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3Opcode
     /* 163 */ "PureFunc0"        OpHelp(""),
     /* 164 */ "Function0"        OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
     /* 165 */ "PureFunc"         OpHelp(""),
     /* 166 */ "Function"         OpHelp("r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5])"),
     /* 167 */ "Trace"            OpHelp(""),
     /* 168 */ "CursorHint"       OpHelp(""),
     /* 169 */ "Noop"             OpHelp(""),
     /* 170 */ "Explain"          OpHelp(""),
+    /* 171 */ "Abortable"        OpHelp(""),
   };
   return azName[i];
 }
 #endif
 
 /************** End of opcodes.c *********************************************/
 /************** Begin file os_unix.c *****************************************/
 /*
@@ -35018,17 +35434,17 @@ static int fcntlSizeHint(unixFile *pFile
 #if defined(HAVE_POSIX_FALLOCATE) && HAVE_POSIX_FALLOCATE
       /* The code below is handling the return value of osFallocate() 
       ** correctly. posix_fallocate() is defined to "returns zero on success, 
       ** or an error number on  failure". See the manpage for details. */
       int err;
       do{
         err = osFallocate(pFile->h, buf.st_size, nSize-buf.st_size);
       }while( err==EINTR );
-      if( err ) return SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE;
+      if( err && err!=EINVAL ) return SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE;
 #else
       /* If the OS does not have posix_fallocate(), fake it. Write a 
       ** single byte to the last byte in each block that falls entirely
       ** within the extended region. Then, if required, a single byte
       ** at offset (nSize-1), to set the size of the file correctly.
       ** This is a similar technique to that used by glibc on systems
       ** that do not have a real fallocate() call.
       */
@@ -39544,32 +39960,16 @@ struct winVfsAppData {
 /*
  * The size of the buffer used by sqlite3_win32_write_debug().
  */
 #ifndef SQLITE_WIN32_DBG_BUF_SIZE
 #  define SQLITE_WIN32_DBG_BUF_SIZE   ((int)(4096-sizeof(DWORD)))
 #endif
 
 /*
- * The value used with sqlite3_win32_set_directory() to specify that
- * the data directory should be changed.
- */
-#ifndef SQLITE_WIN32_DATA_DIRECTORY_TYPE
-#  define SQLITE_WIN32_DATA_DIRECTORY_TYPE (1)
-#endif
-
-/*
- * The value used with sqlite3_win32_set_directory() to specify that
- * the temporary directory should be changed.
- */
-#ifndef SQLITE_WIN32_TEMP_DIRECTORY_TYPE
-#  define SQLITE_WIN32_TEMP_DIRECTORY_TYPE (2)
-#endif
-
-/*
  * If compiled with SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC on Windows, we will use the
  * various Win32 API heap functions instead of our own.
  */
 #ifdef SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC
 
 /*
  * If this is non-zero, an isolated heap will be created by the native Win32
  * allocator subsystem; otherwise, the default process heap will be used.  This
@@ -41155,53 +41555,86 @@ SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_m
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
   if( sqlite3_initialize() ) return 0;
 #endif
   return winUtf8ToMbcs(zText, useAnsi);
 }
 
 /*
-** This function sets the data directory or the temporary directory based on
-** the provided arguments.  The type argument must be 1 in order to set the
-** data directory or 2 in order to set the temporary directory.  The zValue
-** argument is the name of the directory to use.  The return value will be
-** SQLITE_OK if successful.
-*/
-SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory(DWORD type, LPCWSTR zValue){
+** This function is the same as sqlite3_win32_set_directory (below); however,
+** it accepts a UTF-8 string.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory8(
+  unsigned long type, /* Identifier for directory being set or reset */
+  const char *zValue  /* New value for directory being set or reset */
+){
   char **ppDirectory = 0;
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
   int rc = sqlite3_initialize();
   if( rc ) return rc;
 #endif
   if( type==SQLITE_WIN32_DATA_DIRECTORY_TYPE ){
     ppDirectory = &sqlite3_data_directory;
   }else if( type==SQLITE_WIN32_TEMP_DIRECTORY_TYPE ){
     ppDirectory = &sqlite3_temp_directory;
   }
   assert( !ppDirectory || type==SQLITE_WIN32_DATA_DIRECTORY_TYPE
           || type==SQLITE_WIN32_TEMP_DIRECTORY_TYPE
   );
   assert( !ppDirectory || sqlite3MemdebugHasType(*ppDirectory, MEMTYPE_HEAP) );
   if( ppDirectory ){
-    char *zValueUtf8 = 0;
+    char *zCopy = 0;
     if( zValue && zValue[0] ){
-      zValueUtf8 = winUnicodeToUtf8(zValue);
-      if ( zValueUtf8==0 ){
+      zCopy = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zValue);
+      if ( zCopy==0 ){
         return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
       }
     }
     sqlite3_free(*ppDirectory);
-    *ppDirectory = zValueUtf8;
+    *ppDirectory = zCopy;
     return SQLITE_OK;
   }
   return SQLITE_ERROR;
 }
 
 /*
+** This function is the same as sqlite3_win32_set_directory (below); however,
+** it accepts a UTF-16 string.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory16(
+  unsigned long type, /* Identifier for directory being set or reset */
+  const void *zValue  /* New value for directory being set or reset */
+){
+  int rc;
+  char *zUtf8 = 0;
+  if( zValue ){
+    zUtf8 = sqlite3_win32_unicode_to_utf8(zValue);
+    if( zUtf8==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
+  }
+  rc = sqlite3_win32_set_directory8(type, zUtf8);
+  if( zUtf8 ) sqlite3_free(zUtf8);
+  return rc;
+}
+
+/*
+** This function sets the data directory or the temporary directory based on
+** the provided arguments.  The type argument must be 1 in order to set the
+** data directory or 2 in order to set the temporary directory.  The zValue
+** argument is the name of the directory to use.  The return value will be
+** SQLITE_OK if successful.
+*/
+SQLITE_API int sqlite3_win32_set_directory(
+  unsigned long type, /* Identifier for directory being set or reset */
+  void *zValue        /* New value for directory being set or reset */
+){
+  return sqlite3_win32_set_directory16(type, zValue);
+}
+
+/*
 ** The return value of winGetLastErrorMsg
 ** is zero if the error message fits in the buffer, or non-zero
 ** otherwise (if the message was truncated).
 */
 static int winGetLastErrorMsg(DWORD lastErrno, int nBuf, char *zBuf){
   /* FormatMessage returns 0 on failure.  Otherwise it
   ** returns the number of TCHARs written to the output
   ** buffer, excluding the terminating null char.
@@ -61477,32 +61910,32 @@ static void SQLITE_NOINLINE btreeEnterAl
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
   for(i=0; i<db->nDb; i++){
     p = db->aDb[i].pBt;
     if( p && p->sharable ){
       sqlite3BtreeEnter(p);
       skipOk = 0;
     }
   }
-  db->skipBtreeMutex = skipOk;
+  db->noSharedCache = skipOk;
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(sqlite3 *db){
-  if( db->skipBtreeMutex==0 ) btreeEnterAll(db);
+  if( db->noSharedCache==0 ) btreeEnterAll(db);
 }
 static void SQLITE_NOINLINE btreeLeaveAll(sqlite3 *db){
   int i;
   Btree *p;
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
   for(i=0; i<db->nDb; i++){
     p = db->aDb[i].pBt;
     if( p ) sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
   }
 }
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(sqlite3 *db){
-  if( db->skipBtreeMutex==0 ) btreeLeaveAll(db);
+  if( db->noSharedCache==0 ) btreeLeaveAll(db);
 }
 
 #ifndef NDEBUG
 /*
 ** Return true if the current thread holds the database connection
 ** mutex and all required BtShared mutexes.
 **
 ** This routine is used inside assert() statements only.
@@ -62457,17 +62890,21 @@ static int btreeRestoreCursorPosition(Bt
 ** is rebalanced.
 **
 ** Calling this routine with a NULL cursor pointer returns false.
 **
 ** Use the separate sqlite3BtreeCursorRestore() routine to restore a cursor
 ** back to where it ought to be if this routine returns true.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorHasMoved(BtCursor *pCur){
-  return pCur->eState!=CURSOR_VALID;
+  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pCur)
+       || pCur==sqlite3BtreeFakeValidCursor() );
+  assert( offsetof(BtCursor, eState)==0 );
+  assert( sizeof(pCur->eState)==1 );
+  return CURSOR_VALID != *(u8*)pCur;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Return a pointer to a fake BtCursor object that will always answer
 ** false to the sqlite3BtreeCursorHasMoved() routine above.  The fake
 ** cursor returned must not be used with any other Btree interface.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE BtCursor *sqlite3BtreeFakeValidCursor(void){
@@ -64565,16 +65002,20 @@ static void setDefaultSyncFlag(BtShared 
           pDb->safety_level | (db->flags & PAGER_FLAGS_MASK));
     }
   }
 }
 #else
 # define setDefaultSyncFlag(pBt,safety_level)
 #endif
 
+/* Forward declaration */
+static int newDatabase(BtShared*);
+
+
 /*
 ** Get a reference to pPage1 of the database file.  This will
 ** also acquire a readlock on that file.
 **
 ** SQLITE_OK is returned on success.  If the file is not a
 ** well-formed database file, then SQLITE_CORRUPT is returned.
 ** SQLITE_BUSY is returned if the database is locked.  SQLITE_NOMEM
 ** is returned if we run out of memory. 
@@ -64596,16 +65037,19 @@ static int lockBtree(BtShared *pBt){
   /* Do some checking to help insure the file we opened really is
   ** a valid database file. 
   */
   nPage = nPageHeader = get4byte(28+(u8*)pPage1->aData);
   sqlite3PagerPagecount(pBt->pPager, &nPageFile);
   if( nPage==0 || memcmp(24+(u8*)pPage1->aData, 92+(u8*)pPage1->aData,4)!=0 ){
     nPage = nPageFile;
   }
+  if( (pBt->db->flags & SQLITE_ResetDatabase)!=0 ){
+    nPage = 0;
+  }
   if( nPage>0 ){
     u32 pageSize;
     u32 usableSize;
     u8 *page1 = pPage1->aData;
     rc = SQLITE_NOTADB;
     /* EVIDENCE-OF: R-43737-39999 Every valid SQLite database file begins
     ** with the following 16 bytes (in hex): 53 51 4c 69 74 65 20 66 6f 72 6d
     ** 61 74 20 33 00. */
@@ -67812,17 +68256,19 @@ static int clearCell(
   int nOvfl;
   u32 ovflPageSize;
 
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(pPage->pBt->mutex) );
   pPage->xParseCell(pPage, pCell, pInfo);
   if( pInfo->nLocal==pInfo->nPayload ){
     return SQLITE_OK;  /* No overflow pages. Return without doing anything */
   }
-  if( pCell+pInfo->nSize-1 > pPage->aData+pPage->maskPage ){
+  testcase( pCell + pInfo->nSize == pPage->aDataEnd );
+  testcase( pCell + (pInfo->nSize-1) == pPage->aDataEnd );
+  if( pCell + pInfo->nSize > pPage->aDataEnd ){
     /* Cell extends past end of page */
     return SQLITE_CORRUPT_PAGE(pPage);
   }
   ovflPgno = get4byte(pCell + pInfo->nSize - 4);
   pBt = pPage->pBt;
   assert( pBt->usableSize > 4 );
   ovflPageSize = pBt->usableSize - 4;
   nOvfl = (pInfo->nPayload - pInfo->nLocal + ovflPageSize - 1)/ovflPageSize;
@@ -69738,16 +70184,104 @@ static int balance(BtCursor *pCur){
   }while( rc==SQLITE_OK );
 
   if( pFree ){
     sqlite3PageFree(pFree);
   }
   return rc;
 }
 
+/* Overwrite content from pX into pDest.  Only do the write if the
+** content is different from what is already there.
+*/
+static int btreeOverwriteContent(
+  MemPage *pPage,           /* MemPage on which writing will occur */
+  u8 *pDest,                /* Pointer to the place to start writing */
+  const BtreePayload *pX,   /* Source of data to write */
+  int iOffset,              /* Offset of first byte to write */
+  int iAmt                  /* Number of bytes to be written */
+){
+  int nData = pX->nData - iOffset;
+  if( nData<=0 ){
+    /* Overwritting with zeros */
+    int i;
+    for(i=0; i<iAmt && pDest[i]==0; i++){}
+    if( i<iAmt ){
+      int rc = sqlite3PagerWrite(pPage->pDbPage);
+      if( rc ) return rc;
+      memset(pDest + i, 0, iAmt - i);
+    }
+  }else{
+    if( nData<iAmt ){
+      /* Mixed read data and zeros at the end.  Make a recursive call
+      ** to write the zeros then fall through to write the real data */
+      int rc = btreeOverwriteContent(pPage, pDest+nData, pX, iOffset+nData,
+                                 iAmt-nData);
+      if( rc ) return rc;
+      iAmt = nData;
+    }
+    if( memcmp(pDest, ((u8*)pX->pData) + iOffset, iAmt)!=0 ){
+      int rc = sqlite3PagerWrite(pPage->pDbPage);
+      if( rc ) return rc;
+      memcpy(pDest, ((u8*)pX->pData) + iOffset, iAmt);
+    }
+  }
+  return SQLITE_OK;
+}
+
+/*
+** Overwrite the cell that cursor pCur is pointing to with fresh content
+** contained in pX.
+*/
+static int btreeOverwriteCell(BtCursor *pCur, const BtreePayload *pX){
+  int iOffset;                        /* Next byte of pX->pData to write */
+  int nTotal = pX->nData + pX->nZero; /* Total bytes of to write */
+  int rc;                             /* Return code */
+  MemPage *pPage = pCur->pPage;       /* Page being written */
+  BtShared *pBt;                      /* Btree */
+  Pgno ovflPgno;                      /* Next overflow page to write */
+  u32 ovflPageSize;                   /* Size to write on overflow page */
+
+  if( pCur->info.pPayload + pCur->info.nLocal > pPage->aDataEnd ){
+    return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+  }
+  /* Overwrite the local portion first */
+  rc = btreeOverwriteContent(pPage, pCur->info.pPayload, pX,
+                             0, pCur->info.nLocal);
+  if( rc ) return rc;
+  if( pCur->info.nLocal==nTotal ) return SQLITE_OK;
+
+  /* Now overwrite the overflow pages */
+  iOffset = pCur->info.nLocal;
+  assert( nTotal>=0 );
+  assert( iOffset>=0 );
+  ovflPgno = get4byte(pCur->info.pPayload + iOffset);
+  pBt = pPage->pBt;
+  ovflPageSize = pBt->usableSize - 4;
+  do{
+    rc = btreeGetPage(pBt, ovflPgno, &pPage, 0);
+    if( rc ) return rc;
+    if( sqlite3PagerPageRefcount(pPage->pDbPage)!=1 ){
+      rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
+    }else{
+      if( iOffset+ovflPageSize<(u32)nTotal ){
+        ovflPgno = get4byte(pPage->aData);
+      }else{
+        ovflPageSize = nTotal - iOffset;
+      }
+      rc = btreeOverwriteContent(pPage, pPage->aData+4, pX,
+                                 iOffset, ovflPageSize);
+    }
+    sqlite3PagerUnref(pPage->pDbPage);
+    if( rc ) return rc;
+    iOffset += ovflPageSize;
+  }while( iOffset<nTotal );
+  return SQLITE_OK;    
+}
+
 
 /*
 ** Insert a new record into the BTree.  The content of the new record
 ** is described by the pX object.  The pCur cursor is used only to
 ** define what table the record should be inserted into, and is left
 ** pointing at a random location.
 **
 ** For a table btree (used for rowid tables), only the pX.nKey value of
@@ -69828,45 +70362,96 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(
 
   if( pCur->pKeyInfo==0 ){
     assert( pX->pKey==0 );
     /* If this is an insert into a table b-tree, invalidate any incrblob 
     ** cursors open on the row being replaced */
     invalidateIncrblobCursors(p, pCur->pgnoRoot, pX->nKey, 0);
 
     /* If BTREE_SAVEPOSITION is set, the cursor must already be pointing 
-    ** to a row with the same key as the new entry being inserted.  */
-    assert( (flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION)==0 || 
-            ((pCur->curFlags&BTCF_ValidNKey)!=0 && pX->nKey==pCur->info.nKey) );
-
-    /* If the cursor is currently on the last row and we are appending a
-    ** new row onto the end, set the "loc" to avoid an unnecessary
-    ** btreeMoveto() call */
+    ** to a row with the same key as the new entry being inserted.
+    */
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+    if( flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION ){
+      assert( pCur->curFlags & BTCF_ValidNKey );
+      assert( pX->nKey==pCur->info.nKey );
+      assert( pCur->info.nSize!=0 );
+      assert( loc==0 );
+    }
+#endif
+
+    /* On the other hand, BTREE_SAVEPOSITION==0 does not imply
+    ** that the cursor is not pointing to a row to be overwritten.
+    ** So do a complete check.
+    */
     if( (pCur->curFlags&BTCF_ValidNKey)!=0 && pX->nKey==pCur->info.nKey ){
-      loc = 0;
+      /* The cursor is pointing to the entry that is to be
+      ** overwritten */
+      assert( pX->nData>=0 && pX->nZero>=0 );
+      if( pCur->info.nSize!=0
+       && pCur->info.nPayload==(u32)pX->nData+pX->nZero
+      ){
+        /* New entry is the same size as the old.  Do an overwrite */
+        return btreeOverwriteCell(pCur, pX);
+      }
+      assert( loc==0 );
     }else if( loc==0 ){
+      /* The cursor is *not* pointing to the cell to be overwritten, nor
+      ** to an adjacent cell.  Move the cursor so that it is pointing either
+      ** to the cell to be overwritten or an adjacent cell.
+      */
       rc = sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(pCur, 0, pX->nKey, flags!=0, &loc);
       if( rc ) return rc;
     }
-  }else if( loc==0 && (flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION)==0 ){
-    if( pX->nMem ){
-      UnpackedRecord r;
-      r.pKeyInfo = pCur->pKeyInfo;
-      r.aMem = pX->aMem;
-      r.nField = pX->nMem;
-      r.default_rc = 0;
-      r.errCode = 0;
-      r.r1 = 0;
-      r.r2 = 0;
-      r.eqSeen = 0;
-      rc = sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(pCur, &r, 0, flags!=0, &loc);
-    }else{
-      rc = btreeMoveto(pCur, pX->pKey, pX->nKey, flags!=0, &loc);
-    }
-    if( rc ) return rc;
+  }else{
+    /* This is an index or a WITHOUT ROWID table */
+
+    /* If BTREE_SAVEPOSITION is set, the cursor must already be pointing 
+    ** to a row with the same key as the new entry being inserted.
+    */
+    assert( (flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION)==0 || loc==0 );
+
+    /* If the cursor is not already pointing either to the cell to be
+    ** overwritten, or if a new cell is being inserted, if the cursor is
+    ** not pointing to an immediately adjacent cell, then move the cursor
+    ** so that it does.
+    */
+    if( loc==0 && (flags & BTREE_SAVEPOSITION)==0 ){
+      if( pX->nMem ){
+        UnpackedRecord r;
+        r.pKeyInfo = pCur->pKeyInfo;
+        r.aMem = pX->aMem;
+        r.nField = pX->nMem;
+        r.default_rc = 0;
+        r.errCode = 0;
+        r.r1 = 0;
+        r.r2 = 0;
+        r.eqSeen = 0;
+        rc = sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(pCur, &r, 0, flags!=0, &loc);
+      }else{
+        rc = btreeMoveto(pCur, pX->pKey, pX->nKey, flags!=0, &loc);
+      }
+      if( rc ) return rc;
+    }
+
+    /* If the cursor is currently pointing to an entry to be overwritten
+    ** and the new content is the same as as the old, then use the
+    ** overwrite optimization.
+    */
+    if( loc==0 ){
+      getCellInfo(pCur);
+      if( pCur->info.nKey==pX->nKey ){
+        BtreePayload x2;
+        x2.pData = pX->pKey;
+        x2.nData = pX->nKey;
+        x2.nZero = 0;
+        return btreeOverwriteCell(pCur, &x2);
+      }
+    }
+
   }
   assert( pCur->eState==CURSOR_VALID || (pCur->eState==CURSOR_INVALID && loc) );
 
   pPage = pCur->pPage;
   assert( pPage->intKey || pX->nKey>=0 );
   assert( pPage->leaf || !pPage->intKey );
 
   TRACE(("INSERT: table=%d nkey=%lld ndata=%d page=%d %s\n",
@@ -70695,24 +71280,24 @@ static void checkAppendMsg(
   ...
 ){
   va_list ap;
   if( !pCheck->mxErr ) return;
   pCheck->mxErr--;
   pCheck->nErr++;
   va_start(ap, zFormat);
   if( pCheck->errMsg.nChar ){
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&pCheck->errMsg, "\n", 1);
+    sqlite3_str_append(&pCheck->errMsg, "\n", 1);
   }
   if( pCheck->zPfx ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&pCheck->errMsg, pCheck->zPfx, pCheck->v1, pCheck->v2);
-  }
-  sqlite3VXPrintf(&pCheck->errMsg, zFormat, ap);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&pCheck->errMsg, pCheck->zPfx, pCheck->v1, pCheck->v2);
+  }
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&pCheck->errMsg, zFormat, ap);
   va_end(ap);
-  if( pCheck->errMsg.accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
+  if( pCheck->errMsg.accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
     pCheck->mallocFailed = 1;
   }
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK
 
 /*
@@ -71286,21 +71871,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegri
   }
 
   /* Clean  up and report errors.
   */
 integrity_ck_cleanup:
   sqlite3PageFree(sCheck.heap);
   sqlite3_free(sCheck.aPgRef);
   if( sCheck.mallocFailed ){
-    sqlite3StrAccumReset(&sCheck.errMsg);
+    sqlite3_str_reset(&sCheck.errMsg);
     sCheck.nErr++;
   }
   *pnErr = sCheck.nErr;
-  if( sCheck.nErr==0 ) sqlite3StrAccumReset(&sCheck.errMsg);
+  if( sCheck.nErr==0 ) sqlite3_str_reset(&sCheck.errMsg);
   /* Make sure this analysis did not leave any unref() pages. */
   assert( nRef==sqlite3PagerRefcount(pBt->pPager) );
   sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
   return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&sCheck.errMsg);
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */
 
 /*
@@ -73190,17 +73775,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt
     vdbeReleaseAndSetInt64(pMem, val);
   }else{
     pMem->u.i = val;
     pMem->flags = MEM_Int;
   }
 }
 
 /* A no-op destructor */
-static void sqlite3NoopDestructor(void *p){ UNUSED_PARAMETER(p); }
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NoopDestructor(void *p){ UNUSED_PARAMETER(p); }
 
 /*
 ** Set the value stored in *pMem should already be a NULL.
 ** Also store a pointer to go with it.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMemSetPointer(
   Mem *pMem,
   void *pPtr,
@@ -73868,22 +74453,26 @@ static int valueFromExpr(
     if( !pVal ) goto no_mem;
     zVal = &pExpr->u.zToken[2];
     nVal = sqlite3Strlen30(zVal)-1;
     assert( zVal[nVal]=='\'' );
     sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(pVal, sqlite3HexToBlob(db, zVal, nVal), nVal/2,
                          0, SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
   }
 #endif
-
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
   else if( op==TK_FUNCTION && pCtx!=0 ){
     rc = valueFromFunction(db, pExpr, enc, affinity, &pVal, pCtx);
   }
 #endif
+  else if( op==TK_TRUEFALSE ){
+     pVal = valueNew(db, pCtx);
+     pVal->flags = MEM_Int;
+     pVal->u.i = pExpr->u.zToken[4]==0;
+  }
 
   *ppVal = pVal;
   return rc;
 
 no_mem:
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
   if( pCtx==0 || pCtx->pParse->nErr==0 )
 #endif
@@ -74532,16 +75121,59 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Dup8
   const u8 *zP4,      /* The P4 operand */
   int p4type          /* P4 operand type */
 ){
   char *p4copy = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(sqlite3VdbeDb(p), 8);
   if( p4copy ) memcpy(p4copy, zP4, 8);
   return sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(p, op, p1, p2, p3, p4copy, p4type);
 }
 
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
+/*
+** Return the address of the current EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN baseline.
+** 0 means "none".
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeExplainParent(Parse *pParse){
+  VdbeOp *pOp;
+  if( pParse->addrExplain==0 ) return 0;
+  pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(pParse->pVdbe, pParse->addrExplain);
+  return pOp->p2;
+}
+
+/*
+** Add a new OP_Explain opcode.
+**
+** If the bPush flag is true, then make this opcode the parent for
+** subsequent Explains until sqlite3VdbeExplainPop() is called.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeExplain(Parse *pParse, u8 bPush, const char *zFmt, ...){
+  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
+    char *zMsg;
+    Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+    va_list ap;
+    int iThis;
+    va_start(ap, zFmt);
+    zMsg = sqlite3VMPrintf(pParse->db, zFmt, ap);
+    va_end(ap);
+    v = pParse->pVdbe;
+    iThis = v->nOp;
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, iThis, pParse->addrExplain, 0,
+                      zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
+    if( bPush) pParse->addrExplain = iThis;
+  }
+}
+
+/*
+** Pop the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN stack one level.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeExplainPop(Parse *pParse){
+  pParse->addrExplain = sqlite3VdbeExplainParent(pParse);
+}
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */
+
 /*
 ** Add an OP_ParseSchema opcode.  This routine is broken out from
 ** sqlite3VdbeAddOp4() since it needs to also needs to mark all btrees
 ** as having been used.
 **
 ** The zWhere string must have been obtained from sqlite3_malloc().
 ** This routine will take ownership of the allocated memory.
 */
@@ -74621,20 +75253,39 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe *v, int x){
   Parse *p = v->pParse;
   int j = ADDR(x);
   assert( v->magic==VDBE_MAGIC_INIT );
   assert( j<p->nLabel );
   assert( j>=0 );
   if( p->aLabel ){
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+    if( p->db->flags & SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace ){
+      printf("RESOLVE LABEL %d to %d\n", x, v->nOp);
+    }
+#endif
+    assert( p->aLabel[j]==(-1) ); /* Labels may only be resolved once */
     p->aLabel[j] = v->nOp;
   }
 }
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST
+/*
+** Return TRUE if and only if the label x has already been resolved.
+** Return FALSE (zero) if label x is still unresolved.
+**
+** This routine is only used inside of testcase() macros, and so it
+** only exists when measuring test coverage.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeLabelHasBeenResolved(Vdbe *v, int x){
+  return v->pParse->aLabel && v->pParse->aLabel[ADDR(x)]>=0;
+}
+#endif /* SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST */
+
 /*
 ** Mark the VDBE as one that can only be run one time.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRunOnlyOnce(Vdbe *p){
   p->runOnlyOnce = 1;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -74770,16 +75421,42 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAssertMayA
   ** through all opcodes and hasAbort may be set incorrectly. Return
   ** true for this case to prevent the assert() in the callers frame
   ** from failing.  */
   return ( v->db->mallocFailed || hasAbort==mayAbort || hasFkCounter
               || (hasCreateTable && hasInitCoroutine) );
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG - the sqlite3AssertMayAbort() function */
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/*
+** Increment the nWrite counter in the VDBE if the cursor is not an
+** ephemeral cursor, or if the cursor argument is NULL.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(Vdbe *p, VdbeCursor *pC){
+  if( pC==0
+   || (pC->eCurType!=CURTYPE_SORTER
+       && pC->eCurType!=CURTYPE_PSEUDO
+       && !pC->isEphemeral)
+  ){
+    p->nWrite++;
+  }
+}
+#endif
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/*
+** Assert if an Abort at this point in time might result in a corrupt
+** database.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(Vdbe *p){
+  assert( p->nWrite==0 || p->usesStmtJournal );
+}
+#endif
+
 /*
 ** This routine is called after all opcodes have been inserted.  It loops
 ** through all the opcodes and fixes up some details.
 **
 ** (1) For each jump instruction with a negative P2 value (a label)
 **     resolve the P2 value to an actual address.
 **
 ** (2) Compute the maximum number of arguments used by any SQL function
@@ -74930,16 +75607,27 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoR
   int i;
   for(i=0; i<p->nOp; i++){
     assert( p->aOp[i].opcode!=OP_ResultRow );
   }
 }
 #endif
 
 /*
+** Generate code (a single OP_Abortable opcode) that will
+** verify that the VDBE program can safely call Abort in the current
+** context.
+*/
+#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(Vdbe *p, int onError){
+  if( onError==OE_Abort ) sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(p, OP_Abortable);
+}
+#endif
+
+/*
 ** This function returns a pointer to the array of opcodes associated with
 ** the Vdbe passed as the first argument. It is the callers responsibility
 ** to arrange for the returned array to be eventually freed using the 
 ** vdbeFreeOpArray() function.
 **
 ** Before returning, *pnOp is set to the number of entries in the returned
 ** array. Also, *pnMaxArg is set to the larger of its current value and 
 ** the number of entries in the Vdbe.apArg[] array required to execute the 
@@ -75473,33 +76161,33 @@ static int displayComment(
 /*
 ** Translate the P4.pExpr value for an OP_CursorHint opcode into text
 ** that can be displayed in the P4 column of EXPLAIN output.
 */
 static void displayP4Expr(StrAccum *p, Expr *pExpr){
   const char *zOp = 0;
   switch( pExpr->op ){
     case TK_STRING:
-      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
       break;
     case TK_INTEGER:
-      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%d", pExpr->u.iValue);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%d", pExpr->u.iValue);
       break;
     case TK_NULL:
-      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "NULL");
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "NULL");
       break;
     case TK_REGISTER: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "r[%d]", pExpr->iTable);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "r[%d]", pExpr->iTable);
       break;
     }
     case TK_COLUMN: {
       if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(p, "rowid");
-      }else{
-        sqlite3XPrintf(p, "c%d", (int)pExpr->iColumn);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "rowid");
+      }else{
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "c%d", (int)pExpr->iColumn);
       }
       break;
     }
     case TK_LT:      zOp = "LT";      break;
     case TK_LE:      zOp = "LE";      break;
     case TK_GT:      zOp = "GT";      break;
     case TK_GE:      zOp = "GE";      break;
     case TK_NE:      zOp = "NE";      break;
@@ -75521,28 +76209,28 @@ static void displayP4Expr(StrAccum *p, E
     case TK_UMINUS:  zOp = "MINUS";   break;
     case TK_UPLUS:   zOp = "PLUS";    break;
     case TK_BITNOT:  zOp = "BITNOT";  break;
     case TK_NOT:     zOp = "NOT";     break;
     case TK_ISNULL:  zOp = "ISNULL";  break;
     case TK_NOTNULL: zOp = "NOTNULL"; break;
 
     default:
-      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%s", "expr");
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s", "expr");
       break;
   }
 
   if( zOp ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%s(", zOp);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s(", zOp);
     displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pLeft);
     if( pExpr->pRight ){
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, ",", 1);
+      sqlite3_str_append(p, ",", 1);
       displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pRight);
     }
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, ")", 1);
+    sqlite3_str_append(p, ")", 1);
   }
 }
 #endif /* VDBE_DISPLAY_P4 && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS) */
 
 
 #if VDBE_DISPLAY_P4
 /*
 ** Compute a string that describes the P4 parameter for an opcode.
@@ -75553,107 +76241,108 @@ static char *displayP4(Op *pOp, char *zT
   StrAccum x;
   assert( nTemp>=20 );
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zTemp, nTemp, 0);
   switch( pOp->p4type ){
     case P4_KEYINFO: {
       int j;
       KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
       assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "k(%d", pKeyInfo->nKeyField);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "k(%d", pKeyInfo->nKeyField);
       for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nKeyField; j++){
         CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
         const char *zColl = pColl ? pColl->zName : "";
         if( strcmp(zColl, "BINARY")==0 ) zColl = "B";
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ",%s%s", pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ? "-" : "", zColl);
-      }
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&x, ")", 1);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%s%s", 
+               pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ? "-" : "", zColl);
+      }
+      sqlite3_str_append(&x, ")", 1);
       break;
     }
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
     case P4_EXPR: {
       displayP4Expr(&x, pOp->p4.pExpr);
       break;
     }
 #endif
     case P4_COLLSEQ: {
       CollSeq *pColl = pOp->p4.pColl;
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "(%.20s)", pColl->zName);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "(%.20s)", pColl->zName);
       break;
     }
     case P4_FUNCDEF: {
       FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pFunc;
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
       break;
     }
 #if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(VDBE_PROFILE)
     case P4_FUNCCTX: {
       FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pCtx->pFunc;
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
       break;
     }
 #endif
     case P4_INT64: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%lld", *pOp->p4.pI64);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%lld", *pOp->p4.pI64);
       break;
     }
     case P4_INT32: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%d", pOp->p4.i);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%d", pOp->p4.i);
       break;
     }
     case P4_REAL: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%.16g", *pOp->p4.pReal);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%.16g", *pOp->p4.pReal);
       break;
     }
     case P4_MEM: {
       Mem *pMem = pOp->p4.pMem;
       if( pMem->flags & MEM_Str ){
         zP4 = pMem->z;
       }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Int ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%lld", pMem->u.i);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%lld", pMem->u.i);
       }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Real ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%.16g", pMem->u.r);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%.16g", pMem->u.r);
       }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Null ){
         zP4 = "NULL";
       }else{
         assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Blob );
         zP4 = "(blob)";
       }
       break;
     }
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
     case P4_VTAB: {
       sqlite3_vtab *pVtab = pOp->p4.pVtab->pVtab;
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "vtab:%p", pVtab);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "vtab:%p", pVtab);
       break;
     }
 #endif
     case P4_INTARRAY: {
       int i;
       int *ai = pOp->p4.ai;
       int n = ai[0];   /* The first element of an INTARRAY is always the
                        ** count of the number of elements to follow */
       for(i=1; i<=n; i++){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ",%d", ai[i]);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%d", ai[i]);
       }
       zTemp[0] = '[';
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&x, "]", 1);
+      sqlite3_str_append(&x, "]", 1);
       break;
     }
     case P4_SUBPROGRAM: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "program");
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "program");
       break;
     }
     case P4_DYNBLOB:
     case P4_ADVANCE: {
       zTemp[0] = 0;
       break;
     }
     case P4_TABLE: {
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s", pOp->p4.pTab->zName);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s", pOp->p4.pTab->zName);
       break;
     }
     default: {
       zP4 = pOp->p4.z;
       if( zP4==0 ){
         zP4 = zTemp;
         zTemp[0] = 0;
       }
@@ -75855,16 +76544,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeFrameDele
 ** The interface is the same as sqlite3VdbeExec().  But instead of
 ** running the code, it invokes the callback once for each instruction.
 ** This feature is used to implement "EXPLAIN".
 **
 ** When p->explain==1, each instruction is listed.  When
 ** p->explain==2, only OP_Explain instructions are listed and these
 ** are shown in a different format.  p->explain==2 is used to implement
 ** EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN.
+** 2018-04-24:  In p->explain==2 mode, the OP_Init opcodes of triggers
+** are also shown, so that the boundaries between the main program and
+** each trigger are clear.
 **
 ** When p->explain==1, first the main program is listed, then each of
 ** the trigger subprograms are listed one by one.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeList(
   Vdbe *p                   /* The VDBE */
 ){
   int nRow;                            /* Stop when row count reaches this */
@@ -75917,17 +76609,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeList(
       nSub = pSub->n/sizeof(Vdbe*);
       apSub = (SubProgram **)pSub->z;
     }
     for(i=0; i<nSub; i++){
       nRow += apSub[i]->nOp;
     }
   }
 
-  do{
+  while(1){  /* Loop exits via break */
     i = p->pc++;
     if( i>=nRow ){
       p->rc = SQLITE_OK;
       rc = SQLITE_DONE;
       break;
     }
     if( i<p->nOp ){
       /* The output line number is small enough that we are still in the
@@ -75963,17 +76655,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeList(
         }
         apSub = (SubProgram **)pSub->z;
         apSub[nSub++] = pOp->p4.pProgram;
         pSub->flags |= MEM_Blob;
         pSub->n = nSub*sizeof(SubProgram*);
         nRow += pOp->p4.pProgram->nOp;
       }
     }
-  }while( p->explain==2 && pOp->opcode!=OP_Explain );
+    if( p->explain<2 ) break;
+    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Explain ) break;
+    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Init && p->pc>1 ) break;
+  }
 
   if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
     if( db->u1.isInterrupted ){
       p->rc = SQLITE_INTERRUPT;
       rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
       sqlite3VdbeError(p, sqlite3ErrStr(p->rc));
     }else{
       char *zP4;
@@ -77155,16 +77850,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe
   if( p->apCsr ) for(i=0; i<p->nCursor; i++) assert( p->apCsr[i]==0 );
   if( p->aMem ){
     for(i=0; i<p->nMem; i++) assert( p->aMem[i].flags==MEM_Undefined );
   }
 #endif
   sqlite3DbFree(db, p->zErrMsg);
   p->zErrMsg = 0;
   p->pResultSet = 0;
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  p->nWrite = 0;
+#endif
 
   /* Save profiling information from this VDBE run.
   */
 #ifdef VDBE_PROFILE
   {
     FILE *out = fopen("vdbe_profile.out", "a");
     if( out ){
       fprintf(out, "---- ");
@@ -78077,23 +78775,20 @@ static int sqlite3IntFloatCompare(i64 i,
     LONGDOUBLE_TYPE x = (LONGDOUBLE_TYPE)i;
     if( x<r ) return -1;
     if( x>r ) return +1;
     return 0;
   }else{
     i64 y;
     double s;
     if( r<-9223372036854775808.0 ) return +1;
-    if( r>9223372036854775807.0 ) return -1;
+    if( r>=9223372036854775808.0 ) return -1;
     y = (i64)r;
     if( i<y ) return -1;
-    if( i>y ){
-      if( y==SMALLEST_INT64 && r>0.0 ) return -1;
-      return +1;
-    }
+    if( i>y ) return +1;
     s = (double)i;
     if( s<r ) return -1;
     if( s>r ) return +1;
     return 0;
   }
 }
 
 /*
@@ -79762,38 +80457,16 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3Stmt
   if( *piTime==0 ){
     rc = sqlite3OsCurrentTimeInt64(p->pOut->db->pVfs, piTime);
     if( rc ) *piTime = 0;
   }
   return *piTime;
 }
 
 /*
-** The following is the implementation of an SQL function that always
-** fails with an error message stating that the function is used in the
-** wrong context.  The sqlite3_overload_function() API might construct
-** SQL function that use this routine so that the functions will exist
-** for name resolution but are actually overloaded by the xFindFunction
-** method of virtual tables.
-*/
-SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3InvalidFunction(
-  sqlite3_context *context,  /* The function calling context */
-  int NotUsed,               /* Number of arguments to the function */
-  sqlite3_value **NotUsed2   /* Value of each argument */
-){
-  const char *zName = context->pFunc->zName;
-  char *zErr;
-  UNUSED_PARAMETER2(NotUsed, NotUsed2);
-  zErr = sqlite3_mprintf(
-      "unable to use function %s in the requested context", zName);
-  sqlite3_result_error(context, zErr, -1);
-  sqlite3_free(zErr);
-}
-
-/*
 ** Create a new aggregate context for p and return a pointer to
 ** its pMem->z element.
 */
 static SQLITE_NOINLINE void *createAggContext(sqlite3_context *p, int nByte){
   Mem *pMem = p->pMem;
   assert( (pMem->flags & MEM_Agg)==0 );
   if( nByte<=0 ){
     sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pMem);
@@ -81050,27 +81723,27 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VdbeExpandSq
 
   db = p->db;
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&out, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), 
                       db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
   if( db->nVdbeExec>1 ){
     while( *zRawSql ){
       const char *zStart = zRawSql;
       while( *(zRawSql++)!='\n' && *zRawSql );
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "-- ", 3);
+      sqlite3_str_append(&out, "-- ", 3);
       assert( (zRawSql - zStart) > 0 );
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zStart, (int)(zRawSql-zStart));
+      sqlite3_str_append(&out, zStart, (int)(zRawSql-zStart));
     }
   }else if( p->nVar==0 ){
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zRawSql, sqlite3Strlen30(zRawSql));
+    sqlite3_str_append(&out, zRawSql, sqlite3Strlen30(zRawSql));
   }else{
     while( zRawSql[0] ){
       n = findNextHostParameter(zRawSql, &nToken);
       assert( n>0 );
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zRawSql, n);
+      sqlite3_str_append(&out, zRawSql, n);
       zRawSql += n;
       assert( zRawSql[0] || nToken==0 );
       if( nToken==0 ) break;
       if( zRawSql[0]=='?' ){
         if( nToken>1 ){
           assert( sqlite3Isdigit(zRawSql[1]) );
           sqlite3GetInt32(&zRawSql[1], &idx);
         }else{
@@ -81086,75 +81759,75 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VdbeExpandSq
         idx = sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(p, zRawSql, nToken);
         assert( idx>0 );
       }
       zRawSql += nToken;
       nextIndex = idx + 1;
       assert( idx>0 && idx<=p->nVar );
       pVar = &p->aVar[idx-1];
       if( pVar->flags & MEM_Null ){
-        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "NULL", 4);
+        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "NULL", 4);
       }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Int ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%lld", pVar->u.i);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%lld", pVar->u.i);
       }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Real ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%!.15g", pVar->u.r);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%!.15g", pVar->u.r);
       }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Str ){
         int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the string text to include in output */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
         u8 enc = ENC(db);
         if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
           memset(&utf8, 0, sizeof(utf8));
           utf8.db = db;
           sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(&utf8, pVar->z, pVar->n, enc, SQLITE_STATIC);
           if( SQLITE_NOMEM==sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(&utf8, SQLITE_UTF8) ){
-            out.accError = STRACCUM_NOMEM;
+            out.accError = SQLITE_NOMEM;
             out.nAlloc = 0;
           }
           pVar = &utf8;
         }
 #endif
         nOut = pVar->n;
 #ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
         if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ){
           nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
           while( nOut<pVar->n && (pVar->z[nOut]&0xc0)==0x80 ){ nOut++; }
         }
 #endif    
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "'%.*q'", nOut, pVar->z);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "'%.*q'", nOut, pVar->z);
 #ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
         if( nOut<pVar->n ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
         }
 #endif
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
         if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ) sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&utf8);
 #endif
       }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Zero ){
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "zeroblob(%d)", pVar->u.nZero);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "zeroblob(%d)", pVar->u.nZero);
       }else{
         int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the blob to include in output */
         assert( pVar->flags & MEM_Blob );
-        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "x'", 2);
+        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "x'", 2);
         nOut = pVar->n;
 #ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
         if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ) nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
 #endif
         for(i=0; i<nOut; i++){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%02x", pVar->z[i]&0xff);
-        }
-        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "'", 1);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%02x", pVar->z[i]&0xff);
+        }
+        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "'", 1);
 #ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
         if( nOut<pVar->n ){
-          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
-        }
-#endif
-      }
-    }
-  }
-  if( out.accError ) sqlite3StrAccumReset(&out);
+          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
+        }
+#endif
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  if( out.accError ) sqlite3_str_reset(&out);
   return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&out);
 }
 
 #endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
 
 /************** End of vdbetrace.c *******************************************/
 /************** Begin file vdbe.c ********************************************/
 /*
@@ -82158,16 +82831,19 @@ case OP_Yield: {            /* in1, jump
 **
 ** Check the value in register P3.  If it is NULL then Halt using
 ** parameter P1, P2, and P4 as if this were a Halt instruction.  If the
 ** value in register P3 is not NULL, then this routine is a no-op.
 ** The P5 parameter should be 1.
 */
 case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */
   pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  if( pOp->p2==OE_Abort ){ sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(p); }
+#endif
   if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ) break;
   /* Fall through into OP_Halt */
 }
 
 /* Opcode:  Halt P1 P2 * P4 P5
 **
 ** Exit immediately.  All open cursors, etc are closed
 ** automatically.
@@ -82197,16 +82873,19 @@ case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */
 ** every program.  So a jump past the last instruction of the program
 ** is the same as executing Halt.
 */
 case OP_Halt: {
   VdbeFrame *pFrame;
   int pcx;
 
   pcx = (int)(pOp - aOp);
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  if( pOp->p2==OE_Abort ){ sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(p); }
+#endif
   if( pOp->p1==SQLITE_OK && p->pFrame ){
     /* Halt the sub-program. Return control to the parent frame. */
     pFrame = p->pFrame;
     p->pFrame = pFrame->pParent;
     p->nFrame--;
     sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
     pcx = sqlite3VdbeFrameRestore(pFrame);
     if( pOp->p2==OE_Ignore ){
@@ -84567,16 +85246,18 @@ case OP_ReadCookie: {               /* o
 ** P2==3 is the recommended pager cache 
 ** size, and so forth.  P1==0 is the main database file and P1==1 is the 
 ** database file used to store temporary tables.
 **
 ** A transaction must be started before executing this opcode.
 */
 case OP_SetCookie: {
   Db *pDb;
+
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   assert( pOp->p2<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
   assert( DbMaskTest(p->btreeMask, pOp->p1) );
   assert( p->readOnly==0 );
   pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
   assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );
   assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, pOp->p1, 0) );
   /* See note about index shifting on OP_ReadCookie */
@@ -85530,21 +86211,18 @@ case OP_NewRowid: {           /* out2 */
   Mem *pMem;             /* Register holding largest rowid for AUTOINCREMENT */
   VdbeFrame *pFrame;     /* Root frame of VDBE */
 
   v = 0;
   res = 0;
   pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
-  if( !pC->isTable ){
-    rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
-    goto abort_due_to_error;
-  }
   assert( pC!=0 );
+  assert( pC->isTable );
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
   assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
   {
     /* The next rowid or record number (different terms for the same
     ** thing) is obtained in a two-step algorithm.
     **
     ** First we attempt to find the largest existing rowid and add one
     ** to that.  But if the largest existing rowid is already the maximum
@@ -85703,16 +86381,17 @@ case OP_InsertInt: {
   assert( memIsValid(pData) );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
   assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
   assert( (pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_ISNOOP) || pC->isTable );
   assert( pOp->p4type==P4_TABLE || pOp->p4type>=P4_STATIC );
   REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pData);
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, pC);
 
   if( pOp->opcode==OP_Insert ){
     pKey = &aMem[pOp->p3];
     assert( pKey->flags & MEM_Int );
     assert( memIsValid(pKey) );
     REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pKey);
     x.nKey = pKey->u.i;
   }else{
@@ -85817,16 +86496,17 @@ case OP_Delete: {
 
   opflags = pOp->p2;
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
   assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
   assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, pC);
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
   if( pOp->p4type==P4_TABLE && HasRowid(pOp->p4.pTab) && pOp->p5==0 ){
     /* If p5 is zero, the seek operation that positioned the cursor prior to
     ** OP_Delete will have also set the pC->movetoTarget field to the rowid of
     ** the row that is being deleted */
     i64 iKey = sqlite3BtreeIntegerKey(pC->uc.pCursor);
     assert( pC->movetoTarget==iKey );
@@ -85985,20 +86665,20 @@ case OP_SorterData: {
 ** it is found in the database file.
 **
 ** If cursor P1 is an index, then the content is the key of the row.
 ** If cursor P2 is a table, then the content extracted is the data.
 **
 ** If the P1 cursor must be pointing to a valid row (not a NULL row)
 ** of a real table, not a pseudo-table.
 **
-** If P3!=0 then this opcode is allowed to make an ephermeral pointer
+** If P3!=0 then this opcode is allowed to make an ephemeral pointer
 ** into the database page.  That means that the content of the output
 ** register will be invalidated as soon as the cursor moves - including
-** moves caused by other cursors that "save" the the current cursors
+** moves caused by other cursors that "save" the current cursors
 ** position in order that they can write to the same table.  If P3==0
 ** then a copy of the data is made into memory.  P3!=0 is faster, but
 ** P3==0 is safer.
 **
 ** If P3!=0 then the content of the P2 register is unsuitable for use
 ** in OP_Result and any OP_Result will invalidate the P2 register content.
 ** The P2 register content is invalidated by opcodes like OP_Function or
 ** by any use of another cursor pointing to the same table.
@@ -86435,16 +87115,17 @@ next_tail:
 */
 case OP_SorterInsert:       /* in2 */
 case OP_IdxInsert: {        /* in2 */
   VdbeCursor *pC;
   BtreePayload x;
 
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, pC);
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( isSorter(pC)==(pOp->opcode==OP_SorterInsert) );
   pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
   assert( pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob );
   if( pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_NCHANGE ) p->nChange++;
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE || pOp->opcode==OP_SorterInsert );
   assert( pC->isTable==0 );
   rc = ExpandBlob(pIn2);
@@ -86481,16 +87162,17 @@ case OP_IdxDelete: {
   UnpackedRecord r;
 
   assert( pOp->p3>0 );
   assert( pOp->p2>0 && pOp->p2+pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor)+1 );
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
   pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
   assert( pC!=0 );
   assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, pC);
   pCrsr = pC->uc.pCursor;
   assert( pCrsr!=0 );
   assert( pOp->p5==0 );
   r.pKeyInfo = pC->pKeyInfo;
   r.nField = (u16)pOp->p3;
   r.default_rc = 0;
   r.aMem = &aMem[pOp->p2];
   rc = sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(pCrsr, &r, 0, 0, &res);
@@ -86703,16 +87385,17 @@ case OP_IdxGE:  {       /* jump */
 ** and non-autovacuum modes.
 **
 ** See also: Clear
 */
 case OP_Destroy: {     /* out2 */
   int iMoved;
   int iDb;
 
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   assert( p->readOnly==0 );
   assert( pOp->p1>1 );
   pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
   pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
   if( db->nVdbeRead > db->nVDestroy+1 ){
     rc = SQLITE_LOCKED;
     p->errorAction = OE_Abort;
     goto abort_due_to_error;
@@ -86752,16 +87435,17 @@ case OP_Destroy: {     /* out2 */
 ** If P3 is greater than zero, then the value stored in register P3 is
 ** also incremented by the number of rows in the table being cleared.
 **
 ** See also: Destroy
 */
 case OP_Clear: {
   int nChange;
  
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   nChange = 0;
   assert( p->readOnly==0 );
   assert( DbMaskTest(p->btreeMask, pOp->p2) );
   rc = sqlite3BtreeClearTable(
       db->aDb[pOp->p2].pBt, pOp->p1, (pOp->p3 ? &nChange : 0)
   );
   if( pOp->p3 ){
     p->nChange += nChange;
@@ -86801,23 +87485,24 @@ case OP_ResetSorter: {
 }
 
 /* Opcode: CreateBtree P1 P2 P3 * *
 ** Synopsis: r[P2]=root iDb=P1 flags=P3
 **
 ** Allocate a new b-tree in the main database file if P1==0 or in the
 ** TEMP database file if P1==1 or in an attached database if
 ** P1>1.  The P3 argument must be 1 (BTREE_INTKEY) for a rowid table
-** it must be 2 (BTREE_BLOBKEY) for a index or WITHOUT ROWID table.
+** it must be 2 (BTREE_BLOBKEY) for an index or WITHOUT ROWID table.
 ** The root page number of the new b-tree is stored in register P2.
 */
 case OP_CreateBtree: {          /* out2 */
   int pgno;
   Db *pDb;
 
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
   pgno = 0;
   assert( pOp->p3==BTREE_INTKEY || pOp->p3==BTREE_BLOBKEY );
   assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
   assert( DbMaskTest(p->btreeMask, pOp->p1) );
   assert( p->readOnly==0 );
   pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
   assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );
@@ -86827,16 +87512,17 @@ case OP_CreateBtree: {          /* out2 
   break;
 }
 
 /* Opcode: SqlExec * * * P4 *
 **
 ** Run the SQL statement or statements specified in the P4 string.
 */
 case OP_SqlExec: {
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   db->nSqlExec++;
   rc = sqlite3_exec(db, pOp->p4.z, 0, 0, 0);
   db->nSqlExec--;
   if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
   break;
 }
 
 /* Opcode: ParseSchema P1 * * P4 *
@@ -86916,42 +87602,45 @@ case OP_LoadAnalysis: {
 **
 ** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
 ** the table named P4 in database P1.  This is called after a table
 ** is dropped from disk (using the Destroy opcode) in order to keep 
 ** the internal representation of the
 ** schema consistent with what is on disk.
 */
 case OP_DropTable: {
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p4.z);
   break;
 }
 
 /* Opcode: DropIndex P1 * * P4 *
 **
 ** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
 ** the index named P4 in database P1.  This is called after an index
 ** is dropped from disk (using the Destroy opcode)
 ** in order to keep the internal representation of the
 ** schema consistent with what is on disk.
 */
 case OP_DropIndex: {
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p4.z);
   break;
 }
 
 /* Opcode: DropTrigger P1 * * P4 *
 **
 ** Remove the internal (in-memory) data structures that describe
 ** the trigger named P4 in database P1.  This is called after a trigger
 ** is dropped from disk (using the Destroy opcode) in order to keep 
 ** the internal representation of the
 ** schema consistent with what is on disk.
 */
 case OP_DropTrigger: {
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(db, pOp->p1, pOp->p4.z);
   break;
 }
 
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK
 /* Opcode: IntegrityCk P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
 **
@@ -87988,17 +88677,17 @@ case OP_VFilter: {   /* jump */
 ** Synopsis: r[P3]=vcolumn(P2)
 **
 ** Store in register P3 the value of the P2-th column of
 ** the current row of the virtual-table of cursor P1.
 **
 ** If the VColumn opcode is being used to fetch the value of
 ** an unchanging column during an UPDATE operation, then the P5
 ** value is 1.  Otherwise, P5 is 0.  The P5 value is returned
-** by sqlite3_vtab_nochange() routine can can be used
+** by sqlite3_vtab_nochange() routine and can be used
 ** by virtual table implementations to return special "no-change"
 ** marks which can be more efficient, depending on the virtual table.
 */
 case OP_VColumn: {
   sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;
   const sqlite3_module *pModule;
   Mem *pDest;
   sqlite3_context sContext;
@@ -88151,16 +88840,17 @@ case OP_VUpdate: {
   sqlite_int64 rowid;
   Mem **apArg;
   Mem *pX;
 
   assert( pOp->p2==1        || pOp->p5==OE_Fail   || pOp->p5==OE_Rollback 
        || pOp->p5==OE_Abort || pOp->p5==OE_Ignore || pOp->p5==OE_Replace
   );
   assert( p->readOnly==0 );
+  sqlite3VdbeIncrWriteCounter(p, 0);
   pVtab = pOp->p4.pVtab->pVtab;
   if( pVtab==0 || NEVER(pVtab->pModule==0) ){
     rc = SQLITE_LOCKED;
     goto abort_due_to_error;
   }
   pModule = pVtab->pModule;
   nArg = pOp->p2;
   assert( pOp->p4type==P4_VTAB );
@@ -88468,29 +89158,46 @@ case OP_CursorHint: {
     assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
     sqlite3BtreeCursorHint(pC->uc.pCursor, BTREE_HINT_RANGE,
                            pOp->p4.pExpr, aMem);
   }
   break;
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS */
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+/* Opcode:  Abortable   * * * * *
+**
+** Verify that an Abort can happen.  Assert if an Abort at this point
+** might cause database corruption.  This opcode only appears in debugging
+** builds.
+**
+** An Abort is safe if either there have been no writes, or if there is
+** an active statement journal.
+*/
+case OP_Abortable: {
+  sqlite3VdbeAssertAbortable(p);
+  break;
+}
+#endif
+
 /* Opcode: Noop * * * * *
 **
 ** Do nothing.  This instruction is often useful as a jump
 ** destination.
 */
 /*
 ** The magic Explain opcode are only inserted when explain==2 (which
 ** is to say when the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN syntax is used.)
 ** This opcode records information from the optimizer.  It is the
 ** the same as a no-op.  This opcodesnever appears in a real VM program.
 */
-default: {          /* This is really OP_Noop and OP_Explain */
+default: {          /* This is really OP_Noop, OP_Explain */
   assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Noop || pOp->opcode==OP_Explain );
+
   break;
 }
 
 /*****************************************************************************
 ** The cases of the switch statement above this line should all be indented
 ** by 6 spaces.  But the left-most 6 spaces have been removed to improve the
 ** readability.  From this point on down, the normal indentation rules are
 ** restored.
@@ -92525,39 +93232,41 @@ static void resolveAlias(
   Expr *pDup;            /* Copy of pOrig */
   sqlite3 *db;           /* The database connection */
 
   assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pEList->nExpr );
   pOrig = pEList->a[iCol].pExpr;
   assert( pOrig!=0 );
   db = pParse->db;
   pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrig, 0);
-  if( pDup==0 ) return;
-  if( zType[0]!='G' ) incrAggFunctionDepth(pDup, nSubquery);
-  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE ){
-    pDup = sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(pParse, pDup, pExpr->u.zToken);
-  }
-  ExprSetProperty(pDup, EP_Alias);
-
-  /* Before calling sqlite3ExprDelete(), set the EP_Static flag. This 
-  ** prevents ExprDelete() from deleting the Expr structure itself,
-  ** allowing it to be repopulated by the memcpy() on the following line.
-  ** The pExpr->u.zToken might point into memory that will be freed by the
-  ** sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup) on the last line of this block, so be sure to
-  ** make a copy of the token before doing the sqlite3DbFree().
-  */
-  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Static);
-  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
-  memcpy(pExpr, pDup, sizeof(*pExpr));
-  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) && pExpr->u.zToken!=0 ){
-    assert( (pExpr->flags & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly))==0 );
-    pExpr->u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pExpr->u.zToken);
-    pExpr->flags |= EP_MemToken;
-  }
-  sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup);
+  if( pDup!=0 ){
+    if( zType[0]!='G' ) incrAggFunctionDepth(pDup, nSubquery);
+    if( pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE ){
+      pDup = sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(pParse, pDup, pExpr->u.zToken);
+    }
+    ExprSetProperty(pDup, EP_Alias);
+
+    /* Before calling sqlite3ExprDelete(), set the EP_Static flag. This 
+    ** prevents ExprDelete() from deleting the Expr structure itself,
+    ** allowing it to be repopulated by the memcpy() on the following line.
+    ** The pExpr->u.zToken might point into memory that will be freed by the
+    ** sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup) on the last line of this block, so be sure to
+    ** make a copy of the token before doing the sqlite3DbFree().
+    */
+    ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Static);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
+    memcpy(pExpr, pDup, sizeof(*pExpr));
+    if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) && pExpr->u.zToken!=0 ){
+      assert( (pExpr->flags & (EP_Reduced|EP_TokenOnly))==0 );
+      pExpr->u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pExpr->u.zToken);
+      pExpr->flags |= EP_MemToken;
+    }
+    sqlite3DbFree(db, pDup);
+  }
+  ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias);
 }
 
 
 /*
 ** Return TRUE if the name zCol occurs anywhere in the USING clause.
 **
 ** Return FALSE if the USING clause is NULL or if it does not contain
 ** zCol.
@@ -92641,17 +93350,17 @@ static int lookupName(
   int cnt = 0;                      /* Number of matching column names */
   int cntTab = 0;                   /* Number of matching table names */
   int nSubquery = 0;                /* How many levels of subquery */
   sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;         /* The database connection */
   struct SrcList_item *pItem;       /* Use for looping over pSrcList items */
   struct SrcList_item *pMatch = 0;  /* The matching pSrcList item */
   NameContext *pTopNC = pNC;        /* First namecontext in the list */
   Schema *pSchema = 0;              /* Schema of the expression */
-  int isTrigger = 0;                /* True if resolved to a trigger column */
+  int eNewExprOp = TK_COLUMN;       /* New value for pExpr->op on success */
   Table *pTab = 0;                  /* Table hold the row */
   Column *pCol;                     /* A column of pTab */
 
   assert( pNC );     /* the name context cannot be NULL. */
   assert( zCol );    /* The Z in X.Y.Z cannot be NULL */
   assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_TokenOnly|EP_Reduced) );
 
   /* Initialize the node to no-match */
@@ -92746,32 +93455,45 @@ static int lookupName(
         assert( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_RIGHT)==0 );
         if( (pMatch->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
           ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_CanBeNull);
         }
         pSchema = pExpr->pTab->pSchema;
       }
     } /* if( pSrcList ) */
 
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
+#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT)
     /* If we have not already resolved the name, then maybe 
-    ** it is a new.* or old.* trigger argument reference
-    */
-    if( zDb==0 && zTab!=0 && cntTab==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab!=0 ){
-      int op = pParse->eTriggerOp;
-      assert( op==TK_DELETE || op==TK_UPDATE || op==TK_INSERT );
-      if( op!=TK_DELETE && sqlite3StrICmp("new",zTab) == 0 ){
-        pExpr->iTable = 1;
-        pTab = pParse->pTriggerTab;
-      }else if( op!=TK_INSERT && sqlite3StrICmp("old",zTab)==0 ){
-        pExpr->iTable = 0;
-        pTab = pParse->pTriggerTab;
-      }else{
-        pTab = 0;
-      }
+    ** it is a new.* or old.* trigger argument reference.  Or
+    ** maybe it is an excluded.* from an upsert.
+    */
+    if( zDb==0 && zTab!=0 && cntTab==0 ){
+      pTab = 0;
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
+      if( pParse->pTriggerTab!=0 ){
+        int op = pParse->eTriggerOp;
+        assert( op==TK_DELETE || op==TK_UPDATE || op==TK_INSERT );
+        if( op!=TK_DELETE && sqlite3StrICmp("new",zTab) == 0 ){
+          pExpr->iTable = 1;
+          pTab = pParse->pTriggerTab;
+        }else if( op!=TK_INSERT && sqlite3StrICmp("old",zTab)==0 ){
+          pExpr->iTable = 0;
+          pTab = pParse->pTriggerTab;
+        }
+      }
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER */
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+      if( (pNC->ncFlags & NC_UUpsert)!=0 ){
+        Upsert *pUpsert = pNC->uNC.pUpsert;
+        if( pUpsert && sqlite3StrICmp("excluded",zTab)==0 ){
+          pTab = pUpsert->pUpsertSrc->a[0].pTab;
+          pExpr->iTable = 2;
+        }
+      }
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT */
 
       if( pTab ){ 
         int iCol;
         pSchema = pTab->pSchema;
         cntTab++;
         for(iCol=0, pCol=pTab->aCol; iCol<pTab->nCol; iCol++, pCol++){
           if( sqlite3StrICmp(pCol->zName, zCol)==0 ){
             if( iCol==pTab->iPKey ){
@@ -92781,34 +93503,46 @@ static int lookupName(
           }
         }
         if( iCol>=pTab->nCol && sqlite3IsRowid(zCol) && VisibleRowid(pTab) ){
           /* IMP: R-51414-32910 */
           iCol = -1;
         }
         if( iCol<pTab->nCol ){
           cnt++;
-          if( iCol<0 ){
-            pExpr->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
-          }else if( pExpr->iTable==0 ){
-            testcase( iCol==31 );
-            testcase( iCol==32 );
-            pParse->oldmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
-          }else{
-            testcase( iCol==31 );
-            testcase( iCol==32 );
-            pParse->newmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
-          }
-          pExpr->iColumn = (i16)iCol;
-          pExpr->pTab = pTab;
-          isTrigger = 1;
-        }
-      }
-    }
-#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) */
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+          if( pExpr->iTable==2 ){
+            testcase( iCol==(-1) );
+            pExpr->iTable = pNC->uNC.pUpsert->regData + iCol;
+            eNewExprOp = TK_REGISTER;
+            ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias);
+          }else
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT */
+          {
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
+            if( iCol<0 ){
+              pExpr->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
+            }else if( pExpr->iTable==0 ){
+              testcase( iCol==31 );
+              testcase( iCol==32 );
+              pParse->oldmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
+            }else{
+              testcase( iCol==31 );
+              testcase( iCol==32 );
+              pParse->newmask |= (iCol>=32 ? 0xffffffff : (((u32)1)<<iCol));
+            }
+            pExpr->pTab = pTab;
+            pExpr->iColumn = (i16)iCol;
+            eNewExprOp = TK_TRIGGER;
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER */
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT) */
 
     /*
     ** Perhaps the name is a reference to the ROWID
     */
     if( cnt==0
      && cntTab==1
      && pMatch
      && (pNC->ncFlags & NC_IdxExpr)==0
@@ -92833,20 +93567,22 @@ static int lookupName(
     ** resolved by the time the WHERE clause is resolved.
     **
     ** The ability to use an output result-set column in the WHERE, GROUP BY,
     ** or HAVING clauses, or as part of a larger expression in the ORDER BY
     ** clause is not standard SQL.  This is a (goofy) SQLite extension, that
     ** is supported for backwards compatibility only. Hence, we issue a warning
     ** on sqlite3_log() whenever the capability is used.
     */
-    if( (pEList = pNC->pEList)!=0
+    if( (pNC->ncFlags & NC_UEList)!=0
+     && cnt==0
      && zTab==0
-     && cnt==0
     ){
+      pEList = pNC->uNC.pEList;
+      assert( pEList!=0 );
       for(j=0; j<pEList->nExpr; j++){
         char *zAs = pEList->a[j].zName;
         if( zAs!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(zAs, zCol)==0 ){
           Expr *pOrig;
           assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
           assert( pExpr->x.pList==0 );
           assert( pExpr->x.pSelect==0 );
           pOrig = pEList->a[j].pExpr;
@@ -92933,17 +93669,17 @@ static int lookupName(
   }
 
   /* Clean up and return
   */
   sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->pLeft);
   pExpr->pLeft = 0;
   sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr->pRight);
   pExpr->pRight = 0;
-  pExpr->op = (isTrigger ? TK_TRIGGER : TK_COLUMN);
+  pExpr->op = eNewExprOp;
   ExprSetProperty(pExpr, EP_Leaf);
 lookupname_end:
   if( cnt==1 ){
     assert( pNC!=0 );
     if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_Alias) ){
       sqlite3AuthRead(pParse, pExpr, pSchema, pNC->pSrcList);
     }
     /* Increment the nRef value on all name contexts from TopNC up to
@@ -93365,18 +94101,18 @@ static int resolveOrderByTermToExprList(
   assert( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE, &i)==0 );
   pEList = pSelect->pEList;
 
   /* Resolve all names in the ORDER BY term expression
   */
   memset(&nc, 0, sizeof(nc));
   nc.pParse = pParse;
   nc.pSrcList = pSelect->pSrc;
-  nc.pEList = pEList;
-  nc.ncFlags = NC_AllowAgg;
+  nc.uNC.pEList = pEList;
+  nc.ncFlags = NC_AllowAgg|NC_UEList;
   nc.nErr = 0;
   db = pParse->db;
   savedSuppErr = db->suppressErr;
   db->suppressErr = 1;
   rc = sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&nc, pE);
   db->suppressErr = savedSuppErr;
   if( rc ) return 0;
 
@@ -93749,17 +94485,19 @@ static int resolveSelectStep(Walker *pWa
     /* Add the output column list to the name-context before parsing the
     ** other expressions in the SELECT statement. This is so that
     ** expressions in the WHERE clause (etc.) can refer to expressions by
     ** aliases in the result set.
     **
     ** Minor point: If this is the case, then the expression will be
     ** re-evaluated for each reference to it.
     */
-    sNC.pEList = p->pEList;
+    assert( (sNC.ncFlags & (NC_UAggInfo|NC_UUpsert))==0 );
+    sNC.uNC.pEList = p->pEList;
+    sNC.ncFlags |= NC_UEList;
     if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, p->pHaving) ) return WRC_Abort;
     if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, p->pWhere) ) return WRC_Abort;
 
     /* Resolve names in table-valued-function arguments */
     for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
       struct SrcList_item *pItem = &p->pSrc->a[i];
       if( pItem->fg.isTabFunc
        && sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(&sNC, pItem->u1.pFuncArg) 
@@ -93982,17 +94720,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelect
 **
 ** Any errors cause an error message to be set in pParse.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(
   Parse *pParse,      /* Parsing context */
   Table *pTab,        /* The table being referenced */
   int type,           /* NC_IsCheck or NC_PartIdx or NC_IdxExpr */
   Expr *pExpr,        /* Expression to resolve.  May be NULL. */
-  ExprList *pList     /* Expression list to resolve.  May be NUL. */
+  ExprList *pList     /* Expression list to resolve.  May be NULL. */
 ){
   SrcList sSrc;                   /* Fake SrcList for pParse->pNewTable */
   NameContext sNC;                /* Name context for pParse->pNewTable */
 
   assert( type==NC_IsCheck || type==NC_PartIdx || type==NC_IdxExpr );
   memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
   memset(&sSrc, 0, sizeof(sSrc));
   sSrc.nSrc = 1;
@@ -95368,16 +96106,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprList
         pNewExpr->pLeft = pPriorSelectCol;
       }
     }
     pItem->zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pOldItem->zName);
     pItem->zSpan = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pOldItem->zSpan);
     pItem->sortOrder = pOldItem->sortOrder;
     pItem->done = 0;
     pItem->bSpanIsTab = pOldItem->bSpanIsTab;
+    pItem->bSorterRef = pOldItem->bSorterRef;
     pItem->u = pOldItem->u;
   }
   return pNew;
 }
 
 /*
 ** If cursors, triggers, views and subqueries are all omitted from
 ** the build, then none of the following routines, except for 
@@ -95830,16 +96569,18 @@ static int exprNodeIsConstant(Walker *pW
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_COLUMN );
       if( pWalker->eCode==3 && pExpr->iTable==pWalker->u.iCur ){
         return WRC_Continue;
       }
       /* Fall through */
     case TK_IF_NULL_ROW:
+    case TK_REGISTER:
+      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_REGISTER );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IF_NULL_ROW );
       pWalker->eCode = 0;
       return WRC_Abort;
     case TK_VARIABLE:
       if( pWalker->eCode==5 ){
         /* Silently convert bound parameters that appear inside of CREATE
         ** statements into a NULL when parsing the CREATE statement text out
         ** of the sqlite_master table */
@@ -95847,18 +96588,18 @@ static int exprNodeIsConstant(Walker *pW
       }else if( pWalker->eCode==4 ){
         /* A bound parameter in a CREATE statement that originates from
         ** sqlite3_prepare() causes an error */
         pWalker->eCode = 0;
         return WRC_Abort;
       }
       /* Fall through */
     default:
-      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ); /* sqlite3SelectWalkFail will disallow */
-      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS ); /* sqlite3SelectWalkFail will disallow */
+      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ); /* sqlite3SelectWalkFail() disallows */
+      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS ); /* sqlite3SelectWalkFail() disallows */
       return WRC_Continue;
   }
 }
 static int exprIsConst(Expr *p, int initFlag, int iCur){
   Walker w;
   w.eCode = initFlag;
   w.xExprCallback = exprNodeIsConstant;
   w.xSelectCallback = sqlite3SelectWalkFail;
@@ -96412,21 +97153,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindInIndex(
             colUsed |= mCol;
             if( aiMap ) aiMap[i] = j;
           }
   
           assert( i==nExpr || colUsed!=(MASKBIT(nExpr)-1) );
           if( colUsed==(MASKBIT(nExpr)-1) ){
             /* If we reach this point, that means the index pIdx is usable */
             int iAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-            sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, 0, 0, 0,
-              sqlite3MPrintf(db, "USING INDEX %s FOR IN-OPERATOR",pIdx->zName),
-              P4_DYNAMIC);
-#endif
+            ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 0,
+                              "USING INDEX %s FOR IN-OPERATOR",pIdx->zName));
             sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenRead, iTab, pIdx->tnum, iDb);
             sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pIdx);
             VdbeComment((v, "%s", pIdx->zName));
             assert( IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC == IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC+1 );
             eType = IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC + pIdx->aSortOrder[0];
   
             if( prRhsHasNull ){
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_USED_MASK
@@ -96611,27 +97349,16 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
   **
   ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
   ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
   */
   if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
     jmpIfDynamic = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
   }
 
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
-    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(pParse->db, "EXECUTE %s%s SUBQUERY %d",
-        jmpIfDynamic>=0?"":"CORRELATED ",
-        pExpr->op==TK_IN?"LIST":"SCALAR",
-        pParse->iNextSelectId
-    );
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
-  }
-#endif
-
   switch( pExpr->op ){
     case TK_IN: {
       int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
       Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft; /* the LHS of the IN operator */
       KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */
       int nVal;                   /* Size of vector pLeft */
       
       nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
@@ -96659,16 +97386,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
         /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
         **
         ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
         ** table allocated and opened above.
         */
         Select *pSelect = pExpr->x.pSelect;
         ExprList *pEList = pSelect->pEList;
 
+        ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sLIST SUBQUERY",
+            jmpIfDynamic>=0?"":"CORRELATED "
+        ));
         assert( !isRowid );
         /* If the LHS and RHS of the IN operator do not match, that
         ** error will have been caught long before we reach this point. */
         if( ALWAYS(pEList->nExpr==nVal) ){
           SelectDest dest;
           int i;
           sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Set, pExpr->iTable);
           dest.zAffSdst = exprINAffinity(pParse, pExpr);
@@ -96700,17 +97430,16 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
         ** that columns affinity when building index keys. If <expr> is not
         ** a column, use numeric affinity.
         */
         char affinity;            /* Affinity of the LHS of the IN */
         int i;
         ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
         struct ExprList_item *pItem;
         int r1, r2, r3;
-
         affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);
         if( !affinity ){
           affinity = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
         }
         if( pKeyInfo ){
           assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
           pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
         }
@@ -96781,16 +97510,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
       Expr *pLimit;                         /* New limit expression */
 
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
       assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
       assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
 
       pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
+      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sSCALAR SUBQUERY",
+            jmpIfDynamic>=0?"":"CORRELATED "));
       nReg = pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ? pSel->pEList->nExpr : 1;
       sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, pParse->nMem+1);
       pParse->nMem += nReg;
       if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
         dest.eDest = SRT_Mem;
         dest.iSdst = dest.iSDParm;
         dest.nSdst = nReg;
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm, dest.iSDParm+nReg-1);
@@ -97543,16 +98274,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget
   int p5 = 0;
 
   assert( target>0 && target<=pParse->nMem );
   if( v==0 ){
     assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
     return 0;
   }
 
+expr_code_doover:
   if( pExpr==0 ){
     op = TK_NULL;
   }else{
     op = pExpr->op;
   }
   switch( op ){
     case TK_AGG_COLUMN: {
       AggInfo *pAggInfo = pExpr->pAggInfo;
@@ -98003,17 +98735,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget
     */
     case TK_BETWEEN: {
       exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, target, 0, 0);
       return target;
     }
     case TK_SPAN:
     case TK_COLLATE: 
     case TK_UPLUS: {
-      return sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
+      pExpr = pExpr->pLeft;
+      goto expr_code_doover; /* 2018-04-28: Prevent deep recursion. OSSFuzz. */
     }
 
     case TK_TRIGGER: {
       /* If the opcode is TK_TRIGGER, then the expression is a reference
       ** to a column in the new.* or old.* pseudo-tables available to
       ** trigger programs. In this case Expr.iTable is set to 1 for the
       ** new.* pseudo-table, or 0 for the old.* pseudo-table. Expr.iColumn
       ** is set to the column of the pseudo-table to read, or to -1 to
@@ -98041,20 +98774,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget
       int p1 = pExpr->iTable * (pTab->nCol+1) + 1 + pExpr->iColumn;
 
       assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->iTable==1 );
       assert( pExpr->iColumn>=-1 && pExpr->iColumn<pTab->nCol );
       assert( pTab->iPKey<0 || pExpr->iColumn!=pTab->iPKey );
       assert( p1>=0 && p1<(pTab->nCol*2+2) );
 
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Param, p1, target);
-      VdbeComment((v, "%s.%s -> $%d",
+      VdbeComment((v, "r[%d]=%s.%s", target,
         (pExpr->iTable ? "new" : "old"),
-        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].zName),
-        target
+        (pExpr->iColumn<0 ? "rowid" : pExpr->pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].zName)
       ));
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
       /* If the column has REAL affinity, it may currently be stored as an
       ** integer. Use OP_RealAffinity to make sure it is really real.
       **
       ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-60985-57662 SQLite will convert the value back to
       ** floating point when extracting it from the record.  */
@@ -98376,16 +99108,22 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprLi
   Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
   assert( pList!=0 );
   assert( target>0 );
   assert( pParse->pVdbe!=0 );  /* Never gets this far otherwise */
   n = pList->nExpr;
   if( !ConstFactorOk(pParse) ) flags &= ~SQLITE_ECEL_FACTOR;
   for(pItem=pList->a, i=0; i<n; i++, pItem++){
     Expr *pExpr = pItem->pExpr;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    if( pItem->bSorterRef ){
+      i--;
+      n--;
+    }else
+#endif
     if( (flags & SQLITE_ECEL_REF)!=0 && (j = pItem->u.x.iOrderByCol)>0 ){
       if( flags & SQLITE_ECEL_OMITREF ){
         i--;
         n--;
       }else{
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, copyOp, j+srcReg-1, target+i);
       }
     }else if( (flags & SQLITE_ECEL_FACTOR)!=0 && sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pExpr) ){
@@ -98904,27 +99642,30 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompare(Pa
     if( pB->op==TK_COLLATE && sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA,pB->pLeft,iTab)<2 ){
       return 1;
     }
     return 2;
   }
   if( pA->op!=TK_COLUMN && pA->op!=TK_AGG_COLUMN && pA->u.zToken ){
     if( pA->op==TK_FUNCTION ){
       if( sqlite3StrICmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ) return 2;
+    }else if( pA->op==TK_COLLATE ){
+      if( sqlite3_stricmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ) return 2;
     }else if( strcmp(pA->u.zToken,pB->u.zToken)!=0 ){
-      return pA->op==TK_COLLATE ? 1 : 2;
+      return 2;
     }
   }
   if( (pA->flags & EP_Distinct)!=(pB->flags & EP_Distinct) ) return 2;
   if( ALWAYS((combinedFlags & EP_TokenOnly)==0) ){
     if( combinedFlags & EP_xIsSelect ) return 2;
     if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA->pLeft, pB->pLeft, iTab) ) return 2;
     if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pA->pRight, pB->pRight, iTab) ) return 2;
     if( sqlite3ExprListCompare(pA->x.pList, pB->x.pList, iTab) ) return 2;
-    if( ALWAYS((combinedFlags & EP_Reduced)==0) && pA->op!=TK_STRING ){
+    assert( (combinedFlags & EP_Reduced)==0 );
+    if( pA->op!=TK_STRING && pA->op!=TK_TRUEFALSE ){
       if( pA->iColumn!=pB->iColumn ) return 2;
       if( pA->iTable!=pB->iTable 
        && (pA->iTable!=iTab || NEVER(pB->iTable>=0)) ) return 2;
     }
   }
   return 0;
 }
 
@@ -99260,18 +100001,19 @@ static int addAggInfoFunc(sqlite3 *db, A
 ** implement sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates().  See sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates
 ** for additional information.
 */
 static int analyzeAggregate(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
   int i;
   NameContext *pNC = pWalker->u.pNC;
   Parse *pParse = pNC->pParse;
   SrcList *pSrcList = pNC->pSrcList;
-  AggInfo *pAggInfo = pNC->pAggInfo;
-
+  AggInfo *pAggInfo = pNC->uNC.pAggInfo;
+
+  assert( pNC->ncFlags & NC_UAggInfo );
   switch( pExpr->op ){
     case TK_AGG_COLUMN:
     case TK_COLUMN: {
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_COLUMN );
       testcase( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN );
       /* Check to see if the column is in one of the tables in the FROM
       ** clause of the aggregate query */
       if( ALWAYS(pSrcList!=0) ){
@@ -102431,17 +103173,17 @@ static void attachFunc(
       return;
     }
     assert( pVfs );
     flags |= SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB;
     rc = sqlite3BtreeOpen(pVfs, zPath, db, &pNew->pBt, 0, flags);
     sqlite3_free( zPath );
     db->nDb++;
   }
-  db->skipBtreeMutex = 0;
+  db->noSharedCache = 0;
   if( rc==SQLITE_CONSTRAINT ){
     rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
     zErrDyn = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "database is already attached");
   }else if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
     Pager *pPager;
     pNew->pSchema = sqlite3SchemaGet(db, pNew->pBt);
     if( !pNew->pSchema ){
       rc = SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
@@ -102503,16 +103245,17 @@ static void attachFunc(
   /* If the file was opened successfully, read the schema for the new database.
   ** If this fails, or if opening the file failed, then close the file and 
   ** remove the entry from the db->aDb[] array. i.e. put everything back the
   ** way we found it.
   */
   if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
     sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(db);
     db->init.iDb = 0;
+    db->mDbFlags &= ~(DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk);
     rc = sqlite3Init(db, &zErrDyn);
     sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(db);
     assert( zErrDyn==0 || rc!=SQLITE_OK );
   }
 #ifdef SQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION
   if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
     u8 newAuth = 0;
     rc = sqlite3UserAuthCheckLogin(db, zName, &newAuth);
@@ -102775,16 +103518,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSrcList(
       sqlite3DbFree(pFix->pParse->db, pItem->zDatabase);
       pItem->zDatabase = 0;
       pItem->pSchema = pFix->pSchema;
     }
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
     if( sqlite3FixSelect(pFix, pItem->pSelect) ) return 1;
     if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pItem->pOn) ) return 1;
 #endif
+    if( pItem->fg.isTabFunc && sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pItem->u1.pFuncArg) ){
+      return 1;
+    }
   }
   return 0;
 }
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSelect(
   DbFixer *pFix,       /* Context of the fixation */
   Select *pSelect      /* The SELECT statement to be fixed to one database */
 ){
@@ -102874,16 +103620,28 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixTriggerStep
       return 1;
     }
     if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pStep->pWhere) ){
       return 1;
     }
     if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pStep->pExprList) ){
       return 1;
     }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+    if( pStep->pUpsert ){
+      Upsert *pUp = pStep->pUpsert;
+      if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pUp->pUpsertTarget)
+       || sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pUp->pUpsertTargetWhere)
+       || sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pUp->pUpsertSet)
+       || sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pUp->pUpsertWhere)
+      ){
+        return 1;
+      }
+    }
+#endif
     pStep = pStep->pNext;
   }
   return 0;
 }
 #endif
 
 /************** End of attach.c **********************************************/
 /************** Begin file auth.c ********************************************/
@@ -103034,25 +103792,25 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AuthRead(
 ){
   sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
   Table *pTab = 0;      /* The table being read */
   const char *zCol;     /* Name of the column of the table */
   int iSrc;             /* Index in pTabList->a[] of table being read */
   int iDb;              /* The index of the database the expression refers to */
   int iCol;             /* Index of column in table */
 
+  assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN || pExpr->op==TK_TRIGGER );
   if( db->xAuth==0 ) return;
   iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(pParse->db, pSchema);
   if( iDb<0 ){
     /* An attempt to read a column out of a subquery or other
     ** temporary table. */
     return;
   }
 
-  assert( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN || pExpr->op==TK_TRIGGER );
   if( pExpr->op==TK_TRIGGER ){
     pTab = pParse->pTriggerTab;
   }else{
     assert( pTabList );
     for(iSrc=0; ALWAYS(iSrc<pTabList->nSrc); iSrc++){
       if( pExpr->iTable==pTabList->a[iSrc].iCursor ){
         pTab = pTabList->a[iSrc].pTab;
         break;
@@ -103501,34 +104259,37 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3FindTable(s
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTable(
   Parse *pParse,         /* context in which to report errors */
   u32 flags,             /* LOCATE_VIEW or LOCATE_NOERR */
   const char *zName,     /* Name of the table we are looking for */
   const char *zDbase     /* Name of the database.  Might be NULL */
 ){
   Table *p;
+  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
 
   /* Read the database schema. If an error occurs, leave an error message
   ** and code in pParse and return NULL. */
-  if( SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3ReadSchema(pParse) ){
+  if( (db->mDbFlags & DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk)==0 
+   && SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3ReadSchema(pParse)
+  ){
     return 0;
   }
 
-  p = sqlite3FindTable(pParse->db, zName, zDbase);
+  p = sqlite3FindTable(db, zName, zDbase);
   if( p==0 ){
     const char *zMsg = flags & LOCATE_VIEW ? "no such view" : "no such table";
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
-    if( sqlite3FindDbName(pParse->db, zDbase)<1 ){
+    if( sqlite3FindDbName(db, zDbase)<1 ){
       /* If zName is the not the name of a table in the schema created using
       ** CREATE, then check to see if it is the name of an virtual table that
       ** can be an eponymous virtual table. */
-      Module *pMod = (Module*)sqlite3HashFind(&pParse->db->aModule, zName);
+      Module *pMod = (Module*)sqlite3HashFind(&db->aModule, zName);
       if( pMod==0 && sqlite3_strnicmp(zName, "pragma_", 7)==0 ){
-        pMod = sqlite3PragmaVtabRegister(pParse->db, zName);
+        pMod = sqlite3PragmaVtabRegister(db, zName);
       }
       if( pMod && sqlite3VtabEponymousTableInit(pParse, pMod) ){
         return pMod->pEpoTab;
       }
     }
 #endif
     if( (flags & LOCATE_NOERR)==0 ){
       if( zDbase ){
@@ -103683,16 +104444,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CollapseDatab
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetOneSchema(sqlite3 *db, int iDb){
   int i;
   assert( iDb<db->nDb );
 
   if( iDb>=0 ){
     assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, iDb, 0) );
     DbSetProperty(db, iDb, DB_ResetWanted);
     DbSetProperty(db, 1, DB_ResetWanted);
+    db->mDbFlags &= ~DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk;
   }
 
   if( db->nSchemaLock==0 ){
     for(i=0; i<db->nDb; i++){
       if( DbHasProperty(db, i, DB_ResetWanted) ){
         sqlite3SchemaClear(db->aDb[i].pSchema);
       }
     }
@@ -103708,17 +104470,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetAllSchem
   sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(db);
   assert( db->nSchemaLock==0 );
   for(i=0; i<db->nDb; i++){
     Db *pDb = &db->aDb[i];
     if( pDb->pSchema ){
       sqlite3SchemaClear(pDb->pSchema);
     }
   }
-  db->mDbFlags &= ~DBFLAG_SchemaChange;
+  db->mDbFlags &= ~(DBFLAG_SchemaChange|DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk);
   sqlite3VtabUnlockList(db);
   sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(db);
   sqlite3CollapseDatabaseArray(db);
 }
 
 /*
 ** This routine is called when a commit occurs.
 */
@@ -104253,25 +105015,30 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumn(Par
   }
   pCol = &p->aCol[p->nCol];
   memset(pCol, 0, sizeof(p->aCol[0]));
   pCol->zName = z;
   sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(p, pCol);
  
   if( pType->n==0 ){
     /* If there is no type specified, columns have the default affinity
-    ** 'BLOB'. */
+    ** 'BLOB' with a default size of 4 bytes. */
     pCol->affinity = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
     pCol->szEst = 1;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    if( 4>=sqlite3GlobalConfig.szSorterRef ){
+      pCol->colFlags |= COLFLAG_SORTERREF;
+    }
+#endif
   }else{
     zType = z + sqlite3Strlen30(z) + 1;
     memcpy(zType, pType->z, pType->n);
     zType[pType->n] = 0;
     sqlite3Dequote(zType);
-    pCol->affinity = sqlite3AffinityType(zType, &pCol->szEst);
+    pCol->affinity = sqlite3AffinityType(zType, pCol);
     pCol->colFlags |= COLFLAG_HASTYPE;
   }
   p->nCol++;
   pParse->constraintName.n = 0;
 }
 
 /*
 ** This routine is called by the parser while in the middle of
@@ -104321,17 +105088,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddNotNull(Pa
 ** 'BLOB'        | SQLITE_AFF_BLOB
 ** 'REAL'        | SQLITE_AFF_REAL
 ** 'FLOA'        | SQLITE_AFF_REAL
 ** 'DOUB'        | SQLITE_AFF_REAL
 **
 ** If none of the substrings in the above table are found,
 ** SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC is returned.
 */
-SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const char *zIn, u8 *pszEst){
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const char *zIn, Column *pCol){
   u32 h = 0;
   char aff = SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC;
   const char *zChar = 0;
 
   assert( zIn!=0 );
   while( zIn[0] ){
     h = (h<<8) + sqlite3UpperToLower[(*zIn)&0xff];
     zIn++;
@@ -104358,37 +105125,42 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(
       aff = SQLITE_AFF_REAL;
 #endif
     }else if( (h&0x00FFFFFF)==(('i'<<16)+('n'<<8)+'t') ){    /* INT */
       aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
       break;
     }
   }
 
-  /* If pszEst is not NULL, store an estimate of the field size.  The
+  /* If pCol is not NULL, store an estimate of the field size.  The
   ** estimate is scaled so that the size of an integer is 1.  */
-  if( pszEst ){
-    *pszEst = 1;   /* default size is approx 4 bytes */
+  if( pCol ){
+    int v = 0;   /* default size is approx 4 bytes */
     if( aff<SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC ){
       if( zChar ){
         while( zChar[0] ){
           if( sqlite3Isdigit(zChar[0]) ){
-            int v = 0;
+            /* BLOB(k), VARCHAR(k), CHAR(k) -> r=(k/4+1) */
             sqlite3GetInt32(zChar, &v);
-            v = v/4 + 1;
-            if( v>255 ) v = 255;
-            *pszEst = v; /* BLOB(k), VARCHAR(k), CHAR(k) -> r=(k/4+1) */
             break;
           }
           zChar++;
         }
       }else{
-        *pszEst = 5;   /* BLOB, TEXT, CLOB -> r=5  (approx 20 bytes)*/
-      }
-    }
+        v = 16;   /* BLOB, TEXT, CLOB -> r=5  (approx 20 bytes)*/
+      }
+    }
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    if( v>=sqlite3GlobalConfig.szSorterRef ){
+      pCol->colFlags |= COLFLAG_SORTERREF;
+    }
+#endif
+    v = v/4 + 1;
+    if( v>255 ) v = 255;
+    pCol->szEst = v;
   }
   return aff;
 }
 
 /*
 ** The expression is the default value for the most recently added column
 ** of the table currently under construction.
 **
@@ -105987,35 +106759,37 @@ static void sqlite3RefillIndex(Parse *pP
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_SorterOpen, iSorter, 0, pIndex->nKeyCol, (char*)
                     sqlite3KeyInfoRef(pKey), P4_KEYINFO);
 
   /* Open the table. Loop through all rows of the table, inserting index
   ** records into the sorter. */
   sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
   addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iTab, 0); VdbeCoverage(v);
   regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
+  sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
 
   sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse,pIndex,iTab,regRecord,0,&iPartIdxLabel,0,0);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterInsert, iSorter, regRecord);
   sqlite3ResolvePartIdxLabel(pParse, iPartIdxLabel);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iTab, addr1+1); VdbeCoverage(v);
   sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
   if( memRootPage<0 ) sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Clear, tnum, iDb);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdx, tnum, iDb, 
                     (char *)pKey, P4_KEYINFO);
   sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_BULKCSR|((memRootPage>=0)?OPFLAG_P2ISREG:0));
 
   addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterSort, iSorter, 0); VdbeCoverage(v);
   if( IsUniqueIndex(pIndex) ){
-    int j2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 3;
-    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, j2);
+    int j2 = sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, 1);
     addr2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
+    sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, OE_Abort);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_SorterCompare, iSorter, j2, regRecord,
                          pIndex->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
     sqlite3UniqueConstraint(pParse, OE_Abort, pIndex);
+    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, j2);
   }else{
     addr2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
   }
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SorterData, iSorter, regRecord, iIdx);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_SeekEnd, iIdx);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iIdx, regRecord);
   sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);
   sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
@@ -106168,17 +106942,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateIndex(
 
   assert( pTab!=0 );
   assert( pParse->nErr==0 );
   if( sqlite3StrNICmp(pTab->zName, "sqlite_", 7)==0 
        && db->init.busy==0
 #if SQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION
        && sqlite3UserAuthTable(pTab->zName)==0
 #endif
-       && sqlite3StrNICmp(&pTab->zName[7],"altertab_",9)!=0 ){
+#ifdef SQLITE_ALLOW_SQLITE_MASTER_INDEX
+       && sqlite3StrICmp(&pTab->zName[7],"master")!=0
+#endif
+       && sqlite3StrNICmp(&pTab->zName[7],"altertab_",9)!=0
+ ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "table %s may not be indexed", pTab->zName);
     goto exit_create_index;
   }
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW
   if( pTab->pSelect ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "views may not be indexed");
     goto exit_create_index;
   }
@@ -107347,26 +108125,26 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UniqueConstra
 ){
   char *zErr;
   int j;
   StrAccum errMsg;
   Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
 
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&errMsg, pParse->db, 0, 0, 200);
   if( pIdx->aColExpr ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&errMsg, "index '%q'", pIdx->zName);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&errMsg, "index '%q'", pIdx->zName);
   }else{
     for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
       char *zCol;
       assert( pIdx->aiColumn[j]>=0 );
       zCol = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[j]].zName;
-      if( j ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, ", ", 2);
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&errMsg, pTab->zName);
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, ".", 1);
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&errMsg, zCol);
+      if( j ) sqlite3_str_append(&errMsg, ", ", 2);
+      sqlite3_str_appendall(&errMsg, pTab->zName);
+      sqlite3_str_append(&errMsg, ".", 1);
+      sqlite3_str_appendall(&errMsg, zCol);
     }
   }
   zErr = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&errMsg);
   sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, 
     IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx) ? SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_PRIMARYKEY 
                             : SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE,
     onError, zErr, P4_DYNAMIC, P5_ConstraintUnique);
 }
@@ -108042,20 +108820,22 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunct
 
   /* If the createFlag parameter is true and the search did not reveal an
   ** exact match for the name, number of arguments and encoding, then add a
   ** new entry to the hash table and return it.
   */
   if( createFlag && bestScore<FUNC_PERFECT_MATCH && 
       (pBest = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(*pBest)+nName+1))!=0 ){
     FuncDef *pOther;
+    u8 *z;
     pBest->zName = (const char*)&pBest[1];
     pBest->nArg = (u16)nArg;
     pBest->funcFlags = enc;
     memcpy((char*)&pBest[1], zName, nName+1);
+    for(z=(u8*)pBest->zName; *z; z++) *z = sqlite3UpperToLower[*z];
     pOther = (FuncDef*)sqlite3HashInsert(&db->aFunc, pBest->zName, pBest);
     if( pOther==pBest ){
       sqlite3DbFree(db, pBest);
       sqlite3OomFault(db);
       return 0;
     }else{
       pBest->pNext = pOther;
     }
@@ -108363,17 +109143,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
   int iTabCur;           /* Cursor number for the table */
   int iDataCur = 0;      /* VDBE cursor for the canonical data source */
   int iIdxCur = 0;       /* Cursor number of the first index */
   int nIdx;              /* Number of indices */
   sqlite3 *db;           /* Main database structure */
   AuthContext sContext;  /* Authorization context */
   NameContext sNC;       /* Name context to resolve expressions in */
   int iDb;               /* Database number */
-  int memCnt = -1;       /* Memory cell used for change counting */
+  int memCnt = 0;        /* Memory cell used for change counting */
   int rcauth;            /* Value returned by authorization callback */
   int eOnePass;          /* ONEPASS_OFF or _SINGLE or _MULTI */
   int aiCurOnePass[2];   /* The write cursors opened by WHERE_ONEPASS */
   u8 *aToOpen = 0;       /* Open cursor iTabCur+j if aToOpen[j] is true */
   Index *pPk;            /* The PRIMARY KEY index on the table */
   int iPk = 0;           /* First of nPk registers holding PRIMARY KEY value */
   i16 nPk = 1;           /* Number of columns in the PRIMARY KEY */
   int iKey;              /* Memory cell holding key of row to be deleted */
@@ -108468,17 +109248,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
 
   /* Begin generating code.
   */
   v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
   if( v==0 ){
     goto delete_from_cleanup;
   }
   if( pParse->nested==0 ) sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(v);
-  sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(pParse, 1, iDb);
+  sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(pParse, bComplex, iDb);
 
   /* If we are trying to delete from a view, realize that view into
   ** an ephemeral table.
   */
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
   if( isView ){
     sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, 
         pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, iTabCur
@@ -108496,17 +109276,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
   sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;
   if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pWhere) ){
     goto delete_from_cleanup;
   }
 
   /* Initialize the counter of the number of rows deleted, if
   ** we are counting rows.
   */
-  if( db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows ){
+  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows)!=0
+   && !pParse->nested
+   && !pParse->pTriggerTab
+  ){
     memCnt = ++pParse->nMem;
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, memCnt);
   }
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRUNCATE_OPTIMIZATION
   /* Special case: A DELETE without a WHERE clause deletes everything.
   ** It is easier just to erase the whole table. Prior to version 3.6.5,
   ** this optimization caused the row change count (the value returned by 
@@ -108524,17 +109307,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
    && !IsVirtual(pTab)
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_PREUPDATE_HOOK
    && db->xPreUpdateCallback==0
 #endif
   ){
     assert( !isView );
     sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 1, pTab->zName);
     if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Clear, pTab->tnum, iDb, memCnt,
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Clear, pTab->tnum, iDb, memCnt ? memCnt : -1,
                         pTab->zName, P4_STATIC);
     }
     for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
       assert( pIdx->pSchema==pTab->pSchema );
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Clear, pIdx->tnum, iDb);
     }
   }else
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRUNCATE_OPTIMIZATION */
@@ -108569,19 +109352,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
     **  ONEPASS_SINGLE: One-pass approach - at most one row deleted.
     **  ONEPASS_MULTI:  One-pass approach - any number of rows may be deleted.
     */
     pWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, wcf, iTabCur+1);
     if( pWInfo==0 ) goto delete_from_cleanup;
     eOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo, aiCurOnePass);
     assert( IsVirtual(pTab)==0 || eOnePass!=ONEPASS_MULTI );
     assert( IsVirtual(pTab) || bComplex || eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF );
+    if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_SINGLE ) sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
   
     /* Keep track of the number of rows to be deleted */
-    if( db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows ){
+    if( memCnt ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, memCnt, 1);
     }
   
     /* Extract the rowid or primary key for the current row */
     if( pPk ){
       for(i=0; i<nPk; i++){
         assert( pPk->aiColumn[i]>=0 );
         sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTabCur,
@@ -108674,23 +109458,26 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
       assert( nKey==1 );
     }  
   
     /* Delete the row */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
     if( IsVirtual(pTab) ){
       const char *pVTab = (const char *)sqlite3GetVTable(db, pTab);
       sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(pParse, pTab);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VUpdate, 0, 1, iKey, pVTab, P4_VTAB);
-      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OE_Abort);
       assert( eOnePass==ONEPASS_OFF || eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE );
       sqlite3MayAbort(pParse);
-      if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE && sqlite3IsToplevel(pParse) ){
-        pParse->isMultiWrite = 0;
-      }
+      if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE ){
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iTabCur);
+        if( sqlite3IsToplevel(pParse) ){
+          pParse->isMultiWrite = 0;
+        }
+      }
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VUpdate, 0, 1, iKey, pVTab, P4_VTAB);
+      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OE_Abort);
     }else
 #endif
     {
       int count = (pParse->nested==0);    /* True to count changes */
       sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(pParse, pTab, pTrigger, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
           iKey, nKey, count, OE_Default, eOnePass, aiCurOnePass[1]);
     }
   
@@ -108714,17 +109501,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
   if( pParse->nested==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab==0 ){
     sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(pParse);
   }
 
   /* Return the number of rows that were deleted. If this routine is 
   ** generating code because of a call to sqlite3NestedParse(), do not
   ** invoke the callback function.
   */
-  if( (db->flags&SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->nested && !pParse->pTriggerTab ){
+  if( memCnt ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, memCnt, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 0, COLNAME_NAME, "rows deleted", SQLITE_STATIC);
   }
 
 delete_from_cleanup:
   sqlite3AuthContextPop(&sContext);
   sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
@@ -109322,17 +110109,17 @@ static void printfFunc(
   sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
 
   if( argc>=1 && (zFormat = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]))!=0 ){
     x.nArg = argc-1;
     x.nUsed = 0;
     x.apArg = argv+1;
     sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, 0, 0, db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
     str.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC;
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&str, zFormat, &x);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, zFormat, &x);
     n = str.nChar;
     sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str), n,
                         SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
   }
 }
 
 /*
 ** Implementation of the substr() function.
@@ -110725,30 +111512,30 @@ static void groupConcatStep(
     if( !firstTerm ){
       if( argc==2 ){
         zSep = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[1]);
         nSep = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]);
       }else{
         zSep = ",";
         nSep = 1;
       }
-      if( zSep ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zSep, nSep);
+      if( zSep ) sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, zSep, nSep);
     }
     zVal = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
     nVal = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
-    if( zVal ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zVal, nVal);
+    if( zVal ) sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, zVal, nVal);
   }
 }
 static void groupConcatFinalize(sqlite3_context *context){
   StrAccum *pAccum;
   pAccum = sqlite3_aggregate_context(context, 0);
   if( pAccum ){
-    if( pAccum->accError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG ){
+    if( pAccum->accError==SQLITE_TOOBIG ){
       sqlite3_result_error_toobig(context);
-    }else if( pAccum->accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
+    }else if( pAccum->accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
       sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
     }else{    
       sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(pAccum), -1, 
                           sqlite3_free);
     }
   }
 }
 
@@ -111315,16 +112102,22 @@ static void fkLookupParent(
   int nIncr,            /* Increment constraint counter by this */
   int isIgnore          /* If true, pretend pTab contains all NULL values */
 ){
   int i;                                    /* Iterator variable */
   Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);         /* Vdbe to add code to */
   int iCur = pParse->nTab - 1;              /* Cursor number to use */
   int iOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);        /* jump here if parent key found */
 
+  sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v,
+    (!pFKey->isDeferred
+      && !(pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_DeferFKs)
+      && !pParse->pToplevel 
+      && !pParse->isMultiWrite) ? OE_Abort : OE_Ignore);
+
   /* If nIncr is less than zero, then check at runtime if there are any
   ** outstanding constraints to resolve. If there are not, there is no need
   ** to check if deleting this row resolves any outstanding violations.
   **
   ** Check if any of the key columns in the child table row are NULL. If 
   ** any are, then the constraint is considered satisfied. No need to 
   ** search for a matching row in the parent table.  */
   if( nIncr<0 ){
@@ -111722,16 +112515,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FkDropTable(P
     ** any modifications to the schema are made. This is because statement
     ** transactions are not able to rollback schema changes.  
     **
     ** If the SQLITE_DeferFKs flag is set, then this is not required, as
     ** the statement transaction will not be rolled back even if FK
     ** constraints are violated.
     */
     if( (db->flags & SQLITE_DeferFKs)==0 ){
+      sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, OE_Abort);
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_FkIfZero, 0, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+2);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
       sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_FOREIGNKEY,
           OE_Abort, 0, P4_STATIC, P5_ConstraintFK);
     }
 
     if( iSkip ){
       sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iSkip);
@@ -112634,21 +113428,36 @@ static int readsTable(Parse *p, int iDb,
 ** insert routine needs to know about.
 */
 static int autoIncBegin(
   Parse *pParse,      /* Parsing context */
   int iDb,            /* Index of the database holding pTab */
   Table *pTab         /* The table we are writing to */
 ){
   int memId = 0;      /* Register holding maximum rowid */
+  assert( pParse->db->aDb[iDb].pSchema!=0 );
   if( (pTab->tabFlags & TF_Autoincrement)!=0
    && (pParse->db->mDbFlags & DBFLAG_Vacuum)==0
   ){
     Parse *pToplevel = sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse);
     AutoincInfo *pInfo;
+    Table *pSeqTab = pParse->db->aDb[iDb].pSchema->pSeqTab;
+
+    /* Verify that the sqlite_sequence table exists and is an ordinary
+    ** rowid table with exactly two columns.
+    ** Ticket d8dc2b3a58cd5dc2918a1d4acb 2018-05-23 */
+    if( pSeqTab==0
+     || !HasRowid(pSeqTab)
+     || IsVirtual(pSeqTab)
+     || pSeqTab->nCol!=2
+    ){
+      pParse->nErr++;
+      pParse->rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_SEQUENCE;
+      return 0;
+    }
 
     pInfo = pToplevel->pAinc;
     while( pInfo && pInfo->pTab!=pTab ){ pInfo = pInfo->pNext; }
     if( pInfo==0 ){
       pInfo = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(*pInfo));
       if( pInfo==0 ) return 0;
       pInfo->pNext = pToplevel->pAinc;
       pToplevel->pAinc = pInfo;
@@ -112896,17 +113705,18 @@ static int xferOptimization(
 **         end loop
 **      D: cleanup
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(
   Parse *pParse,        /* Parser context */
   SrcList *pTabList,    /* Name of table into which we are inserting */
   Select *pSelect,      /* A SELECT statement to use as the data source */
   IdList *pColumn,      /* Column names corresponding to IDLIST. */
-  int onError           /* How to handle constraint errors */
+  int onError,          /* How to handle constraint errors */
+  Upsert *pUpsert       /* ON CONFLICT clauses for upsert, or NULL */
 ){
   sqlite3 *db;          /* The main database structure */
   Table *pTab;          /* The table to insert into.  aka TABLE */
   int i, j;             /* Loop counters */
   Vdbe *v;              /* Generate code into this virtual machine */
   Index *pIdx;          /* For looping over indices of the table */
   int nColumn;          /* Number of columns in the data */
   int nHidden = 0;      /* Number of hidden columns if TABLE is virtual */
@@ -113191,17 +114001,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(
   }
   if( pColumn!=0 && nColumn!=pColumn->nId ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%d values for %d columns", nColumn, pColumn->nId);
     goto insert_cleanup;
   }
     
   /* Initialize the count of rows to be inserted
   */
-  if( db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows ){
+  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows)!=0
+   && !pParse->nested
+   && !pParse->pTriggerTab
+  ){
     regRowCount = ++pParse->nMem;
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, regRowCount);
   }
 
   /* If this is not a view, open the table and and all indices */
   if( !isView ){
     int nIdx;
     nIdx = sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(pParse, pTab, OP_OpenWrite, 0, -1, 0,
@@ -113211,16 +114024,29 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(
       goto insert_cleanup;
     }
     for(i=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; i<nIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, i++){
       assert( pIdx );
       aRegIdx[i] = ++pParse->nMem;
       pParse->nMem += pIdx->nColumn;
     }
   }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+  if( pUpsert ){
+    pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iDataCur;
+    pUpsert->pUpsertSrc = pTabList;
+    pUpsert->regData = regData;
+    pUpsert->iDataCur = iDataCur;
+    pUpsert->iIdxCur = iIdxCur;
+    if( pUpsert->pUpsertTarget ){
+      sqlite3UpsertAnalyzeTarget(pParse, pTabList, pUpsert);
+    }
+  }
+#endif
+
 
   /* This is the top of the main insertion loop */
   if( useTempTable ){
     /* This block codes the top of loop only.  The complete loop is the
     ** following pseudocode (template 4):
     **
     **         rewind temp table, if empty goto D
     **      C: loop over rows of intermediate table
@@ -113413,17 +114239,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(
       sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, onError==OE_Default ? OE_Abort : onError);
       sqlite3MayAbort(pParse);
     }else
 #endif
     {
       int isReplace;    /* Set to true if constraints may cause a replace */
       int bUseSeek;     /* True to use OPFLAG_SEEKRESULT */
       sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(pParse, pTab, aRegIdx, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
-          regIns, 0, ipkColumn>=0, onError, endOfLoop, &isReplace, 0
+          regIns, 0, ipkColumn>=0, onError, endOfLoop, &isReplace, 0, pUpsert
       );
       sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, 0, regIns, 0, 0);
 
       /* Set the OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT flag if either (a) there are no REPLACE
       ** constraints or (b) there are no triggers and this table is not a
       ** parent table in a foreign key constraint. It is safe to set the
       ** flag in the second case as if any REPLACE constraint is hit, an
       ** OP_Delete or OP_IdxDelete instruction will be executed on each 
@@ -113436,17 +114262,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(
       sqlite3CompleteInsertion(pParse, pTab, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
           regIns, aRegIdx, 0, appendFlag, bUseSeek
       );
     }
   }
 
   /* Update the count of rows that are inserted
   */
-  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows)!=0 ){
+  if( regRowCount ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, regRowCount, 1);
   }
 
   if( pTrigger ){
     /* Code AFTER triggers */
     sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(pParse, pTrigger, TK_INSERT, 0, TRIGGER_AFTER, 
         pTab, regData-2-pTab->nCol, onError, endOfLoop);
   }
@@ -113473,25 +114299,26 @@ insert_end:
     sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(pParse);
   }
 
   /*
   ** Return the number of rows inserted. If this routine is 
   ** generating code because of a call to sqlite3NestedParse(), do not
   ** invoke the callback function.
   */
-  if( (db->flags&SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->nested && !pParse->pTriggerTab ){
+  if( regRowCount ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, regRowCount, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 0, COLNAME_NAME, "rows inserted", SQLITE_STATIC);
   }
 
 insert_cleanup:
   sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
   sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList);
+  sqlite3UpsertDelete(db, pUpsert);
   sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSelect);
   sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pColumn);
   sqlite3DbFree(db, aRegIdx);
 }
 
 /* Make sure "isView" and other macros defined above are undefined. Otherwise
 ** they may interfere with compilation of other functions in this file
 ** (or in another file, if this file becomes part of the amalgamation).  */
@@ -113554,16 +114381,54 @@ static int checkConstraintUnchanged(Expr
   testcase( w.eCode==0 );
   testcase( w.eCode==CKCNSTRNT_COLUMN );
   testcase( w.eCode==CKCNSTRNT_ROWID );
   testcase( w.eCode==(CKCNSTRNT_ROWID|CKCNSTRNT_COLUMN) );
   return !w.eCode;
 }
 
 /*
+** An instance of the ConstraintAddr object remembers the byte-code addresses
+** for sections of the constraint checks that deal with uniqueness constraints
+** on the rowid and on the upsert constraint.
+**
+** This information is passed into checkReorderConstraintChecks() to insert
+** some OP_Goto operations so that the rowid and upsert constraints occur
+** in the correct order relative to other constraints.
+*/
+typedef struct ConstraintAddr ConstraintAddr;
+struct ConstraintAddr {
+  int ipkTop;          /* Subroutine for rowid constraint check */
+  int upsertTop;       /* Label for upsert constraint check subroutine */
+  int upsertTop2;      /* Copy of upsertTop not cleared by the call */
+  int upsertBtm;       /* upsert constraint returns to this label */
+  int ipkBtm;          /* Return opcode rowid constraint check */
+};
+
+/*
+** Generate any OP_Goto operations needed to cause constraints to be
+** run that haven't already been run.
+*/
+static void reorderConstraintChecks(Vdbe *v, ConstraintAddr *p){
+  if( p->upsertTop ){
+    testcase( sqlite3VdbeLabelHasBeenResolved(v, p->upsertTop) );
+    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, p->upsertTop);
+    VdbeComment((v, "call upsert subroutine"));
+    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, p->upsertBtm);
+    p->upsertTop = 0;
+  }
+  if( p->ipkTop ){
+    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, p->ipkTop);
+    VdbeComment((v, "call rowid unique-check subroutine"));
+    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, p->ipkBtm);
+    p->ipkTop = 0;
+  }
+}
+
+/*
 ** Generate code to do constraint checks prior to an INSERT or an UPDATE
 ** on table pTab.
 **
 ** The regNewData parameter is the first register in a range that contains
 ** the data to be inserted or the data after the update.  There will be
 ** pTab->nCol+1 registers in this range.  The first register (the one
 ** that regNewData points to) will contain the new rowid, or NULL in the
 ** case of a WITHOUT ROWID table.  The second register in the range will
@@ -113648,40 +114513,43 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
   int iDataCur,        /* Canonical data cursor (main table or PK index) */
   int iIdxCur,         /* First index cursor */
   int regNewData,      /* First register in a range holding values to insert */
   int regOldData,      /* Previous content.  0 for INSERTs */
   u8 pkChng,           /* Non-zero if the rowid or PRIMARY KEY changed */
   u8 overrideError,    /* Override onError to this if not OE_Default */
   int ignoreDest,      /* Jump to this label on an OE_Ignore resolution */
   int *pbMayReplace,   /* OUT: Set to true if constraint may cause a replace */
-  int *aiChng          /* column i is unchanged if aiChng[i]<0 */
+  int *aiChng,         /* column i is unchanged if aiChng[i]<0 */
+  Upsert *pUpsert      /* ON CONFLICT clauses, if any.  NULL otherwise */
 ){
   Vdbe *v;             /* VDBE under constrution */
   Index *pIdx;         /* Pointer to one of the indices */
   Index *pPk = 0;      /* The PRIMARY KEY index */
   sqlite3 *db;         /* Database connection */
   int i;               /* loop counter */
   int ix;              /* Index loop counter */
   int nCol;            /* Number of columns */
   int onError;         /* Conflict resolution strategy */
   int addr1;           /* Address of jump instruction */
   int seenReplace = 0; /* True if REPLACE is used to resolve INT PK conflict */
   int nPkField;        /* Number of fields in PRIMARY KEY. 1 for ROWID tables */
-  int ipkTop = 0;      /* Top of the rowid change constraint check */
-  int ipkBottom = 0;   /* Bottom of the rowid change constraint check */
+  ConstraintAddr sAddr;/* Address information for constraint reordering */
+  Index *pUpIdx = 0;   /* Index to which to apply the upsert */
   u8 isUpdate;         /* True if this is an UPDATE operation */
   u8 bAffinityDone = 0;  /* True if the OP_Affinity operation has been run */
+  int upsertBypass = 0;  /* Address of Goto to bypass upsert subroutine */
 
   isUpdate = regOldData!=0;
   db = pParse->db;
   v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
   assert( v!=0 );
   assert( pTab->pSelect==0 );  /* This table is not a VIEW */
   nCol = pTab->nCol;
+  memset(&sAddr, 0, sizeof(sAddr));
   
   /* pPk is the PRIMARY KEY index for WITHOUT ROWID tables and NULL for
   ** normal rowid tables.  nPkField is the number of key fields in the 
   ** pPk index or 1 for a rowid table.  In other words, nPkField is the
   ** number of fields in the true primary key of the table. */
   if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
     pPk = 0;
     nPkField = 1;
@@ -113754,16 +114622,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
     ExprList *pCheck = pTab->pCheck;
     pParse->iSelfTab = -(regNewData+1);
     onError = overrideError!=OE_Default ? overrideError : OE_Abort;
     for(i=0; i<pCheck->nExpr; i++){
       int allOk;
       Expr *pExpr = pCheck->a[i].pExpr;
       if( aiChng && checkConstraintUnchanged(pExpr, aiChng, pkChng) ) continue;
       allOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+      sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, onError);
       sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, pExpr, allOk, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
       if( onError==OE_Ignore ){
         sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, ignoreDest);
       }else{
         char *zName = pCheck->a[i].zName;
         if( zName==0 ) zName = pTab->zName;
         if( onError==OE_Replace ) onError = OE_Abort; /* IMP: R-15569-63625 */
         sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_CHECK,
@@ -113771,67 +114640,123 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
                               P5_ConstraintCheck);
       }
       sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, allOk);
     }
     pParse->iSelfTab = 0;
   }
 #endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK) */
 
+  /* UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints should be handled in the following
+  ** order:
+  **
+  **   (1)  OE_Abort, OE_Fail, OE_Rollback, OE_Ignore
+  **   (2)  OE_Update
+  **   (3)  OE_Replace
+  **
+  ** OE_Fail and OE_Ignore must happen before any changes are made.
+  ** OE_Update guarantees that only a single row will change, so it
+  ** must happen before OE_Replace.  Technically, OE_Abort and OE_Rollback
+  ** could happen in any order, but they are grouped up front for
+  ** convenience.
+  **
+  ** Constraint checking code is generated in this order:
+  **   (A)  The rowid constraint
+  **   (B)  Unique index constraints that do not have OE_Replace as their
+  **        default conflict resolution strategy
+  **   (C)  Unique index that do use OE_Replace by default.
+  **
+  ** The ordering of (2) and (3) is accomplished by making sure the linked
+  ** list of indexes attached to a table puts all OE_Replace indexes last
+  ** in the list.  See sqlite3CreateIndex() for where that happens.
+  */
+
+  if( pUpsert ){
+    if( pUpsert->pUpsertTarget==0 ){
+      /* An ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING clause, without a constraint-target.
+      ** Make all unique constraint resolution be OE_Ignore */
+      assert( pUpsert->pUpsertSet==0 );
+      overrideError = OE_Ignore;
+      pUpsert = 0;
+    }else if( (pUpIdx = pUpsert->pUpsertIdx)!=0 ){
+      /* If the constraint-target is on some column other than
+      ** then ROWID, then we might need to move the UPSERT around
+      ** so that it occurs in the correct order. */
+      sAddr.upsertTop = sAddr.upsertTop2 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+      sAddr.upsertBtm = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+    }
+  }
+
   /* If rowid is changing, make sure the new rowid does not previously
   ** exist in the table.
   */
   if( pkChng && pPk==0 ){
     int addrRowidOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
 
     /* Figure out what action to take in case of a rowid collision */
     onError = pTab->keyConf;
     if( overrideError!=OE_Default ){
       onError = overrideError;
     }else if( onError==OE_Default ){
       onError = OE_Abort;
     }
 
+    /* figure out whether or not upsert applies in this case */
+    if( pUpsert && pUpsert->pUpsertIdx==0 ){
+      if( pUpsert->pUpsertSet==0 ){
+        onError = OE_Ignore;  /* DO NOTHING is the same as INSERT OR IGNORE */
+      }else{
+        onError = OE_Update;  /* DO UPDATE */
+      }
+    }
+
+    /* If the response to a rowid conflict is REPLACE but the response
+    ** to some other UNIQUE constraint is FAIL or IGNORE, then we need
+    ** to defer the running of the rowid conflict checking until after
+    ** the UNIQUE constraints have run.
+    */
+    assert( OE_Update>OE_Replace );
+    assert( OE_Ignore<OE_Replace );
+    assert( OE_Fail<OE_Replace );
+    assert( OE_Abort<OE_Replace );
+    assert( OE_Rollback<OE_Replace );
+    if( onError>=OE_Replace
+     && (pUpsert || onError!=overrideError)
+     && pTab->pIndex
+    ){
+      sAddr.ipkTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto)+1;
+    }
+
     if( isUpdate ){
       /* pkChng!=0 does not mean that the rowid has changed, only that
       ** it might have changed.  Skip the conflict logic below if the rowid
       ** is unchanged. */
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Eq, regNewData, addrRowidOk, regOldData);
       sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, SQLITE_NOTNULL);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
     }
 
-    /* If the response to a rowid conflict is REPLACE but the response
-    ** to some other UNIQUE constraint is FAIL or IGNORE, then we need
-    ** to defer the running of the rowid conflict checking until after
-    ** the UNIQUE constraints have run.
-    */
-    if( onError==OE_Replace && overrideError!=OE_Replace ){
-      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
-        if( pIdx->onError==OE_Ignore || pIdx->onError==OE_Fail ){
-          ipkTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
-          break;
-        }
-      }
-    }
-
     /* Check to see if the new rowid already exists in the table.  Skip
     ** the following conflict logic if it does not. */
+    VdbeNoopComment((v, "uniqueness check for ROWID"));
+    sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, onError);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, addrRowidOk, regNewData);
     VdbeCoverage(v);
 
-    /* Generate code that deals with a rowid collision */
     switch( onError ){
       default: {
         onError = OE_Abort;
         /* Fall thru into the next case */
       }
       case OE_Rollback:
       case OE_Abort:
       case OE_Fail: {
+        testcase( onError==OE_Rollback );
+        testcase( onError==OE_Abort );
+        testcase( onError==OE_Fail );
         sqlite3RowidConstraint(pParse, onError, pTab);
         break;
       }
       case OE_Replace: {
         /* If there are DELETE triggers on this table and the
         ** recursive-triggers flag is set, call GenerateRowDelete() to
         ** remove the conflicting row from the table. This will fire
         ** the triggers and remove both the table and index b-tree entries.
@@ -113858,43 +114783,48 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
           pTrigger = sqlite3TriggersExist(pParse, pTab, TK_DELETE, 0, 0);
         }
         if( pTrigger || sqlite3FkRequired(pParse, pTab, 0, 0) ){
           sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
           sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(pParse, pTab, pTrigger, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
                                    regNewData, 1, 0, OE_Replace, 1, -1);
         }else{
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_PREUPDATE_HOOK
-          if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
-            /* This OP_Delete opcode fires the pre-update-hook only. It does
-            ** not modify the b-tree. It is more efficient to let the coming
-            ** OP_Insert replace the existing entry than it is to delete the
-            ** existing entry and then insert a new one. */
-            sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Delete, iDataCur, OPFLAG_ISNOOP);
-            sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(v, pTab, P4_TABLE);
-          }
+          assert( HasRowid(pTab) );
+          /* This OP_Delete opcode fires the pre-update-hook only. It does
+          ** not modify the b-tree. It is more efficient to let the coming
+          ** OP_Insert replace the existing entry than it is to delete the
+          ** existing entry and then insert a new one. */
+          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Delete, iDataCur, OPFLAG_ISNOOP);
+          sqlite3VdbeAppendP4(v, pTab, P4_TABLE);
 #endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_PREUPDATE_HOOK */
           if( pTab->pIndex ){
             sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
             sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(pParse, pTab, iDataCur, iIdxCur,0,-1);
           }
         }
         seenReplace = 1;
         break;
       }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+      case OE_Update: {
+        sqlite3UpsertDoUpdate(pParse, pUpsert, pTab, 0, iDataCur);
+        /* Fall through */
+      }
+#endif
       case OE_Ignore: {
-        /*assert( seenReplace==0 );*/
+        testcase( onError==OE_Ignore );
         sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, ignoreDest);
         break;
       }
     }
     sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrRowidOk);
-    if( ipkTop ){
-      ipkBottom = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
-      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, ipkTop);
+    if( sAddr.ipkTop ){
+      sAddr.ipkBtm = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
+      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, sAddr.ipkTop-1);
     }
   }
 
   /* Test all UNIQUE constraints by creating entries for each UNIQUE
   ** index and making sure that duplicate entries do not already exist.
   ** Compute the revised record entries for indices as we go.
   **
   ** This loop also handles the case of the PRIMARY KEY index for a
@@ -113902,22 +114832,31 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
   */
   for(ix=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, ix++){
     int regIdx;          /* Range of registers hold conent for pIdx */
     int regR;            /* Range of registers holding conflicting PK */
     int iThisCur;        /* Cursor for this UNIQUE index */
     int addrUniqueOk;    /* Jump here if the UNIQUE constraint is satisfied */
 
     if( aRegIdx[ix]==0 ) continue;  /* Skip indices that do not change */
+    if( pUpIdx==pIdx ){
+      addrUniqueOk = sAddr.upsertBtm;
+      upsertBypass = sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, 0);
+      VdbeComment((v, "Skip upsert subroutine"));
+      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, sAddr.upsertTop2);
+    }else{
+      addrUniqueOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+    }
+    VdbeNoopComment((v, "uniqueness check for %s", pIdx->zName));
     if( bAffinityDone==0 ){
       sqlite3TableAffinity(v, pTab, regNewData+1);
       bAffinityDone = 1;
     }
     iThisCur = iIdxCur+ix;
-    addrUniqueOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+
 
     /* Skip partial indices for which the WHERE clause is not true */
     if( pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, aRegIdx[ix]);
       pParse->iSelfTab = -(regNewData+1);
       sqlite3ExprIfFalseDup(pParse, pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, addrUniqueOk,
                             SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
       pParse->iSelfTab = 0;
@@ -113967,16 +114906,34 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
       continue;  /* pIdx is not a UNIQUE index */
     }
     if( overrideError!=OE_Default ){
       onError = overrideError;
     }else if( onError==OE_Default ){
       onError = OE_Abort;
     }
 
+    /* Figure out if the upsert clause applies to this index */
+    if( pUpIdx==pIdx ){
+      if( pUpsert->pUpsertSet==0 ){
+        onError = OE_Ignore;  /* DO NOTHING is the same as INSERT OR IGNORE */
+      }else{
+        onError = OE_Update;  /* DO UPDATE */
+      }
+    }
+
+    /* Invoke subroutines to handle IPK replace and upsert prior to running
+    ** the first REPLACE constraint check. */
+    if( onError==OE_Replace ){
+      testcase( sAddr.ipkTop );
+      testcase( sAddr.upsertTop
+             && sqlite3VdbeLabelHasBeenResolved(v,sAddr.upsertTop) );
+      reorderConstraintChecks(v, &sAddr);
+    }
+
     /* Collision detection may be omitted if all of the following are true:
     **   (1) The conflict resolution algorithm is REPLACE
     **   (2) The table is a WITHOUT ROWID table
     **   (3) There are no secondary indexes on the table
     **   (4) No delete triggers need to be fired if there is a conflict
     **   (5) No FK constraint counters need to be updated if a conflict occurs.
     */ 
     if( (ix==0 && pIdx->pNext==0)                   /* Condition 3 */
@@ -113988,16 +114945,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
          (0==pTab->pFKey && 0==sqlite3FkReferences(pTab)))
     ){
       sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrUniqueOk);
       continue;
     }
 
     /* Check to see if the new index entry will be unique */
     sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);
+    sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, onError);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NoConflict, iThisCur, addrUniqueOk,
                          regIdx, pIdx->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
 
     /* Generate code to handle collisions */
     regR = (pIdx==pPk) ? regIdx : sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nPkField);
     if( isUpdate || onError==OE_Replace ){
       if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxRowid, iThisCur, regR);
@@ -114049,50 +115007,67 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConst
             VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Ne);
           }
         }
       }
     }
 
     /* Generate code that executes if the new index entry is not unique */
     assert( onError==OE_Rollback || onError==OE_Abort || onError==OE_Fail
-        || onError==OE_Ignore || onError==OE_Replace );
+        || onError==OE_Ignore || onError==OE_Replace || onError==OE_Update );
     switch( onError ){
       case OE_Rollback:
       case OE_Abort:
       case OE_Fail: {
+        testcase( onError==OE_Rollback );
+        testcase( onError==OE_Abort );
+        testcase( onError==OE_Fail );
         sqlite3UniqueConstraint(pParse, onError, pIdx);
         break;
       }
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+      case OE_Update: {
+        sqlite3UpsertDoUpdate(pParse, pUpsert, pTab, pIdx, iIdxCur+ix);
+        /* Fall through */
+      }
+#endif
       case OE_Ignore: {
+        testcase( onError==OE_Ignore );
         sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, ignoreDest);
         break;
       }
       default: {
         Trigger *pTrigger = 0;
         assert( onError==OE_Replace );
-        sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
         if( db->flags&SQLITE_RecTriggers ){
           pTrigger = sqlite3TriggersExist(pParse, pTab, TK_DELETE, 0, 0);
         }
+        if( pTrigger || sqlite3FkRequired(pParse, pTab, 0, 0) ){
+          sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
+        }
         sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(pParse, pTab, pTrigger, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
             regR, nPkField, 0, OE_Replace,
             (pIdx==pPk ? ONEPASS_SINGLE : ONEPASS_OFF), iThisCur);
         seenReplace = 1;
         break;
       }
     }
-    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrUniqueOk);
+    if( pUpIdx==pIdx ){
+      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, upsertBypass);
+    }else{
+      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrUniqueOk);
+    }
     sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
     if( regR!=regIdx ) sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regR, nPkField);
-  }
-  if( ipkTop ){
-    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, ipkTop+1);
-    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, ipkBottom);
-  }
+
+  }
+  testcase( sAddr.ipkTop!=0 );
+  testcase( sAddr.upsertTop
+         && sqlite3VdbeLabelHasBeenResolved(v,sAddr.upsertTop) );
+  reorderConstraintChecks(v, &sAddr);
   
   *pbMayReplace = seenReplace;
   VdbeModuleComment((v, "END: GenCnstCks(%d)", seenReplace));
 }
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NULL_TRIM
 /*
 ** Change the P5 operand on the last opcode (which should be an OP_MakeRecord)
@@ -114582,16 +115557,17 @@ static int xferOptimization(
     sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
   }
   if( HasRowid(pSrc) ){
     u8 insFlags;
     sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iSrc, iDbSrc, pSrc, OP_OpenRead);
     emptySrcTest = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iSrc, 0); VdbeCoverage(v);
     if( pDest->iPKey>=0 ){
       addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iSrc, regRowid);
+      sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, onError);
       addr2 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDest, 0, regRowid);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
       sqlite3RowidConstraint(pParse, onError, pDest);
       sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr2);
       autoIncStep(pParse, regAutoinc, regRowid);
     }else if( pDest->pIndex==0 ){
       addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iDest, regRowid);
     }else{
@@ -115139,16 +116115,31 @@ struct sqlite3_api_routines {
   int (*prepare16_v3)(sqlite3*,const void*,int,unsigned int,
                       sqlite3_stmt**,const void**);
   int (*bind_pointer)(sqlite3_stmt*,int,void*,const char*,void(*)(void*));
   void (*result_pointer)(sqlite3_context*,void*,const char*,void(*)(void*));
   void *(*value_pointer)(sqlite3_value*,const char*);
   int (*vtab_nochange)(sqlite3_context*);
   int (*value_nochange)(sqlite3_value*);
   const char *(*vtab_collation)(sqlite3_index_info*,int);
+  /* Version 3.24.0 and later */
+  int (*keyword_count)(void);
+  int (*keyword_name)(int,const char**,int*);
+  int (*keyword_check)(const char*,int);
+  sqlite3_str *(*str_new)(sqlite3*);
+  char *(*str_finish)(sqlite3_str*);
+  void (*str_appendf)(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, ...);
+  void (*str_vappendf)(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, va_list);
+  void (*str_append)(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn, int N);
+  void (*str_appendall)(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn);
+  void (*str_appendchar)(sqlite3_str*, int N, char C);
+  void (*str_reset)(sqlite3_str*);
+  int (*str_errcode)(sqlite3_str*);
+  int (*str_length)(sqlite3_str*);
+  char *(*str_value)(sqlite3_str*);
 };
 
 /*
 ** This is the function signature used for all extension entry points.  It
 ** is also defined in the file "loadext.c".
 */
 typedef int (*sqlite3_loadext_entry)(
   sqlite3 *db,                       /* Handle to the database. */
@@ -115409,16 +116400,31 @@ typedef int (*sqlite3_loadext_entry)(
 #define sqlite3_prepare16_v3           sqlite3_api->prepare16_v3
 #define sqlite3_bind_pointer           sqlite3_api->bind_pointer
 #define sqlite3_result_pointer         sqlite3_api->result_pointer
 #define sqlite3_value_pointer          sqlite3_api->value_pointer
 /* Version 3.22.0 and later */
 #define sqlite3_vtab_nochange          sqlite3_api->vtab_nochange
 #define sqlite3_value_nochange         sqlite3_api->value_nochange
 #define sqlite3_vtab_collation         sqlite3_api->vtab_collation
+/* Version 3.24.0 and later */
+#define sqlite3_keyword_count          sqlite3_api->keyword_count
+#define sqlite3_keyword_name           sqlite3_api->keyword_name
+#define sqlite3_keyword_check          sqlite3_api->keyword_check
+#define sqlite3_str_new                sqlite3_api->str_new
+#define sqlite3_str_finish             sqlite3_api->str_finish
+#define sqlite3_str_appendf            sqlite3_api->str_appendf
+#define sqlite3_str_vappendf           sqlite3_api->str_vappendf
+#define sqlite3_str_append             sqlite3_api->str_append
+#define sqlite3_str_appendall          sqlite3_api->str_appendall
+#define sqlite3_str_appendchar         sqlite3_api->str_appendchar
+#define sqlite3_str_reset              sqlite3_api->str_reset
+#define sqlite3_str_errcode            sqlite3_api->str_errcode
+#define sqlite3_str_length             sqlite3_api->str_length
+#define sqlite3_str_value              sqlite3_api->str_value
 #endif /* !defined(SQLITE_CORE) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION) */
 
 #if !defined(SQLITE_CORE) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION)
   /* This case when the file really is being compiled as a loadable 
   ** extension */
 # define SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT1     const sqlite3_api_routines *sqlite3_api=0;
 # define SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT2(v)  sqlite3_api=v;
 # define SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT3     \
@@ -115847,17 +116853,32 @@ static const sqlite3_api_routines sqlite
   sqlite3_prepare_v3,
   sqlite3_prepare16_v3,
   sqlite3_bind_pointer,
   sqlite3_result_pointer,
   sqlite3_value_pointer,
   /* Version 3.22.0 and later */
   sqlite3_vtab_nochange,
   sqlite3_value_nochange,
-  sqlite3_vtab_collation
+  sqlite3_vtab_collation,
+  /* Version 3.24.0 and later */
+  sqlite3_keyword_count,
+  sqlite3_keyword_name,
+  sqlite3_keyword_check,
+  sqlite3_str_new,
+  sqlite3_str_finish,
+  sqlite3_str_appendf,
+  sqlite3_str_vappendf,
+  sqlite3_str_append,
+  sqlite3_str_appendall,
+  sqlite3_str_appendchar,
+  sqlite3_str_reset,
+  sqlite3_str_errcode,
+  sqlite3_str_length,
+  sqlite3_str_value
 };
 
 /*
 ** Attempt to load an SQLite extension library contained in the file
 ** zFile.  The entry point is zProc.  zProc may be 0 in which case a
 ** default entry point name (sqlite3_extension_init) is used.  Use
 ** of the default name is recommended.
 **
@@ -115913,20 +116934,18 @@ static int sqlite3LoadExtension(
   }
 
   zEntry = zProc ? zProc : "sqlite3_extension_init";
 
   handle = sqlite3OsDlOpen(pVfs, zFile);
 #if SQLITE_OS_UNIX || SQLITE_OS_WIN
   for(ii=0; ii<ArraySize(azEndings) && handle==0; ii++){
     char *zAltFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%s.%s", zFile, azEndings[ii]);
-    int bExists = 0;
     if( zAltFile==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
-    sqlite3OsAccess(pVfs, zAltFile, SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, &bExists);
-    if( bExists )  handle = sqlite3OsDlOpen(pVfs, zAltFile);
+    handle = sqlite3OsDlOpen(pVfs, zAltFile);
     sqlite3_free(zAltFile);
   }
 #endif
   if( handle==0 ){
     if( pzErrMsg ){
       *pzErrMsg = zErrmsg = sqlite3_malloc64(nMsg);
       if( zErrmsg ){
         sqlite3_snprintf(nMsg, zErrmsg, 
@@ -119088,36 +120107,36 @@ static int pragmaVtabConnect(
   int i, j;
   char cSep = '(';
   StrAccum acc;
   char zBuf[200];
 
   UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
   UNUSED_PARAMETER(argv);
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, "CREATE TABLE x");
+  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, "CREATE TABLE x");
   for(i=0, j=pPragma->iPragCName; i<pPragma->nPragCName; i++, j++){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "%c\"%s\"", cSep, pragCName[j]);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "%c\"%s\"", cSep, pragCName[j]);
     cSep = ',';
   }
   if( i==0 ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "(\"%s\"", pPragma->zName);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "(\"%s\"", pPragma->zName);
     cSep = ',';
     i++;
   }
   j = 0;
   if( pPragma->mPragFlg & PragFlg_Result1 ){
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, ",arg HIDDEN");
+    sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, ",arg HIDDEN");
     j++;
   }
   if( pPragma->mPragFlg & (PragFlg_SchemaOpt|PragFlg_SchemaReq) ){
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, ",schema HIDDEN");
+    sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, ",schema HIDDEN");
     j++;
   }
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, ")", 1);
+  sqlite3_str_append(&acc, ")", 1);
   sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
   assert( strlen(zBuf) < sizeof(zBuf)-1 );
   rc = sqlite3_declare_vtab(db, zBuf);
   if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
     pTab = (PragmaVtab*)sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(PragmaVtab));
     if( pTab==0 ){
       rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
     }else{
@@ -119259,23 +120278,23 @@ static int pragmaVtabFilter(
     if( zText ){
       pCsr->azArg[j] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zText);
       if( pCsr->azArg[j]==0 ){
         return SQLITE_NOMEM;
       }
     }
   }
   sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, 0, 0, pTab->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH]);
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, "PRAGMA ");
+  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, "PRAGMA ");
   if( pCsr->azArg[1] ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "%Q.", pCsr->azArg[1]);
-  }
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, pTab->pName->zName);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "%Q.", pCsr->azArg[1]);
+  }
+  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, pTab->pName->zName);
   if( pCsr->azArg[0] ){
-    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "=%Q", pCsr->azArg[0]);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "=%Q", pCsr->azArg[0]);
   }
   zSql = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
   if( zSql==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
   rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(pTab->db, zSql, -1, &pCsr->pPragma, 0);
   sqlite3_free(zSql);
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
     pTab->base.zErrMsg = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_errmsg(pTab->db));
     return rc;
@@ -119508,16 +120527,17 @@ static int sqlite3InitOne(sqlite3 *db, i
 #endif
   Db *pDb;
   char const *azArg[4];
   int meta[5];
   InitData initData;
   const char *zMasterName;
   int openedTransaction = 0;
 
+  assert( (db->mDbFlags & DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk)==0 );
   assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
   assert( db->aDb[iDb].pSchema );
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
   assert( iDb==1 || sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(db->aDb[iDb].pBt) );
 
   db->init.busy = 1;
 
   /* Construct the in-memory representation schema tables (sqlite_master or
@@ -119578,16 +120598,19 @@ static int sqlite3InitOne(sqlite3 *db, i
   **    meta[9]   unused
   **
   ** Note: The #defined SQLITE_UTF* symbols in sqliteInt.h correspond to
   ** the possible values of meta[4].
   */
   for(i=0; i<ArraySize(meta); i++){
     sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(pDb->pBt, i+1, (u32 *)&meta[i]);
   }
+  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_ResetDatabase)!=0 ){
+    memset(meta, 0, sizeof(meta));
+  }
   pDb->pSchema->schema_cookie = meta[BTREE_SCHEMA_VERSION-1];
 
   /* If opening a non-empty database, check the text encoding. For the
   ** main database, set sqlite3.enc to the encoding of the main database.
   ** For an attached db, it is an error if the encoding is not the same
   ** as sqlite3.enc.
   */
   if( meta[BTREE_TEXT_ENCODING-1] ){  /* text encoding */
@@ -119737,16 +120760,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3 *
   assert( db->nDb>0 );
   /* Do the main schema first */
   if( !DbHasProperty(db, 0, DB_SchemaLoaded) ){
     rc = sqlite3InitOne(db, 0, pzErrMsg);
     if( rc ) return rc;
   }
   /* All other schemas after the main schema. The "temp" schema must be last */
   for(i=db->nDb-1; i>0; i--){
+    assert( i==1 || sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(db->aDb[i].pBt) );
     if( !DbHasProperty(db, i, DB_SchemaLoaded) ){
       rc = sqlite3InitOne(db, i, pzErrMsg);
       if( rc ) return rc;
     }
   }
   if( commit_internal ){
     sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(db);
   }
@@ -119758,20 +120782,22 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3 *
 ** Otherwise, the schema is loaded. An error code is returned.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse){
   int rc = SQLITE_OK;
   sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
   assert( sqlite3_mutex_held(db->mutex) );
   if( !db->init.busy ){
     rc = sqlite3Init(db, &pParse->zErrMsg);
-  }
-  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
-    pParse->rc = rc;
-    pParse->nErr++;
+    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
+      pParse->rc = rc;
+      pParse->nErr++;
+    }else if( db->noSharedCache ){
+      db->mDbFlags |= DBFLAG_SchemaKnownOk;
+    }
   }
   return rc;
 }
 
 
 /*
 ** Check schema cookies in all databases.  If any cookie is out
 ** of date set pParse->rc to SQLITE_SCHEMA.  If all schema cookies
@@ -119972,17 +120998,17 @@ static int sqlite3Prepare(
     *pzTail = sParse.zTail;
   }
   rc = sParse.rc;
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
   if( rc==SQLITE_OK && sParse.pVdbe && sParse.explain ){
     static const char * const azColName[] = {
        "addr", "opcode", "p1", "p2", "p3", "p4", "p5", "comment",
-       "selectid", "order", "from", "detail"
+       "id", "parent", "notused", "detail"
     };
     int iFirst, mx;
     if( sParse.explain==2 ){
       sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(sParse.pVdbe, 4);
       iFirst = 8;
       mx = 12;
     }else{
       sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(sParse.pVdbe, 8);
@@ -120286,17 +121312,17 @@ SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16_v3(
 
 /*
 ** Trace output macros
 */
 #if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
 /***/ int sqlite3SelectTrace = 0;
 # define SELECTTRACE(K,P,S,X)  \
   if(sqlite3SelectTrace&(K))   \
-    sqlite3DebugPrintf("%s/%p: ",(S)->zSelName,(S)),\
+    sqlite3DebugPrintf("%s/%d/%p: ",(S)->zSelName,(P)->addrExplain,(S)),\
     sqlite3DebugPrintf X
 #else
 # define SELECTTRACE(K,P,S,X)
 #endif
 
 
 /*
 ** An instance of the following object is used to record information about
@@ -120309,28 +121335,51 @@ struct DistinctCtx {
   u8 eTnctType;   /* One of the WHERE_DISTINCT_* operators */
   int tabTnct;    /* Ephemeral table used for DISTINCT processing */
   int addrTnct;   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcode for tabTnct */
 };
 
 /*
 ** An instance of the following object is used to record information about
 ** the ORDER BY (or GROUP BY) clause of query is being coded.
+**
+** The aDefer[] array is used by the sorter-references optimization. For
+** example, assuming there is no index that can be used for the ORDER BY,
+** for the query:
+**
+**     SELECT a, bigblob FROM t1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10;
+**
+** it may be more efficient to add just the "a" values to the sorter, and
+** retrieve the associated "bigblob" values directly from table t1 as the
+** 10 smallest "a" values are extracted from the sorter.
+**
+** When the sorter-reference optimization is used, there is one entry in the
+** aDefer[] array for each database table that may be read as values are
+** extracted from the sorter.
 */
 typedef struct SortCtx SortCtx;
 struct SortCtx {
   ExprList *pOrderBy;   /* The ORDER BY (or GROUP BY clause) */
   int nOBSat;           /* Number of ORDER BY terms satisfied by indices */
   int iECursor;         /* Cursor number for the sorter */
   int regReturn;        /* Register holding block-output return address */
   int labelBkOut;       /* Start label for the block-output subroutine */
   int addrSortIndex;    /* Address of the OP_SorterOpen or OP_OpenEphemeral */
   int labelDone;        /* Jump here when done, ex: LIMIT reached */
   u8 sortFlags;         /* Zero or more SORTFLAG_* bits */
   u8 bOrderedInnerLoop; /* ORDER BY correctly sorts the inner loop */
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  u8 nDefer;            /* Number of valid entries in aDefer[] */
+  struct DeferredCsr {
+    Table *pTab;        /* Table definition */
+    int iCsr;           /* Cursor number for table */
+    int nKey;           /* Number of PK columns for table pTab (>=1) */
+  } aDefer[4];
+#endif
+  struct RowLoadInfo *pDeferredRowLoad;  /* Deferred row loading info or NULL */
 };
 #define SORTFLAG_UseSorter  0x01   /* Use SorterOpen instead of OpenEphemeral */
 
 /*
 ** Delete all the content of a Select structure.  Deallocate the structure
 ** itself only if bFree is true.
 */
 static void clearSelect(sqlite3 *db, Select *p, int bFree){
@@ -120780,67 +121829,139 @@ static int sqliteProcessJoin(Parse *pPar
 static KeyInfo *keyInfoFromExprList(
   Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
   ExprList *pList,     /* Form the KeyInfo object from this ExprList */
   int iStart,          /* Begin with this column of pList */
   int nExtra           /* Add this many extra columns to the end */
 );
 
 /*
+** An instance of this object holds information (beyond pParse and pSelect)
+** needed to load the next result row that is to be added to the sorter.
+*/
+typedef struct RowLoadInfo RowLoadInfo;
+struct RowLoadInfo {
+  int regResult;               /* Store results in array of registers here */
+  u8 ecelFlags;                /* Flag argument to ExprCodeExprList() */
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  ExprList *pExtra;            /* Extra columns needed by sorter refs */
+  int regExtraResult;          /* Where to load the extra columns */
+#endif
+};
+
+/*
+** This routine does the work of loading query data into an array of
+** registers so that it can be added to the sorter.
+*/
+static void innerLoopLoadRow(
+  Parse *pParse,             /* Statement under construction */
+  Select *pSelect,           /* The query being coded */
+  RowLoadInfo *pInfo         /* Info needed to complete the row load */
+){
+  sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pSelect->pEList, pInfo->regResult,
+                          0, pInfo->ecelFlags);
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  if( pInfo->pExtra ){
+    sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pInfo->pExtra, pInfo->regExtraResult, 0, 0);
+    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pInfo->pExtra);
+  }
+#endif
+}
+
+/*
+** Code the OP_MakeRecord instruction that generates the entry to be
+** added into the sorter.
+**
+** Return the register in which the result is stored.
+*/
+static int makeSorterRecord(
+  Parse *pParse,
+  SortCtx *pSort,
+  Select *pSelect,
+  int regBase,
+  int nBase
+){
+  int nOBSat = pSort->nOBSat;
+  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+  int regOut = ++pParse->nMem;
+  if( pSort->pDeferredRowLoad ){
+    innerLoopLoadRow(pParse, pSelect, pSort->pDeferredRowLoad);
+  }
+  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase+nOBSat, nBase-nOBSat, regOut);
+  return regOut;
+}
+
+/*
 ** Generate code that will push the record in registers regData
 ** through regData+nData-1 onto the sorter.
 */
 static void pushOntoSorter(
   Parse *pParse,         /* Parser context */
   SortCtx *pSort,        /* Information about the ORDER BY clause */
   Select *pSelect,       /* The whole SELECT statement */
   int regData,           /* First register holding data to be sorted */
   int regOrigData,       /* First register holding data before packing */
-  int nData,             /* Number of elements in the data array */
+  int nData,             /* Number of elements in the regData data array */
   int nPrefixReg         /* No. of reg prior to regData available for use */
 ){
   Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;                         /* Stmt under construction */
   int bSeq = ((pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter)==0);
   int nExpr = pSort->pOrderBy->nExpr;              /* No. of ORDER BY terms */
   int nBase = nExpr + bSeq + nData;                /* Fields in sorter record */
   int regBase;                                     /* Regs for sorter record */
-  int regRecord = ++pParse->nMem;                  /* Assembled sorter record */
+  int regRecord = 0;                               /* Assembled sorter record */
   int nOBSat = pSort->nOBSat;                      /* ORDER BY terms to skip */
   int op;                            /* Opcode to add sorter record to sorter */
   int iLimit;                        /* LIMIT counter */
+  int iSkip = 0;                     /* End of the sorter insert loop */
 
   assert( bSeq==0 || bSeq==1 );
+
+  /* Three cases:
+  **   (1) The data to be sorted has already been packed into a Record
+  **       by a prior OP_MakeRecord.  In this case nData==1 and regData
+  **       will be completely unrelated to regOrigData.
+  **   (2) All output columns are included in the sort record.  In that
+  **       case regData==regOrigData.
+  **   (3) Some output columns are omitted from the sort record due to
+  **       the SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCE optimization, or due to the
+  **       SQLITE_ECEL_OMITREF optimization, or due to the 
+  **       SortCtx.pDeferredRowLoad optimiation.  In any of these cases
+  **       regOrigData is 0 to prevent this routine from trying to copy
+  **       values that might not yet exist.
+  */
   assert( nData==1 || regData==regOrigData || regOrigData==0 );
+
   if( nPrefixReg ){
     assert( nPrefixReg==nExpr+bSeq );
-    regBase = regData - nExpr - bSeq;
+    regBase = regData - nPrefixReg;
   }else{
     regBase = pParse->nMem + 1;
     pParse->nMem += nBase;
   }
   assert( pSelect->iOffset==0 || pSelect->iLimit!=0 );
   iLimit = pSelect->iOffset ? pSelect->iOffset+1 : pSelect->iLimit;
   pSort->labelDone = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
   sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pSort->pOrderBy, regBase, regOrigData,
                           SQLITE_ECEL_DUP | (regOrigData? SQLITE_ECEL_REF : 0));
   if( bSeq ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sequence, pSort->iECursor, regBase+nExpr);
   }
   if( nPrefixReg==0 && nData>0 ){
     sqlite3ExprCodeMove(pParse, regData, regBase+nExpr+bSeq, nData);
   }
-  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase+nOBSat, nBase-nOBSat, regRecord);
   if( nOBSat>0 ){
     int regPrevKey;   /* The first nOBSat columns of the previous row */
     int addrFirst;    /* Address of the OP_IfNot opcode */
     int addrJmp;      /* Address of the OP_Jump opcode */
     VdbeOp *pOp;      /* Opcode that opens the sorter */
     int nKey;         /* Number of sorting key columns, including OP_Sequence */
     KeyInfo *pKI;     /* Original KeyInfo on the sorter table */
 
+    regRecord = makeSorterRecord(pParse, pSort, pSelect, regBase, nBase);
     regPrevKey = pParse->nMem+1;
     pParse->nMem += pSort->nOBSat;
     nKey = nExpr - pSort->nOBSat + bSeq;
     if( bSeq ){
       addrFirst = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNot, regBase+nExpr); 
     }else{
       addrFirst = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_SequenceTest, pSort->iECursor);
     }
@@ -120864,50 +121985,55 @@ static void pushOntoSorter(
     if( iLimit ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, iLimit, pSort->labelDone);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
     }
     sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrFirst);
     sqlite3ExprCodeMove(pParse, regBase, regPrevKey, pSort->nOBSat);
     sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrJmp);
   }
+  if( iLimit ){
+    /* At this point the values for the new sorter entry are stored
+    ** in an array of registers. They need to be composed into a record
+    ** and inserted into the sorter if either (a) there are currently
+    ** less than LIMIT+OFFSET items or (b) the new record is smaller than 
+    ** the largest record currently in the sorter. If (b) is true and there
+    ** are already LIMIT+OFFSET items in the sorter, delete the largest
+    ** entry before inserting the new one. This way there are never more 
+    ** than LIMIT+OFFSET items in the sorter.
+    **
+    ** If the new record does not need to be inserted into the sorter,
+    ** jump to the next iteration of the loop. Or, if the
+    ** pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop flag is set to indicate that the inner
+    ** loop delivers items in sorted order, jump to the next iteration
+    ** of the outer loop.
+    */
+    int iCsr = pSort->iECursor;
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNotZero, iLimit, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+4);
+    VdbeCoverage(v);
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Last, iCsr, 0);
+    iSkip = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxLE,
+                                 iCsr, 0, regBase+nOBSat, nExpr-nOBSat);
+    VdbeCoverage(v);
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Delete, iCsr);
+  }
+  if( regRecord==0 ){
+    regRecord = makeSorterRecord(pParse, pSort, pSelect, regBase, nBase);
+  }
   if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
     op = OP_SorterInsert;
   }else{
     op = OP_IdxInsert;
   }
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, op, pSort->iECursor, regRecord,
                        regBase+nOBSat, nBase-nOBSat);
-  if( iLimit ){
-    int addr;
-    int r1 = 0;
-    /* Fill the sorter until it contains LIMIT+OFFSET entries.  (The iLimit
-    ** register is initialized with value of LIMIT+OFFSET.)  After the sorter
-    ** fills up, delete the least entry in the sorter after each insert.
-    ** Thus we never hold more than the LIMIT+OFFSET rows in memory at once */
-    addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNotZero, iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Last, pSort->iECursor);
-    if( pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop ){
-      r1 = ++pParse->nMem;
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, pSort->iECursor, nExpr, r1);
-      VdbeComment((v, "seq"));
-    }
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Delete, pSort->iECursor);
-    if( pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop ){
-      /* If the inner loop is driven by an index such that values from
-      ** the same iteration of the inner loop are in sorted order, then
-      ** immediately jump to the next iteration of an inner loop if the
-      ** entry from the current iteration does not fit into the top
-      ** LIMIT+OFFSET entries of the sorter. */
-      int iBrk = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 2;
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Eq, regBase+nExpr, iBrk, r1);
-      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, SQLITE_NULLEQ);
-      VdbeCoverage(v);
-    }
-    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
+  if( iSkip ){
+    assert( pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop==0 || pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop==1 );
+    sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(v, iSkip,
+         sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + pSort->bOrderedInnerLoop);
   }
 }
 
 /*
 ** Add code to implement the OFFSET
 */
 static void codeOffset(
   Vdbe *v,          /* Generate code into this VM */
@@ -120943,16 +122069,97 @@ static void codeDistinct(
   r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, iTab, addrRepeat, iMem, N); VdbeCoverage(v);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, iMem, N, r1);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iTab, r1, iMem, N);
   sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);
   sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
 }
 
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+/*
+** This function is called as part of inner-loop generation for a SELECT
+** statement with an ORDER BY that is not optimized by an index. It 
+** determines the expressions, if any, that the sorter-reference 
+** optimization should be used for. The sorter-reference optimization
+** is used for SELECT queries like:
+**
+**   SELECT a, bigblob FROM t1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10
+**
+** If the optimization is used for expression "bigblob", then instead of
+** storing values read from that column in the sorter records, the PK of
+** the row from table t1 is stored instead. Then, as records are extracted from
+** the sorter to return to the user, the required value of bigblob is
+** retrieved directly from table t1. If the values are very large, this 
+** can be more efficient than storing them directly in the sorter records.
+**
+** The ExprList_item.bSorterRef flag is set for each expression in pEList 
+** for which the sorter-reference optimization should be enabled. 
+** Additionally, the pSort->aDefer[] array is populated with entries
+** for all cursors required to evaluate all selected expressions. Finally.
+** output variable (*ppExtra) is set to an expression list containing
+** expressions for all extra PK values that should be stored in the
+** sorter records.
+*/
+static void selectExprDefer(
+  Parse *pParse,                  /* Leave any error here */
+  SortCtx *pSort,                 /* Sorter context */
+  ExprList *pEList,               /* Expressions destined for sorter */
+  ExprList **ppExtra              /* Expressions to append to sorter record */
+){
+  int i;
+  int nDefer = 0;
+  ExprList *pExtra = 0;
+  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
+    struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pEList->a[i];
+    if( pItem->u.x.iOrderByCol==0 ){
+      Expr *pExpr = pItem->pExpr;
+      Table *pTab = pExpr->pTab;
+      if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN && pExpr->iColumn>=0 && pTab && !IsVirtual(pTab)
+       && (pTab->aCol[pExpr->iColumn].colFlags & COLFLAG_SORTERREF)
+      ){
+        int j;
+        for(j=0; j<nDefer; j++){
+          if( pSort->aDefer[j].iCsr==pExpr->iTable ) break;
+        }
+        if( j==nDefer ){
+          if( nDefer==ArraySize(pSort->aDefer) ){
+            continue;
+          }else{
+            int nKey = 1;
+            int k;
+            Index *pPk = 0;
+            if( !HasRowid(pTab) ){
+              pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
+              nKey = pPk->nKeyCol;
+            }
+            for(k=0; k<nKey; k++){
+              Expr *pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_COLUMN, 0, 0);
+              if( pNew ){
+                pNew->iTable = pExpr->iTable;
+                pNew->pTab = pExpr->pTab;
+                pNew->iColumn = pPk ? pPk->aiColumn[k] : -1;
+                pExtra = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pExtra, pNew);
+              }
+            }
+            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].pTab = pExpr->pTab;
+            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].iCsr = pExpr->iTable;
+            pSort->aDefer[nDefer].nKey = nKey;
+            nDefer++;
+          }
+        }
+        pItem->bSorterRef = 1;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  pSort->nDefer = (u8)nDefer;
+  *ppExtra = pExtra;
+}
+#endif
+
 /*
 ** This routine generates the code for the inside of the inner loop
 ** of a SELECT.
 **
 ** If srcTab is negative, then the p->pEList expressions
 ** are evaluated in order to get the data for this row.  If srcTab is
 ** zero or more, then data is pulled from srcTab and p->pEList is used only 
 ** to get the number of columns and the collation sequence for each column.
@@ -120969,16 +122176,17 @@ static void selectInnerLoop(
 ){
   Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
   int i;
   int hasDistinct;            /* True if the DISTINCT keyword is present */
   int eDest = pDest->eDest;   /* How to dispose of results */
   int iParm = pDest->iSDParm; /* First argument to disposal method */
   int nResultCol;             /* Number of result columns */
   int nPrefixReg = 0;         /* Number of extra registers before regResult */
+  RowLoadInfo sRowLoadInfo;   /* Info for deferred row loading */
 
   /* Usually, regResult is the first cell in an array of memory cells
   ** containing the current result row. In this case regOrig is set to the
   ** same value. However, if the results are being sent to the sorter, the
   ** values for any expressions that are also part of the sort-key are omitted
   ** from this array. In this case regOrig is set to zero.  */
   int regResult;              /* Start of memory holding current results */
   int regOrig;                /* Start of memory holding full result (or 0) */
@@ -121015,45 +122223,99 @@ static void selectInnerLoop(
   pDest->nSdst = nResultCol;
   regOrig = regResult = pDest->iSdst;
   if( srcTab>=0 ){
     for(i=0; i<nResultCol; i++){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, srcTab, i, regResult+i);
       VdbeComment((v, "%s", p->pEList->a[i].zName));
     }
   }else if( eDest!=SRT_Exists ){
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    ExprList *pExtra = 0;
+#endif
     /* If the destination is an EXISTS(...) expression, the actual
     ** values returned by the SELECT are not required.
     */
-    u8 ecelFlags;
+    u8 ecelFlags;    /* "ecel" is an abbreviation of "ExprCodeExprList" */
+    ExprList *pEList;
     if( eDest==SRT_Mem || eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
       ecelFlags = SQLITE_ECEL_DUP;
     }else{
       ecelFlags = 0;
     }
     if( pSort && hasDistinct==0 && eDest!=SRT_EphemTab && eDest!=SRT_Table ){
       /* For each expression in p->pEList that is a copy of an expression in
       ** the ORDER BY clause (pSort->pOrderBy), set the associated 
       ** iOrderByCol value to one more than the index of the ORDER BY 
       ** expression within the sort-key that pushOntoSorter() will generate.
       ** This allows the p->pEList field to be omitted from the sorted record,
       ** saving space and CPU cycles.  */
       ecelFlags |= (SQLITE_ECEL_OMITREF|SQLITE_ECEL_REF);
+
       for(i=pSort->nOBSat; i<pSort->pOrderBy->nExpr; i++){
         int j;
         if( (j = pSort->pOrderBy->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol)>0 ){
           p->pEList->a[j-1].u.x.iOrderByCol = i+1-pSort->nOBSat;
         }
       }
-      regOrig = 0;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+      selectExprDefer(pParse, pSort, p->pEList, &pExtra);
+      if( pExtra && pParse->db->mallocFailed==0 ){
+        /* If there are any extra PK columns to add to the sorter records,
+        ** allocate extra memory cells and adjust the OpenEphemeral 
+        ** instruction to account for the larger records. This is only
+        ** required if there are one or more WITHOUT ROWID tables with
+        ** composite primary keys in the SortCtx.aDefer[] array.  */
+        VdbeOp *pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, pSort->addrSortIndex);
+        pOp->p2 += (pExtra->nExpr - pSort->nDefer);
+        pOp->p4.pKeyInfo->nAllField += (pExtra->nExpr - pSort->nDefer);
+        pParse->nMem += pExtra->nExpr;
+      }
+#endif
+
+      /* Adjust nResultCol to account for columns that are omitted
+      ** from the sorter by the optimizations in this branch */
+      pEList = p->pEList;
+      for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
+        if( pEList->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol>0
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+         || pEList->a[i].bSorterRef
+#endif
+        ){
+          nResultCol--;
+          regOrig = 0;
+        }
+      }
+
+      testcase( regOrig );
+      testcase( eDest==SRT_Set );
+      testcase( eDest==SRT_Mem );
+      testcase( eDest==SRT_Coroutine );
+      testcase( eDest==SRT_Output );
       assert( eDest==SRT_Set || eDest==SRT_Mem 
            || eDest==SRT_Coroutine || eDest==SRT_Output );
     }
-    nResultCol = sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse,p->pEList,regResult,
-                                         0,ecelFlags);
+    sRowLoadInfo.regResult = regResult;
+    sRowLoadInfo.ecelFlags = ecelFlags;
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    sRowLoadInfo.pExtra = pExtra;
+    sRowLoadInfo.regExtraResult = regResult + nResultCol;
+    if( pExtra ) nResultCol += pExtra->nExpr;
+#endif
+    if( p->iLimit
+     && (ecelFlags & SQLITE_ECEL_OMITREF)!=0 
+     && nPrefixReg>0
+    ){
+      assert( pSort!=0 );
+      assert( hasDistinct==0 );
+      pSort->pDeferredRowLoad = &sRowLoadInfo;
+      regOrig = 0;
+    }else{
+      innerLoopLoadRow(pParse, p, &sRowLoadInfo);
+    }
   }
 
   /* If the DISTINCT keyword was present on the SELECT statement
   ** and this row has been seen before, then do not make this row
   ** part of the result.
   */
   if( hasDistinct ){
     switch( pDistinct->eTnctType ){
@@ -121159,17 +122421,18 @@ static void selectInnerLoop(
         int addr = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 4;
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, iParm+1, addr, r1, 0);
         VdbeCoverage(v);
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iParm+1, r1,regResult,nResultCol);
         assert( pSort==0 );
       }
 #endif
       if( pSort ){
-        pushOntoSorter(pParse, pSort, p, r1+nPrefixReg,regResult,1,nPrefixReg);
+        assert( regResult==regOrig );
+        pushOntoSorter(pParse, pSort, p, r1+nPrefixReg, regOrig, 1, nPrefixReg);
       }else{
         int r2 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, r2);
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, r1, r2);
         sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
         sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
       }
       sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r1, nPrefixReg+1);
@@ -121426,21 +122689,17 @@ static const char *selectOpName(int id){
 ** where the caption is of the form:
 **
 **   "USE TEMP B-TREE FOR xxx"
 **
 ** where xxx is one of "DISTINCT", "ORDER BY" or "GROUP BY". Exactly which
 ** is determined by the zUsage argument.
 */
 static void explainTempTable(Parse *pParse, const char *zUsage){
-  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
-    Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
-    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(pParse->db, "USE TEMP B-TREE FOR %s", zUsage);
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
-  }
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 0, "USE TEMP B-TREE FOR %s", zUsage));
 }
 
 /*
 ** Assign expression b to lvalue a. A second, no-op, version of this macro
 ** is provided when SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN is defined. This allows the code
 ** in sqlite3Select() to assign values to structure member variables that
 ** only exist if SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN is not defined without polluting the
 ** code with #ifndef directives.
@@ -121448,52 +122707,16 @@ static void explainTempTable(Parse *pPar
 # define explainSetInteger(a, b) a = b
 
 #else
 /* No-op versions of the explainXXX() functions and macros. */
 # define explainTempTable(y,z)
 # define explainSetInteger(y,z)
 #endif
 
-#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT)
-/*
-** Unless an "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN" command is being processed, this function
-** is a no-op. Otherwise, it adds a single row of output to the EQP result,
-** where the caption is of one of the two forms:
-**
-**   "COMPOSITE SUBQUERIES iSub1 and iSub2 (op)"
-**   "COMPOSITE SUBQUERIES iSub1 and iSub2 USING TEMP B-TREE (op)"
-**
-** where iSub1 and iSub2 are the integers passed as the corresponding
-** function parameters, and op is the text representation of the parameter
-** of the same name. The parameter "op" must be one of TK_UNION, TK_EXCEPT,
-** TK_INTERSECT or TK_ALL. The first form is used if argument bUseTmp is 
-** false, or the second form if it is true.
-*/
-static void explainComposite(
-  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
-  int op,                         /* One of TK_UNION, TK_EXCEPT etc. */
-  int iSub1,                      /* Subquery id 1 */
-  int iSub2,                      /* Subquery id 2 */
-  int bUseTmp                     /* True if a temp table was used */
-){
-  assert( op==TK_UNION || op==TK_EXCEPT || op==TK_INTERSECT || op==TK_ALL );
-  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
-    Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
-    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(
-        pParse->db, "COMPOUND SUBQUERIES %d AND %d %s(%s)", iSub1, iSub2,
-        bUseTmp?"USING TEMP B-TREE ":"", selectOpName(op)
-    );
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
-  }
-}
-#else
-/* No-op versions of the explainXXX() functions and macros. */
-# define explainComposite(v,w,x,y,z)
-#endif
 
 /*
 ** If the inner loop was generated using a non-null pOrderBy argument,
 ** then the results were placed in a sorter.  After the loop is terminated
 ** we need to run the sorter and output the results.  The following
 ** routine generates the code needed to do that.
 */
 static void generateSortTail(
@@ -121501,80 +122724,131 @@ static void generateSortTail(
   Select *p,        /* The SELECT statement */
   SortCtx *pSort,   /* Information on the ORDER BY clause */
   int nColumn,      /* Number of columns of data */
   SelectDest *pDest /* Write the sorted results here */
 ){
   Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;                     /* The prepared statement */
   int addrBreak = pSort->labelDone;            /* Jump here to exit loop */
   int addrContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);  /* Jump here for next cycle */
-  int addr;
+  int addr;                       /* Top of output loop. Jump for Next. */
   int addrOnce = 0;
   int iTab;
   ExprList *pOrderBy = pSort->pOrderBy;
   int eDest = pDest->eDest;
   int iParm = pDest->iSDParm;
   int regRow;
   int regRowid;
   int iCol;
-  int nKey;
+  int nKey;                       /* Number of key columns in sorter record */
   int iSortTab;                   /* Sorter cursor to read from */
-  int nSortData;                  /* Trailing values to read from sorter */
   int i;
   int bSeq;                       /* True if sorter record includes seq. no. */
+  int nRefKey = 0;
   struct ExprList_item *aOutEx = p->pEList->a;
 
   assert( addrBreak<0 );
   if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Gosub, pSort->regReturn, pSort->labelBkOut);
     sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrBreak);
     sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pSort->labelBkOut);
   }
+
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  /* Open any cursors needed for sorter-reference expressions */
+  for(i=0; i<pSort->nDefer; i++){
+    Table *pTab = pSort->aDefer[i].pTab;
+    int iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(pParse->db, pTab->pSchema);
+    sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, pSort->aDefer[i].iCsr, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
+    nRefKey = MAX(nRefKey, pSort->aDefer[i].nKey);
+  }
+#endif
+
   iTab = pSort->iECursor;
   if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine || eDest==SRT_Mem ){
     regRowid = 0;
     regRow = pDest->iSdst;
-    nSortData = nColumn;
   }else{
     regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
     regRow = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nColumn);
-    nSortData = nColumn;
   }
   nKey = pOrderBy->nExpr - pSort->nOBSat;
   if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
     int regSortOut = ++pParse->nMem;
     iSortTab = pParse->nTab++;
     if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
       addrOnce = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
     }
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, iSortTab, regSortOut, nKey+1+nSortData);
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, iSortTab, regSortOut, 
+        nKey+1+nColumn+nRefKey);
     if( addrOnce ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrOnce);
     addr = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterSort, iTab, addrBreak);
     VdbeCoverage(v);
     codeOffset(v, p->iOffset, addrContinue);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SorterData, iTab, regSortOut, iSortTab);
     bSeq = 0;
   }else{
     addr = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sort, iTab, addrBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
     codeOffset(v, p->iOffset, addrContinue);
     iSortTab = iTab;
     bSeq = 1;
   }
-  for(i=0, iCol=nKey+bSeq-1; i<nSortData; i++){
+  for(i=0, iCol=nKey+bSeq-1; i<nColumn; i++){
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    if( aOutEx[i].bSorterRef ) continue;
+#endif
     if( aOutEx[i].u.x.iOrderByCol==0 ) iCol++;
   }
-  for(i=nSortData-1; i>=0; i--){
-    int iRead;
-    if( aOutEx[i].u.x.iOrderByCol ){
-      iRead = aOutEx[i].u.x.iOrderByCol-1;
-    }else{
-      iRead = iCol--;
-    }
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iSortTab, iRead, regRow+i);
-    VdbeComment((v, "%s", aOutEx[i].zName ? aOutEx[i].zName : aOutEx[i].zSpan));
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+  if( pSort->nDefer ){
+    int iKey = iCol+1;
+    int regKey = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nRefKey);
+
+    for(i=0; i<pSort->nDefer; i++){
+      int iCsr = pSort->aDefer[i].iCsr;
+      Table *pTab = pSort->aDefer[i].pTab;
+      int nKey = pSort->aDefer[i].nKey;
+
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_NullRow, iCsr);
+      if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iSortTab, iKey++, regKey);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SeekRowid, iCsr, 
+            sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+1, regKey);
+      }else{
+        int k;
+        int iJmp;
+        assert( sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab)->nKeyCol==nKey );
+        for(k=0; k<nKey; k++){
+          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iSortTab, iKey++, regKey+k);
+        }
+        iJmp = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_SeekGE, iCsr, iJmp+2, regKey, nKey);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxLE, iCsr, iJmp+3, regKey, nKey);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_NullRow, iCsr);
+      }
+    }
+    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regKey, nRefKey);
+  }
+#endif
+  for(i=nColumn-1; i>=0; i--){
+#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
+    if( aOutEx[i].bSorterRef ){
+      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, aOutEx[i].pExpr, regRow+i);
+    }else
+#endif
+    {
+      int iRead;
+      if( aOutEx[i].u.x.iOrderByCol ){
+        iRead = aOutEx[i].u.x.iOrderByCol-1;
+      }else{
+        iRead = iCol--;
+      }
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iSortTab, iRead, regRow+i);
+      VdbeComment((v, "%s", aOutEx[i].zName?aOutEx[i].zName : aOutEx[i].zSpan));
+    }
   }
   switch( eDest ){
     case SRT_Table:
     case SRT_EphemTab: {
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, regRowid);
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, regRow, regRowid);
       sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
       break;
@@ -121882,17 +123156,17 @@ static void generateColumnNames(
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
   /* If this is an EXPLAIN, skip this step */
   if( pParse->explain ){
     return;
   }
 #endif
 
-  if( pParse->colNamesSet || db->mallocFailed ) return;
+  if( pParse->colNamesSet ) return;
   /* Column names are determined by the left-most term of a compound select */
   while( pSelect->pPrior ) pSelect = pSelect->pPrior;
   SELECTTRACE(1,pParse,pSelect,("generating column names\n"));
   pTabList = pSelect->pSrc;
   pEList = pSelect->pEList;
   assert( v!=0 );
   assert( pTabList!=0 );
   pParse->colNamesSet = 1;
@@ -122409,16 +123683,17 @@ static void generateWithRecursiveQuery(
     p->selFlags |= SF_UsesEphemeral;
   }
 
   /* Detach the ORDER BY clause from the compound SELECT */
   p->pOrderBy = 0;
 
   /* Store the results of the setup-query in Queue. */
   pSetup->pNext = 0;
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "SETUP"));
   rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pSetup, &destQueue);
   pSetup->pNext = p;
   if( rc ) goto end_of_recursive_query;
 
   /* Find the next row in the Queue and output that row */
   addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iQueue, addrBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
 
   /* Transfer the next row in Queue over to Current */
@@ -122443,16 +123718,17 @@ static void generateWithRecursiveQuery(
 
   /* Execute the recursive SELECT taking the single row in Current as
   ** the value for the recursive-table. Store the results in the Queue.
   */
   if( p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate ){
     sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "recursive aggregate queries not supported");
   }else{
     p->pPrior = 0;
+    ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "RECURSIVE STEP"));
     sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &destQueue);
     assert( p->pPrior==0 );
     p->pPrior = pSetup;
   }
 
   /* Keep running the loop until the Queue is empty */
   sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrTop);
   sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrBreak);
@@ -122488,36 +123764,34 @@ static int multiSelectOrderBy(
 ** The sqlite3CodeSubselect will have added the LIMIT 1 clause in tht case.
 ** Since the limit is exactly 1, we only need to evalutes the left-most VALUES.
 */
 static int multiSelectValues(
   Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
   Select *p,            /* The right-most of SELECTs to be coded */
   SelectDest *pDest     /* What to do with query results */
 ){
-  Select *pPrior;
-  Select *pRightmost = p;
   int nRow = 1;
   int rc = 0;
+  int bShowAll = p->pLimit==0;
   assert( p->selFlags & SF_MultiValue );
   do{
     assert( p->selFlags & SF_Values );
     assert( p->op==TK_ALL || (p->op==TK_SELECT && p->pPrior==0) );
     assert( p->pNext==0 || p->pEList->nExpr==p->pNext->pEList->nExpr );
     if( p->pPrior==0 ) break;
     assert( p->pPrior->pNext==p );
     p = p->pPrior;
-    nRow++;
+    nRow += bShowAll;
   }while(1);
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 0, "SCAN %d CONSTANT ROW%s", nRow,
+                    nRow==1 ? "" : "S"));
   while( p ){
-    pPrior = p->pPrior;
-    p->pPrior = 0;
-    rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, pDest);
-    p->pPrior = pPrior;
-    if( rc || pRightmost->pLimit ) break;
+    selectInnerLoop(pParse, p, -1, 0, 0, pDest, 1, 1);
+    if( !bShowAll ) break;
     p->nSelectRow = nRow;
     p = p->pNext;
   }
   return rc;
 }
 
 /*
 ** This routine is called to process a compound query form from
@@ -122556,20 +123830,16 @@ static int multiSelect(
   SelectDest *pDest     /* What to do with query results */
 ){
   int rc = SQLITE_OK;   /* Success code from a subroutine */
   Select *pPrior;       /* Another SELECT immediately to our left */
   Vdbe *v;              /* Generate code to this VDBE */
   SelectDest dest;      /* Alternative data destination */
   Select *pDelete = 0;  /* Chain of simple selects to delete */
   sqlite3 *db;          /* Database connection */
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-  int iSub1 = 0;        /* EQP id of left-hand query */
-  int iSub2 = 0;        /* EQP id of right-hand query */
-#endif
 
   /* Make sure there is no ORDER BY or LIMIT clause on prior SELECTs.  Only
   ** the last (right-most) SELECT in the series may have an ORDER BY or LIMIT.
   */
   assert( p && p->pPrior );  /* Calling function guarantees this much */
   assert( (p->selFlags & SF_Recursive)==0 || p->op==TK_ALL || p->op==TK_UNION );
   db = pParse->db;
   pPrior = p->pPrior;
@@ -122610,227 +123880,241 @@ static int multiSelect(
     generateWithRecursiveQuery(pParse, p, &dest);
   }else
 #endif
 
   /* Compound SELECTs that have an ORDER BY clause are handled separately.
   */
   if( p->pOrderBy ){
     return multiSelectOrderBy(pParse, p, pDest);
-  }else
-
-  /* Generate code for the left and right SELECT statements.
-  */
-  switch( p->op ){
-    case TK_ALL: {
-      int addr = 0;
-      int nLimit;
-      assert( !pPrior->pLimit );
-      pPrior->iLimit = p->iLimit;
-      pPrior->iOffset = p->iOffset;
-      pPrior->pLimit = p->pLimit;
-      explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &dest);
-      p->pLimit = 0;
-      if( rc ){
-        goto multi_select_end;
-      }
-      p->pPrior = 0;
-      p->iLimit = pPrior->iLimit;
-      p->iOffset = pPrior->iOffset;
-      if( p->iLimit ){
-        addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNot, p->iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
-        VdbeComment((v, "Jump ahead if LIMIT reached"));
-        if( p->iOffset ){
-          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit,
-                            p->iLimit, p->iOffset+1, p->iOffset);
-        }
-      }
-      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &dest);
-      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
-      pDelete = p->pPrior;
-      p->pPrior = pPrior;
-      p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
-      if( pPrior->pLimit
-       && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pPrior->pLimit->pLeft, &nLimit)
-       && nLimit>0 && p->nSelectRow > sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit) 
-      ){
-        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit);
-      }
-      if( addr ){
-        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
-      }
-      break;
-    }
-    case TK_EXCEPT:
-    case TK_UNION: {
-      int unionTab;    /* Cursor number of the temporary table holding result */
-      u8 op = 0;       /* One of the SRT_ operations to apply to self */
-      int priorOp;     /* The SRT_ operation to apply to prior selects */
-      Expr *pLimit;    /* Saved values of p->nLimit  */
-      int addr;
-      SelectDest uniondest;
-
-      testcase( p->op==TK_EXCEPT );
-      testcase( p->op==TK_UNION );
-      priorOp = SRT_Union;
-      if( dest.eDest==priorOp ){
-        /* We can reuse a temporary table generated by a SELECT to our
-        ** right.
+  }else{
+
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
+    if( pPrior->pPrior==0 ){
+      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "COMPOUND QUERY"));
+      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "LEFT-MOST SUBQUERY"));
+    }
+#endif
+
+    /* Generate code for the left and right SELECT statements.
+    */
+    switch( p->op ){
+      case TK_ALL: {
+        int addr = 0;
+        int nLimit;
+        assert( !pPrior->pLimit );
+        pPrior->iLimit = p->iLimit;
+        pPrior->iOffset = p->iOffset;
+        pPrior->pLimit = p->pLimit;
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &dest);
+        p->pLimit = 0;
+        if( rc ){
+          goto multi_select_end;
+        }
+        p->pPrior = 0;
+        p->iLimit = pPrior->iLimit;
+        p->iOffset = pPrior->iOffset;
+        if( p->iLimit ){
+          addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNot, p->iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
+          VdbeComment((v, "Jump ahead if LIMIT reached"));
+          if( p->iOffset ){
+            sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit,
+                              p->iLimit, p->iOffset+1, p->iOffset);
+          }
+        }
+        ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "UNION ALL"));
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &dest);
+        testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
+        pDelete = p->pPrior;
+        p->pPrior = pPrior;
+        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
+        if( pPrior->pLimit
+         && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pPrior->pLimit->pLeft, &nLimit)
+         && nLimit>0 && p->nSelectRow > sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit) 
+        ){
+          p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit);
+        }
+        if( addr ){
+          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
+        }
+        break;
+      }
+      case TK_EXCEPT:
+      case TK_UNION: {
+        int unionTab;    /* Cursor number of the temp table holding result */
+        u8 op = 0;       /* One of the SRT_ operations to apply to self */
+        int priorOp;     /* The SRT_ operation to apply to prior selects */
+        Expr *pLimit;    /* Saved values of p->nLimit  */
+        int addr;
+        SelectDest uniondest;
+  
+        testcase( p->op==TK_EXCEPT );
+        testcase( p->op==TK_UNION );
+        priorOp = SRT_Union;
+        if( dest.eDest==priorOp ){
+          /* We can reuse a temporary table generated by a SELECT to our
+          ** right.
+          */
+          assert( p->pLimit==0 );      /* Not allowed on leftward elements */
+          unionTab = dest.iSDParm;
+        }else{
+          /* We will need to create our own temporary table to hold the
+          ** intermediate results.
+          */
+          unionTab = pParse->nTab++;
+          assert( p->pOrderBy==0 );
+          addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, unionTab, 0);
+          assert( p->addrOpenEphm[0] == -1 );
+          p->addrOpenEphm[0] = addr;
+          findRightmost(p)->selFlags |= SF_UsesEphemeral;
+          assert( p->pEList );
+        }
+  
+        /* Code the SELECT statements to our left
         */
-        assert( p->pLimit==0 );      /* Not allowed on leftward elements */
-        unionTab = dest.iSDParm;
-      }else{
-        /* We will need to create our own temporary table to hold the
-        ** intermediate results.
+        assert( !pPrior->pOrderBy );
+        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&uniondest, priorOp, unionTab);
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &uniondest);
+        if( rc ){
+          goto multi_select_end;
+        }
+  
+        /* Code the current SELECT statement
         */
-        unionTab = pParse->nTab++;
+        if( p->op==TK_EXCEPT ){
+          op = SRT_Except;
+        }else{
+          assert( p->op==TK_UNION );
+          op = SRT_Union;
+        }
+        p->pPrior = 0;
+        pLimit = p->pLimit;
+        p->pLimit = 0;
+        uniondest.eDest = op;
+        ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%s USING TEMP B-TREE",
+                          selectOpName(p->op)));
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &uniondest);
+        testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
+        /* Query flattening in sqlite3Select() might refill p->pOrderBy.
+        ** Be sure to delete p->pOrderBy, therefore, to avoid a memory leak. */
+        sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
+        pDelete = p->pPrior;
+        p->pPrior = pPrior;
+        p->pOrderBy = 0;
+        if( p->op==TK_UNION ){
+          p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
+        }
+        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
+        p->pLimit = pLimit;
+        p->iLimit = 0;
+        p->iOffset = 0;
+  
+        /* Convert the data in the temporary table into whatever form
+        ** it is that we currently need.
+        */
+        assert( unionTab==dest.iSDParm || dest.eDest!=priorOp );
+        if( dest.eDest!=priorOp ){
+          int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
+          assert( p->pEList );
+          iBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+          iCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+          computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, iBreak);
+          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, unionTab, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
+          iStart = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
+          selectInnerLoop(pParse, p, unionTab,
+                          0, 0, &dest, iCont, iBreak);
+          sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iCont);
+          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, unionTab, iStart); VdbeCoverage(v);
+          sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iBreak);
+          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, unionTab, 0);
+        }
+        break;
+      }
+      default: assert( p->op==TK_INTERSECT ); {
+        int tab1, tab2;
+        int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
+        Expr *pLimit;
+        int addr;
+        SelectDest intersectdest;
+        int r1;
+  
+        /* INTERSECT is different from the others since it requires
+        ** two temporary tables.  Hence it has its own case.  Begin
+        ** by allocating the tables we will need.
+        */
+        tab1 = pParse->nTab++;
+        tab2 = pParse->nTab++;
         assert( p->pOrderBy==0 );
-        addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, unionTab, 0);
+  
+        addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab1, 0);
         assert( p->addrOpenEphm[0] == -1 );
         p->addrOpenEphm[0] = addr;
         findRightmost(p)->selFlags |= SF_UsesEphemeral;
         assert( p->pEList );
-      }
-
-      /* Code the SELECT statements to our left
-      */
-      assert( !pPrior->pOrderBy );
-      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&uniondest, priorOp, unionTab);
-      explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &uniondest);
-      if( rc ){
-        goto multi_select_end;
-      }
-
-      /* Code the current SELECT statement
-      */
-      if( p->op==TK_EXCEPT ){
-        op = SRT_Except;
-      }else{
-        assert( p->op==TK_UNION );
-        op = SRT_Union;
-      }
-      p->pPrior = 0;
-      pLimit = p->pLimit;
-      p->pLimit = 0;
-      uniondest.eDest = op;
-      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &uniondest);
-      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
-      /* Query flattening in sqlite3Select() might refill p->pOrderBy.
-      ** Be sure to delete p->pOrderBy, therefore, to avoid a memory leak. */
-      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
-      pDelete = p->pPrior;
-      p->pPrior = pPrior;
-      p->pOrderBy = 0;
-      if( p->op==TK_UNION ){
-        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
-      }
-      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
-      p->pLimit = pLimit;
-      p->iLimit = 0;
-      p->iOffset = 0;
-
-      /* Convert the data in the temporary table into whatever form
-      ** it is that we currently need.
-      */
-      assert( unionTab==dest.iSDParm || dest.eDest!=priorOp );
-      if( dest.eDest!=priorOp ){
-        int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
+  
+        /* Code the SELECTs to our left into temporary table "tab1".
+        */
+        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&intersectdest, SRT_Union, tab1);
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &intersectdest);
+        if( rc ){
+          goto multi_select_end;
+        }
+  
+        /* Code the current SELECT into temporary table "tab2"
+        */
+        addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab2, 0);
+        assert( p->addrOpenEphm[1] == -1 );
+        p->addrOpenEphm[1] = addr;
+        p->pPrior = 0;
+        pLimit = p->pLimit;
+        p->pLimit = 0;
+        intersectdest.iSDParm = tab2;
+        ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%s USING TEMP B-TREE",
+                          selectOpName(p->op)));
+        rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &intersectdest);
+        testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
+        pDelete = p->pPrior;
+        p->pPrior = pPrior;
+        if( p->nSelectRow>pPrior->nSelectRow ){
+          p->nSelectRow = pPrior->nSelectRow;
+        }
+        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
+        p->pLimit = pLimit;
+  
+        /* Generate code to take the intersection of the two temporary
+        ** tables.
+        */
         assert( p->pEList );
         iBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
         iCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
         computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, iBreak);
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, unionTab, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
-        iStart = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
-        selectInnerLoop(pParse, p, unionTab,
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, tab1, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
+        r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
+        iStart = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowData, tab1, r1);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, tab2, iCont, r1, 0);
+        VdbeCoverage(v);
+        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
+        selectInnerLoop(pParse, p, tab1,
                         0, 0, &dest, iCont, iBreak);
         sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iCont);
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, unionTab, iStart); VdbeCoverage(v);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, tab1, iStart); VdbeCoverage(v);
         sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iBreak);
-        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, unionTab, 0);
-      }
-      break;
-    }
-    default: assert( p->op==TK_INTERSECT ); {
-      int tab1, tab2;
-      int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
-      Expr *pLimit;
-      int addr;
-      SelectDest intersectdest;
-      int r1;
-
-      /* INTERSECT is different from the others since it requires
-      ** two temporary tables.  Hence it has its own case.  Begin
-      ** by allocating the tables we will need.
-      */
-      tab1 = pParse->nTab++;
-      tab2 = pParse->nTab++;
-      assert( p->pOrderBy==0 );
-
-      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab1, 0);
-      assert( p->addrOpenEphm[0] == -1 );
-      p->addrOpenEphm[0] = addr;
-      findRightmost(p)->selFlags |= SF_UsesEphemeral;
-      assert( p->pEList );
-
-      /* Code the SELECTs to our left into temporary table "tab1".
-      */
-      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&intersectdest, SRT_Union, tab1);
-      explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &intersectdest);
-      if( rc ){
-        goto multi_select_end;
-      }
-
-      /* Code the current SELECT into temporary table "tab2"
-      */
-      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab2, 0);
-      assert( p->addrOpenEphm[1] == -1 );
-      p->addrOpenEphm[1] = addr;
-      p->pPrior = 0;
-      pLimit = p->pLimit;
-      p->pLimit = 0;
-      intersectdest.iSDParm = tab2;
-      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
-      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &intersectdest);
-      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
-      pDelete = p->pPrior;
-      p->pPrior = pPrior;
-      if( p->nSelectRow>pPrior->nSelectRow ) p->nSelectRow = pPrior->nSelectRow;
-      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
-      p->pLimit = pLimit;
-
-      /* Generate code to take the intersection of the two temporary
-      ** tables.
-      */
-      assert( p->pEList );
-      iBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
-      iCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
-      computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, iBreak);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, tab1, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
-      r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
-      iStart = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowData, tab1, r1);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, tab2, iCont, r1, 0); VdbeCoverage(v);
-      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
-      selectInnerLoop(pParse, p, tab1,
-                      0, 0, &dest, iCont, iBreak);
-      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iCont);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, tab1, iStart); VdbeCoverage(v);
-      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iBreak);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, tab2, 0);
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, tab1, 0);
-      break;
-    }
-  }
-
-  explainComposite(pParse, p->op, iSub1, iSub2, p->op!=TK_ALL);
-
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, tab2, 0);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, tab1, 0);
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+  
+  #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
+    if( p->pNext==0 ){
+      ExplainQueryPlanPop(pParse);
+    }
+  #endif
+  }
+  
   /* Compute collating sequences used by 
   ** temporary tables needed to implement the compound select.
   ** Attach the KeyInfo structure to all temporary tables.
   **
   ** This section is run by the right-most SELECT statement only.
   ** SELECT statements to the left always skip this part.  The right-most
   ** SELECT might also skip this part if it has no ORDER BY clause and
   ** no temp tables are required.
@@ -123158,20 +124442,16 @@ static int multiSelectOrderBy(
   int addr1;            /* Jump instructions that get retargetted */
   int op;               /* One of TK_ALL, TK_UNION, TK_EXCEPT, TK_INTERSECT */
   KeyInfo *pKeyDup = 0; /* Comparison information for duplicate removal */
   KeyInfo *pKeyMerge;   /* Comparison information for merging rows */
   sqlite3 *db;          /* Database connection */
   ExprList *pOrderBy;   /* The ORDER BY clause */
   int nOrderBy;         /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
   int *aPermute;        /* Mapping from ORDER BY terms to result set columns */
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-  int iSub1;            /* EQP id of left-hand query */
-  int iSub2;            /* EQP id of right-hand query */
-#endif
 
   assert( p->pOrderBy!=0 );
   assert( pKeyDup==0 ); /* "Managed" code needs this.  Ticket #3382. */
   db = pParse->db;
   v = pParse->pVdbe;
   assert( v!=0 );       /* Already thrown the error if VDBE alloc failed */
   labelEnd = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
   labelCmpr = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
@@ -123281,39 +124561,41 @@ static int multiSelectOrderBy(
 
   regAddrA = ++pParse->nMem;
   regAddrB = ++pParse->nMem;
   regOutA = ++pParse->nMem;
   regOutB = ++pParse->nMem;
   sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destA, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrA);
   sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destB, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrB);
 
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "MERGE (%s)", selectOpName(p->op)));
+
   /* Generate a coroutine to evaluate the SELECT statement to the
   ** left of the compound operator - the "A" select.
   */
   addrSelectA = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 1;
   addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, regAddrA, 0, addrSelectA);
   VdbeComment((v, "left SELECT"));
   pPrior->iLimit = regLimitA;
-  explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "LEFT"));
   sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &destA);
   sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(v, regAddrA);
   sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
 
   /* Generate a coroutine to evaluate the SELECT statement on 
   ** the right - the "B" select
   */
   addrSelectB = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 1;
   addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, regAddrB, 0, addrSelectB);
   VdbeComment((v, "right SELECT"));
   savedLimit = p->iLimit;
   savedOffset = p->iOffset;
   p->iLimit = regLimitB;
   p->iOffset = 0;  
-  explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
+  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "RIGHT"));
   sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &destB);
   p->iLimit = savedLimit;
   p->iOffset = savedOffset;
   sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(v, regAddrB);
 
   /* Generate a subroutine that outputs the current row of the A
   ** select as the next output row of the compound select.
   */
@@ -123415,17 +124697,17 @@ static int multiSelectOrderBy(
   if( p->pPrior ){
     sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->pPrior);
   }
   p->pPrior = pPrior;
   pPrior->pNext = p;
 
   /*** TBD:  Insert subroutine calls to close cursors on incomplete
   **** subqueries ****/
-  explainComposite(pParse, p->op, iSub1, iSub2, 0);
+  ExplainQueryPlanPop(pParse);
   return pParse->nErr!=0;
 }
 #endif
 
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW)
 
 /* An instance of the SubstContext object describes an substitution edit
 ** to be performed on a parse tree.
@@ -123902,19 +125184,18 @@ static int flattenSubquery(
     p->op = TK_ALL;
     if( pNew==0 ){
       p->pPrior = pPrior;
     }else{
       pNew->pPrior = pPrior;
       if( pPrior ) pPrior->pNext = pNew;
       pNew->pNext = p;
       p->pPrior = pNew;
-      SELECTTRACE(2,pParse,p,
-         ("compound-subquery flattener creates %s.%p as peer\n",
-         pNew->zSelName, pNew));
+      SELECTTRACE(2,pParse,p,("compound-subquery flattener"
+                              " creates %s.%p as peer\n",pNew->zSelName, pNew));
     }
     if( db->mallocFailed ) return 1;
   }
 
   /* Begin flattening the iFrom-th entry of the FROM clause 
   ** in the outer query.
   */
   pSub = pSub1 = pSubitem->pSelect;
@@ -125204,24 +126485,21 @@ static void updateAccumulator(Parse *pPa
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
 static void explainSimpleCount(
   Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
   Table *pTab,                    /* Table being queried */
   Index *pIdx                     /* Index used to optimize scan, or NULL */
 ){
   if( pParse->explain==2 ){
     int bCover = (pIdx!=0 && (HasRowid(pTab) || !IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx)));
-    char *zEqp = sqlite3MPrintf(pParse->db, "SCAN TABLE %s%s%s",
+    sqlite3VdbeExplain(pParse, 0, "SCAN TABLE %s%s%s",
         pTab->zName,
         bCover ? " USING COVERING INDEX " : "",
         bCover ? pIdx->zName : ""
     );
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(
-        pParse->pVdbe, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zEqp, P4_DYNAMIC
-    );
   }
 }
 #else
 # define explainSimpleCount(a,b,c)
 #endif
 
 /*
 ** sqlite3WalkExpr() callback used by havingToWhere().
@@ -125424,29 +126702,25 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
   DistinctCtx sDistinct; /* Info on how to code the DISTINCT keyword */
   SortCtx sSort;         /* Info on how to code the ORDER BY clause */
   AggInfo sAggInfo;      /* Information used by aggregate queries */
   int iEnd;              /* Address of the end of the query */
   sqlite3 *db;           /* The database connection */
   ExprList *pMinMaxOrderBy = 0;  /* Added ORDER BY for min/max queries */
   u8 minMaxFlag;                 /* Flag for min/max queries */
 
-#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
-  int iRestoreSelectId = pParse->iSelectId;
-  pParse->iSelectId = pParse->iNextSelectId++;
-#endif
-
   db = pParse->db;
+  v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
   if( p==0 || db->mallocFailed || pParse->nErr ){
     return 1;
   }
   if( sqlite3AuthCheck(pParse, SQLITE_SELECT, 0, 0, 0) ) return 1;
   memset(&sAggInfo, 0, sizeof(sAggInfo));
 #if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
-  SELECTTRACE(1,pParse,p, ("begin processing:\n"));
+  SELECTTRACE(1,pParse,p, ("begin processing:\n", pParse->addrExplain));
   if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x100 ){
     sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
   }
 #endif
 
   assert( p->pOrderBy==0 || pDest->eDest!=SRT_DistFifo );
   assert( p->pOrderBy==0 || pDest->eDest!=SRT_Fifo );
   assert( p->pOrderBy==0 || pDest->eDest!=SRT_DistQueue );
@@ -125467,26 +126741,22 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
   sSort.pOrderBy = p->pOrderBy;
   pTabList = p->pSrc;
   if( pParse->nErr || db->mallocFailed ){
     goto select_end;
   }
   assert( p->pEList!=0 );
   isAgg = (p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate)!=0;
 #if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
-  if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x100 ){
-    SELECTTRACE(0x100,pParse,p, ("after name resolution:\n"));
+  if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x104 ){
+    SELECTTRACE(0x104,pParse,p, ("after name resolution:\n"));
     sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
   }
 #endif
 
-  /* Get a pointer the VDBE under construction, allocating a new VDBE if one
-  ** does not already exist */
-  v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
-  if( v==0 ) goto select_end;
   if( pDest->eDest==SRT_Output ){
     generateColumnNames(pParse, p);
   }
 
   /* Try to various optimizations (flattening subqueries, and strength
   ** reduction of join operators) in the FROM clause up into the main query
   */
 #if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW)
@@ -125569,20 +126839,23 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
 #endif
 
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
   /* Handle compound SELECT statements using the separate multiSelect()
   ** procedure.
   */
   if( p->pPrior ){
     rc = multiSelect(pParse, p, pDest);
-    explainSetInteger(pParse->iSelectId, iRestoreSelectId);
 #if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
-    SELECTTRACE(1,pParse,p,("end compound-select processing\n"));
-#endif
+    SELECTTRACE(0x1,pParse,p,("end compound-select processing\n"));
+    if( (sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x2000)!=0 && ExplainQueryPlanParent(pParse)==0 ){
+      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
+    }
+#endif
+    if( p->pNext==0 ) ExplainQueryPlanPop(pParse);
     return rc;
   }
 #endif
 
   /* For each term in the FROM clause, do two things:
   ** (1) Authorized unreferenced tables
   ** (2) Generate code for all sub-queries
   */
@@ -125684,17 +126957,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
       */
       int addrTop = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+1;
      
       pItem->regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, pItem->regReturn, 0, addrTop);
       VdbeComment((v, "%s", pItem->pTab->zName));
       pItem->addrFillSub = addrTop;
       sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Coroutine, pItem->regReturn);
-      explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
+      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "CO-ROUTINE 0x%p", pSub));
       sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
       pItem->pTab->nRowLogEst = pSub->nSelectRow;
       pItem->fg.viaCoroutine = 1;
       pItem->regResult = dest.iSdst;
       sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(v, pItem->regReturn);
       sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrTop-1);
       sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
     }else{
@@ -125719,22 +126992,21 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
         onceAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
         VdbeComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
       }else{
         VdbeNoopComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
       }
       pPrior = isSelfJoinView(pTabList, pItem);
       if( pPrior ){
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenDup, pItem->iCursor, pPrior->iCursor);
-        explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, pPrior->iSelectId);
         assert( pPrior->pSelect!=0 );
         pSub->nSelectRow = pPrior->pSelect->nSelectRow;
       }else{
         sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_EphemTab, pItem->iCursor);
-        explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
+        ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "MATERIALIZE 0x%p", pSub));
         sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
       }
       pItem->pTab->nRowLogEst = pSub->nSelectRow;
       if( onceAddr ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, onceAddr);
       retAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Return, pItem->regReturn);
       VdbeComment((v, "end %s", pItem->pTab->zName));
       sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, topAddr, retAddr);
       sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
@@ -125951,17 +127223,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
 
     /* Convert TK_COLUMN nodes into TK_AGG_COLUMN and make entries in
     ** sAggInfo for all TK_AGG_FUNCTION nodes in expressions of the
     ** SELECT statement.
     */
     memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
     sNC.pParse = pParse;
     sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;
-    sNC.pAggInfo = &sAggInfo;
+    sNC.uNC.pAggInfo = &sAggInfo;
+    VVA_ONLY( sNC.ncFlags = NC_UAggInfo; )
     sAggInfo.mnReg = pParse->nMem+1;
     sAggInfo.nSortingColumn = pGroupBy ? pGroupBy->nExpr : 0;
     sAggInfo.pGroupBy = pGroupBy;
     sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(&sNC, pEList);
     sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(&sNC, sSort.pOrderBy);
     if( pHaving ){
       if( pGroupBy ){
         assert( pWhere==p->pWhere );
@@ -126340,38 +127613,42 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(
   }
 
   /* If there is an ORDER BY clause, then we need to sort the results
   ** and send them to the callback one by one.
   */
   if( sSort.pOrderBy ){
     explainTempTable(pParse,
                      sSort.nOBSat>0 ? "RIGHT PART OF ORDER BY":"ORDER BY");
+    assert( p->pEList==pEList );
     generateSortTail(pParse, p, &sSort, pEList->nExpr, pDest);
   }
 
   /* Jump here to skip this query
   */
   sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iEnd);
 
   /* The SELECT has been coded. If there is an error in the Parse structure,
   ** set the return code to 1. Otherwise 0. */
   rc = (pParse->nErr>0);
 
   /* Control jumps to here if an error is encountered above, or upon
   ** successful coding of the SELECT.
   */
 select_end:
-  explainSetInteger(pParse->iSelectId, iRestoreSelectId);
   sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pMinMaxOrderBy);
   sqlite3DbFree(db, sAggInfo.aCol);
   sqlite3DbFree(db, sAggInfo.aFunc);
 #if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
-  SELECTTRACE(1,pParse,p,("end processing\n"));
-#endif
+  SELECTTRACE(0x1,pParse,p,("end processing\n"));
+  if( (sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x2000)!=0 && ExplainQueryPlanParent(pParse)==0 ){
+    sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
+  }
+#endif
+  ExplainQueryPlanPop(pParse);
   return rc;
 }
 
 /************** End of select.c **********************************************/
 /************** Begin file table.c *******************************************/
 /*
 ** 2001 September 15
 **
@@ -126595,16 +127872,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTrigger
   while( pTriggerStep ){
     TriggerStep * pTmp = pTriggerStep;
     pTriggerStep = pTriggerStep->pNext;
 
     sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pTmp->pWhere);
     sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pTmp->pExprList);
     sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pTmp->pSelect);
     sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pTmp->pIdList);
+    sqlite3UpsertDelete(db, pTmp->pUpsert);
     sqlite3DbFree(db, pTmp->zSpan);
 
     sqlite3DbFree(db, pTmp);
   }
 }
 
 /*
 ** Given table pTab, return a list of all the triggers attached to 
@@ -126986,30 +128264,35 @@ static TriggerStep *triggerStepAllocate(
 ** body of a trigger.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(
   sqlite3 *db,        /* The database connection */
   Token *pTableName,  /* Name of the table into which we insert */
   IdList *pColumn,    /* List of columns in pTableName to insert into */
   Select *pSelect,    /* A SELECT statement that supplies values */
   u8 orconf,          /* The conflict algorithm (OE_Abort, OE_Replace, etc.) */
+  Upsert *pUpsert,    /* ON CONFLICT clauses for upsert */
   const char *zStart, /* Start of SQL text */
   const char *zEnd    /* End of SQL text */
 ){
   TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;
 
   assert(pSelect != 0 || db->mallocFailed);
 
   pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_INSERT, pTableName, zStart, zEnd);
   if( pTriggerStep ){
     pTriggerStep->pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pSelect, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
     pTriggerStep->pIdList = pColumn;
+    pTriggerStep->pUpsert = pUpsert;
     pTriggerStep->orconf = orconf;
   }else{
+    testcase( pColumn );
     sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pColumn);
+    testcase( pUpsert );
+    sqlite3UpsertDelete(db, pUpsert);
   }
   sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSelect);
 
   return pTriggerStep;
 }
 
 /*
 ** Construct a trigger step that implements an UPDATE statement and return
@@ -127316,26 +128599,27 @@ static int codeTriggerProgram(
 #endif
 
     switch( pStep->op ){
       case TK_UPDATE: {
         sqlite3Update(pParse, 
           targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
           sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
           sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
-          pParse->eOrconf, 0, 0
+          pParse->eOrconf, 0, 0, 0
         );
         break;
       }
       case TK_INSERT: {
         sqlite3Insert(pParse, 
           targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
           sqlite3SelectDup(db, pStep->pSelect, 0), 
           sqlite3IdListDup(db, pStep->pIdList), 
-          pParse->eOrconf
+          pParse->eOrconf,
+          sqlite3UpsertDup(db, pStep->pUpsert)
         );
         break;
       }
       case TK_DELETE: {
         sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse, 
           targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
           sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 0, 0
         );
@@ -127803,17 +129087,18 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
   Parse *pParse,         /* The parser context */
   SrcList *pTabList,     /* The table in which we should change things */
   ExprList *pChanges,    /* Things to be changed */
   Expr *pWhere,          /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
   int onError,           /* How to handle constraint errors */
   ExprList *pOrderBy,    /* ORDER BY clause. May be null */
-  Expr *pLimit           /* LIMIT clause. May be null */
+  Expr *pLimit,          /* LIMIT clause. May be null */
+  Upsert *pUpsert        /* ON CONFLICT clause, or null */
 ){
   int i, j;              /* Loop counters */
   Table *pTab;           /* The table to be updated */
   int addrTop = 0;       /* VDBE instruction address of the start of the loop */
   WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
   Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
   Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices */
   Index *pPk;            /* The PRIMARY KEY index for WITHOUT ROWID tables */
@@ -127910,42 +129195,51 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     goto update_cleanup;
   }
 
   /* Allocate a cursors for the main database table and for all indices.
   ** The index cursors might not be used, but if they are used they
   ** need to occur right after the database cursor.  So go ahead and
   ** allocate enough space, just in case.
   */
-  pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iBaseCur = iDataCur = pParse->nTab++;
+  iBaseCur = iDataCur = pParse->nTab++;
   iIdxCur = iDataCur+1;
   pPk = HasRowid(pTab) ? 0 : sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
+  testcase( pPk!=0 && pPk!=pTab->pIndex );
   for(nIdx=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, nIdx++){
-    if( IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx) && pPk!=0 ){
+    if( pPk==pIdx ){
       iDataCur = pParse->nTab;
-      pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iDataCur;
     }
     pParse->nTab++;
   }
+  if( pUpsert ){
+    /* On an UPSERT, reuse the same cursors already opened by INSERT */
+    iDataCur = pUpsert->iDataCur;
+    iIdxCur = pUpsert->iIdxCur;
+    pParse->nTab = iBaseCur;
+  }
+  pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iDataCur;
 
   /* Allocate space for aXRef[], aRegIdx[], and aToOpen[].  
   ** Initialize aXRef[] and aToOpen[] to their default values.
   */
   aXRef = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, sizeof(int) * (pTab->nCol+nIdx) + nIdx+2 );
   if( aXRef==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
   aRegIdx = aXRef+pTab->nCol;
   aToOpen = (u8*)(aRegIdx+nIdx);
   memset(aToOpen, 1, nIdx+1);
   aToOpen[nIdx+1] = 0;
   for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++) aXRef[i] = -1;
 
   /* Initialize the name-context */
   memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
   sNC.pParse = pParse;
   sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;
+  sNC.uNC.pUpsert = pUpsert;
+  sNC.ncFlags = NC_UUpsert;
 
   /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions of the
   ** of the UPDATE statement.  Also find the column index
   ** for each column to be updated in the pChanges array.  For each
   ** column to be updated, make sure we have authorization to change
   ** that column.
   */
   chngRowid = chngPk = 0;
@@ -128039,17 +129333,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     ** indexes in case they are needed to delete records.  */
     memset(aToOpen, 1, nIdx+1);
   }
 
   /* Begin generating code. */
   v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
   if( v==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
   if( pParse->nested==0 ) sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(v);
-  sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(pParse, 1, iDb);
+  sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(pParse, pTrigger || hasFK, iDb);
 
   /* Allocate required registers. */
   if( !IsVirtual(pTab) ){
     regRowSet = ++pParse->nMem;
     regOldRowid = regNewRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
     if( chngPk || pTrigger || hasFK ){
       regOld = pParse->nMem + 1;
       pParse->nMem += pTab->nCol;
@@ -128090,70 +129384,93 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
   /* Virtual tables must be handled separately */
   if( IsVirtual(pTab) ){
     updateVirtualTable(pParse, pTabList, pTab, pChanges, pRowidExpr, aXRef,
                        pWhere, onError);
     goto update_cleanup;
   }
 #endif
 
-  /* Initialize the count of updated rows */
-  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->pTriggerTab ){
+  /* Jump to labelBreak to abandon further processing of this UPDATE */
+  labelContinue = labelBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+
+  /* Not an UPSERT.  Normal processing.  Begin by
+  ** initialize the count of updated rows */
+  if( (db->flags&SQLITE_CountRows)!=0
+   && !pParse->pTriggerTab
+   && !pParse->nested
+   && pUpsert==0
+  ){
     regRowCount = ++pParse->nMem;
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, regRowCount);
   }
 
   if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, regRowSet, regOldRowid);
   }else{
     assert( pPk!=0 );
     nPk = pPk->nKeyCol;
     iPk = pParse->nMem+1;
     pParse->nMem += nPk;
     regKey = ++pParse->nMem;
-    iEph = pParse->nTab++;
-
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, iPk, iPk+nPk-1);
-    addrOpen = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, iEph, nPk);
-    sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pPk);
-  }
-
-  /* Begin the database scan. 
-  **
-  ** Do not consider a single-pass strategy for a multi-row update if
-  ** there are any triggers or foreign keys to process, or rows may
-  ** be deleted as a result of REPLACE conflict handling. Any of these
-  ** things might disturb a cursor being used to scan through the table
-  ** or index, causing a single-pass approach to malfunction.  */
-  flags = WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED|WHERE_SEEK_UNIQ_TABLE;
-  if( !pParse->nested && !pTrigger && !hasFK && !chngKey && !bReplace ){
-    flags |= WHERE_ONEPASS_MULTIROW;
-  }
-  pWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, flags, iIdxCur);
-  if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
-
-  /* A one-pass strategy that might update more than one row may not
-  ** be used if any column of the index used for the scan is being
-  ** updated. Otherwise, if there is an index on "b", statements like
-  ** the following could create an infinite loop:
-  **
-  **   UPDATE t1 SET b=b+1 WHERE b>?
-  **
-  ** Fall back to ONEPASS_OFF if where.c has selected a ONEPASS_MULTI
-  ** strategy that uses an index for which one or more columns are being
-  ** updated.  */
-  eOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo, aiCurOnePass);
-  if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_MULTI ){
-    int iCur = aiCurOnePass[1];
-    if( iCur>=0 && iCur!=iDataCur && aToOpen[iCur-iBaseCur] ){
-      eOnePass = ONEPASS_OFF;
-    }
-    assert( iCur!=iDataCur || !HasRowid(pTab) );
-  }
-  
+    if( pUpsert==0 ){
+      iEph = pParse->nTab++;
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, iPk, iPk+nPk-1);
+      addrOpen = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, iEph, nPk);
+      sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pPk);
+    }
+  }
+  
+  if( pUpsert ){
+    /* If this is an UPSERT, then all cursors have already been opened by
+    ** the outer INSERT and the data cursor should be pointing at the row
+    ** that is to be updated.  So bypass the code that searches for the
+    ** row(s) to be updated.
+    */
+    pWInfo = 0;
+    eOnePass = ONEPASS_SINGLE;
+    sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pWhere, labelBreak, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
+  }else{
+    /* Begin the database scan. 
+    **
+    ** Do not consider a single-pass strategy for a multi-row update if
+    ** there are any triggers or foreign keys to process, or rows may
+    ** be deleted as a result of REPLACE conflict handling. Any of these
+    ** things might disturb a cursor being used to scan through the table
+    ** or index, causing a single-pass approach to malfunction.  */
+    flags = WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED|WHERE_SEEK_UNIQ_TABLE;
+    if( !pParse->nested && !pTrigger && !hasFK && !chngKey && !bReplace ){
+      flags |= WHERE_ONEPASS_MULTIROW;
+    }
+    pWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, flags, iIdxCur);
+    if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
+  
+    /* A one-pass strategy that might update more than one row may not
+    ** be used if any column of the index used for the scan is being
+    ** updated. Otherwise, if there is an index on "b", statements like
+    ** the following could create an infinite loop:
+    **
+    **   UPDATE t1 SET b=b+1 WHERE b>?
+    **
+    ** Fall back to ONEPASS_OFF if where.c has selected a ONEPASS_MULTI
+    ** strategy that uses an index for which one or more columns are being
+    ** updated.  */
+    eOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo, aiCurOnePass);
+    if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_SINGLE ){
+      sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
+      if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_MULTI ){
+        int iCur = aiCurOnePass[1];
+        if( iCur>=0 && iCur!=iDataCur && aToOpen[iCur-iBaseCur] ){
+          eOnePass = ONEPASS_OFF;
+        }
+        assert( iCur!=iDataCur || !HasRowid(pTab) );
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
   if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
     /* Read the rowid of the current row of the WHERE scan. In ONEPASS_OFF
     ** mode, write the rowid into the FIFO. In either of the one-pass modes,
     ** leave it in register regOldRowid.  */
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iDataCur, regOldRowid);
     if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_OFF ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowSetAdd, regRowSet, regOldRowid);
     }
@@ -128163,79 +129480,78 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     ** the ephemeral table. Or, in ONEPASS_SINGLE or MULTI mode, change
     ** the OP_OpenEphemeral instruction to a Noop (the ephemeral table 
     ** is not required) and leave the PK fields in the array of registers.  */
     for(i=0; i<nPk; i++){
       assert( pPk->aiColumn[i]>=0 );
       sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iDataCur,pPk->aiColumn[i],iPk+i);
     }
     if( eOnePass ){
-      sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, addrOpen);
+      if( addrOpen ) sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, addrOpen);
       nKey = nPk;
       regKey = iPk;
     }else{
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, iPk, nPk, regKey,
                         sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(db, pPk), nPk);
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iEph, regKey, iPk, nPk);
     }
   }
 
-  if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_MULTI ){
-    sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
-  }
-
-  labelBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
-  if( !isView ){
-    int addrOnce = 0;
-
-    /* Open every index that needs updating. */
+  if( pUpsert==0 ){
+    if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_MULTI ){
+      sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
+    }
+  
+    if( !isView ){
+      int addrOnce = 0;
+  
+      /* Open every index that needs updating. */
+      if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF ){
+        if( aiCurOnePass[0]>=0 ) aToOpen[aiCurOnePass[0]-iBaseCur] = 0;
+        if( aiCurOnePass[1]>=0 ) aToOpen[aiCurOnePass[1]-iBaseCur] = 0;
+      }
+  
+      if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_MULTI && (nIdx-(aiCurOnePass[1]>=0))>0 ){
+        addrOnce = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
+      }
+      sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(pParse, pTab, OP_OpenWrite, 0, iBaseCur,
+                                 aToOpen, 0, 0);
+      if( addrOnce ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrOnce);
+    }
+  
+    /* Top of the update loop */
     if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF ){
-      if( aiCurOnePass[0]>=0 ) aToOpen[aiCurOnePass[0]-iBaseCur] = 0;
-      if( aiCurOnePass[1]>=0 ) aToOpen[aiCurOnePass[1]-iBaseCur] = 0;
-    }
-
-    if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_MULTI && (nIdx-(aiCurOnePass[1]>=0))>0 ){
-      addrOnce = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
-    }
-    sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(pParse, pTab, OP_OpenWrite, 0, iBaseCur, aToOpen,
-                               0, 0);
-    if( addrOnce ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrOnce);
-  }
-
-  /* Top of the update loop */
-  if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF ){
-    if( !isView && aiCurOnePass[0]!=iDataCur && aiCurOnePass[1]!=iDataCur ){
-      assert( pPk );
-      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, labelBreak, regKey, nKey);
-      VdbeCoverageNeverTaken(v);
-    }
-    if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE ){
-      labelContinue = labelBreak;
-    }else{
+      if( !isView && aiCurOnePass[0]!=iDataCur && aiCurOnePass[1]!=iDataCur ){
+        assert( pPk );
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, labelBreak, regKey,nKey);
+        VdbeCoverageNeverTaken(v);
+      }
+      if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_SINGLE ){
+        labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
+      }
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, pPk ? regKey : regOldRowid, labelBreak);
+      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pPk==0);
+      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pPk!=0);
+    }else if( pPk ){
       labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
-    }
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, pPk ? regKey : regOldRowid, labelBreak);
-    VdbeCoverageIf(v, pPk==0);
-    VdbeCoverageIf(v, pPk!=0);
-  }else if( pPk ){
-    labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iEph, labelBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
-    addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowData, iEph, regKey);
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, labelContinue, regKey, 0);
-    VdbeCoverage(v);
-  }else{
-    labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_RowSetRead, regRowSet, labelBreak,
-                             regOldRowid);
-    VdbeCoverage(v);
-    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, labelContinue, regOldRowid);
-    VdbeCoverage(v);
-  }
-
-  /* If the record number will change, set register regNewRowid to
-  ** contain the new value. If the record number is not being modified,
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iEph, labelBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
+      addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowData, iEph, regKey);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, labelContinue, regKey, 0);
+      VdbeCoverage(v);
+    }else{
+      labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_RowSetRead, regRowSet,labelBreak,
+                               regOldRowid);
+      VdbeCoverage(v);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, labelContinue, regOldRowid);
+      VdbeCoverage(v);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /* If the rowid value will change, set register regNewRowid to
+  ** contain the new value. If the rowid is not being modified,
   ** then regNewRowid is the same register as regOldRowid, which is
   ** already populated.  */
   assert( chngKey || pTrigger || hasFK || regOldRowid==regNewRowid );
   if( chngRowid ){
     sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pRowidExpr, regNewRowid);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, regNewRowid); VdbeCoverage(v);
   }
 
@@ -128289,16 +129605,22 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
         /* This branch loads the value of a column that will not be changed 
         ** into a register. This is done if there are no BEFORE triggers, or
         ** if there are one or more BEFORE triggers that use this value via
         ** a new.* reference in a trigger program.
         */
         testcase( i==31 );
         testcase( i==32 );
         sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnToReg(pParse, pTab, i, iDataCur, regNew+i);
+        if( tmask & TRIGGER_BEFORE ){
+          /* This value will be recomputed in After-BEFORE-trigger-reload-loop
+          ** below, so make sure that it is not cached and reused.
+          ** Ticket d85fffd6ffe856092ed8daefa811b1e399706b28. */
+          sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, regNew+i, 1);
+        }
       }else{
         sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regNew+i);
       }
     }
   }
 
   /* Fire any BEFORE UPDATE triggers. This happens before constraints are
   ** verified. One could argue that this is wrong.
@@ -128317,36 +129639,40 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     if( pPk ){
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, labelContinue,regKey,nKey);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
     }else{
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, labelContinue, regOldRowid);
       VdbeCoverage(v);
     }
 
-    /* If it did not delete it, the row-trigger may still have modified 
+    /* After-BEFORE-trigger-reload-loop:
+    ** If it did not delete it, the BEFORE trigger may still have modified 
     ** some of the columns of the row being updated. Load the values for 
-    ** all columns not modified by the update statement into their 
-    ** registers in case this has happened.
+    ** all columns not modified by the update statement into their registers
+    ** in case this has happened. Only unmodified columns are reloaded.
+    ** The values computed for modified columns use the values before the
+    ** BEFORE trigger runs.  See test case trigger1-18.0 (added 2018-04-26)
+    ** for an example.
     */
     for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++){
       if( aXRef[i]<0 && i!=pTab->iPKey ){
         sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iDataCur, i, regNew+i);
       }
     }
   }
 
   if( !isView ){
     int addr1 = 0;        /* Address of jump instruction */
 
     /* Do constraint checks. */
     assert( regOldRowid>0 );
     sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(pParse, pTab, aRegIdx, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
         regNewRowid, regOldRowid, chngKey, onError, labelContinue, &bReplace,
-        aXRef);
+        aXRef, 0);
 
     /* Do FK constraint checks. */
     if( hasFK ){
       sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, regOldRowid, 0, aXRef, chngKey);
     }
 
     /* Delete the index entries associated with the current record.  */
     if( bReplace || chngKey ){
@@ -128406,17 +129732,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     ** to the row just updated. */ 
     if( hasFK ){
       sqlite3FkActions(pParse, pTab, pChanges, regOldRowid, aXRef, chngKey);
     }
   }
 
   /* Increment the row counter 
   */
-  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->pTriggerTab){
+  if( regRowCount ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, regRowCount, 1);
   }
 
   sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(pParse, pTrigger, TK_UPDATE, pChanges, 
       TRIGGER_AFTER, pTab, regOldRowid, onError, labelContinue);
 
   /* Repeat the above with the next record to be updated, until
   ** all record selected by the WHERE clause have been updated.
@@ -128433,26 +129759,25 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(
     sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, labelContinue);
   }
   sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelBreak);
 
   /* Update the sqlite_sequence table by storing the content of the
   ** maximum rowid counter values recorded while inserting into
   ** autoincrement tables.
   */
-  if( pParse->nested==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab==0 ){
+  if( pParse->nested==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab==0 && pUpsert==0 ){
     sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(pParse);
   }
 
   /*
-  ** Return the number of rows that were changed. If this routine is 
-  ** generating code because of a call to sqlite3NestedParse(), do not
-  ** invoke the callback function.
-  */
-  if( (db->flags&SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->pTriggerTab && !pParse->nested ){
+  ** Return the number of rows that were changed, if we are tracking
+  ** that information.
+  */
+  if( regRowCount ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, regRowCount, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, 1);
     sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 0, COLNAME_NAME, "rows updated", SQLITE_STATIC);
   }
 
 update_cleanup:
   sqlite3AuthContextPop(&sContext);
   sqlite3DbFree(db, aXRef); /* Also frees aRegIdx[] and aToOpen[] */
@@ -128514,17 +129839,17 @@ static void updateVirtualTable(
   const char *pVTab = (const char*)sqlite3GetVTable(db, pTab);
   WhereInfo *pWInfo;
   int nArg = 2 + pTab->nCol;      /* Number of arguments to VUpdate */
   int regArg;                     /* First register in VUpdate arg array */
   int regRec;                     /* Register in which to assemble record */
   int regRowid;                   /* Register for ephem table rowid */
   int iCsr = pSrc->a[0].iCursor;  /* Cursor used for virtual table scan */
   int aDummy[2];                  /* Unused arg for sqlite3WhereOkOnePass() */
-  int bOnePass;                   /* True to use onepass strategy */
+  int eOnePass;                   /* True to use onepass strategy */
   int addr;                       /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral */
 
   /* Allocate nArg registers in which to gather the arguments for VUpdate. Then
   ** create and open the ephemeral table in which the records created from
   ** these arguments will be temporarily stored. */
   assert( v );
   ephemTab = pParse->nTab++;
   addr= sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, ephemTab, nArg);
@@ -128559,41 +129884,42 @@ static void updateVirtualTable(
     pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
     assert( pPk!=0 );
     assert( pPk->nKeyCol==1 );
     iPk = pPk->aiColumn[0];
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_VColumn, iCsr, iPk, regArg);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regArg+2+iPk, regArg+1);
   }
 
-  bOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo, aDummy);
-
-  if( bOnePass ){
+  eOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo, aDummy);
+
+  /* There is no ONEPASS_MULTI on virtual tables */
+  assert( eOnePass==ONEPASS_OFF || eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE );
+
+  if( eOnePass ){
     /* If using the onepass strategy, no-op out the OP_OpenEphemeral coded
-    ** above. Also, if this is a top-level parse (not a trigger), clear the
-    ** multi-write flag so that the VM does not open a statement journal */
+    ** above. */
     sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, addr);
-    if( sqlite3IsToplevel(pParse) ){
-      pParse->isMultiWrite = 0;
-    }
+    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iCsr);
   }else{
     /* Create a record from the argument register contents and insert it into
     ** the ephemeral table. */
+    sqlite3MultiWrite(pParse);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regArg, nArg, regRec);
 #ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
     /* Signal an assert() within OP_MakeRecord that it is allowed to
     ** accept no-change records with serial_type 10 */
     sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_NOCHNG_MAGIC);
 #endif
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, ephemTab, regRowid);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, ephemTab, regRec, regRowid);
   }
 
 
-  if( bOnePass==0 ){
+  if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_OFF ){
     /* End the virtual table scan */
     sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
 
     /* Begin scannning through the ephemeral table. */
     addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Rewind, ephemTab); VdbeCoverage(v);
 
     /* Extract arguments from the current row of the ephemeral table and 
     ** invoke the VUpdate method.  */
@@ -128603,27 +129929,280 @@ static void updateVirtualTable(
   }
   sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(pParse, pTab);
   sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VUpdate, 0, nArg, regArg, pVTab, P4_VTAB);
   sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, onError==OE_Default ? OE_Abort : onError);
   sqlite3MayAbort(pParse);
 
   /* End of the ephemeral table scan. Or, if using the onepass strategy,
   ** jump to here if the scan visited zero rows. */
-  if( bOnePass==0 ){
+  if( eOnePass==ONEPASS_OFF ){
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, ephemTab, addr+1); VdbeCoverage(v);
     sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, ephemTab, 0);
   }else{
     sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
   }
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */
 
 /************** End of update.c **********************************************/
+/************** Begin file upsert.c ******************************************/
+/*
+** 2018-04-12
+**
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+**
+**    May you do good and not evil.
+**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+**
+*************************************************************************
+** This file contains code to implement various aspects of UPSERT
+** processing and handling of the Upsert object.
+*/
+/* #include "sqliteInt.h" */
+
+#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT
+/*
+** Free a list of Upsert objects
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UpsertDelete(sqlite3 *db, Upsert *p){
+  if( p ){
+    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pUpsertTarget);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pUpsertTargetWhere);
+    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pUpsertSet);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pUpsertWhere);
+    sqlite3DbFree(db, p);
+  }
+}
+
+/*
+** Duplicate an Upsert object.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Upsert *sqlite3UpsertDup(sqlite3 *db, Upsert *p){
+  if( p==0 ) return 0;
+  return sqlite3UpsertNew(db,
+           sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pUpsertTarget, 0),
+           sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pUpsertTargetWhere, 0),
+           sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pUpsertSet, 0),
+           sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pUpsertWhere, 0)
+         );
+}
+
+/*
+** Create a new Upsert object.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Upsert *sqlite3UpsertNew(
+  sqlite3 *db,           /* Determines which memory allocator to use */
+  ExprList *pTarget,     /* Target argument to ON CONFLICT, or NULL */
+  Expr *pTargetWhere,    /* Optional WHERE clause on the target */
+  ExprList *pSet,        /* UPDATE columns, or NULL for a DO NOTHING */
+  Expr *pWhere           /* WHERE clause for the ON CONFLICT UPDATE */
+){
+  Upsert *pNew;
+  pNew = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(Upsert));
+  if( pNew==0 ){
+    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pTarget);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pTargetWhere);
+    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pSet);
+    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
+    return 0;
+  }else{
+    pNew->pUpsertTarget = pTarget;
+    pNew->pUpsertTargetWhere = pTargetWhere;
+    pNew->pUpsertSet = pSet;
+    pNew->pUpsertWhere = pWhere;
+    pNew->pUpsertIdx = 0;
+  }
+  return pNew;
+}
+
+/*
+** Analyze the ON CONFLICT clause described by pUpsert.  Resolve all
+** symbols in the conflict-target.
+**
+** Return SQLITE_OK if everything works, or an error code is something
+** is wrong.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3UpsertAnalyzeTarget(
+  Parse *pParse,     /* The parsing context */
+  SrcList *pTabList, /* Table into which we are inserting */
+  Upsert *pUpsert    /* The ON CONFLICT clauses */
+){
+  Table *pTab;            /* That table into which we are inserting */
+  int rc;                 /* Result code */
+  int iCursor;            /* Cursor used by pTab */
+  Index *pIdx;            /* One of the indexes of pTab */
+  ExprList *pTarget;      /* The conflict-target clause */
+  Expr *pTerm;            /* One term of the conflict-target clause */
+  NameContext sNC;        /* Context for resolving symbolic names */
+  Expr sCol[2];           /* Index column converted into an Expr */
+
+  assert( pTabList->nSrc==1 );
+  assert( pTabList->a[0].pTab!=0 );
+  assert( pUpsert!=0 );
+  assert( pUpsert->pUpsertTarget!=0 );
+
+  /* Resolve all symbolic names in the conflict-target clause, which
+  ** includes both the list of columns and the optional partial-index
+  ** WHERE clause.
+  */
+  memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
+  sNC.pParse = pParse;
+  sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;
+  rc = sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(&sNC, pUpsert->pUpsertTarget);
+  if( rc ) return rc;
+  rc = sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pUpsert->pUpsertTargetWhere);
+  if( rc ) return rc;
+
+  /* Check to see if the conflict target matches the rowid. */  
+  pTab = pTabList->a[0].pTab;
+  pTarget = pUpsert->pUpsertTarget;
+  iCursor = pTabList->a[0].iCursor;
+  if( HasRowid(pTab) 
+   && pTarget->nExpr==1
+   && (pTerm = pTarget->a[0].pExpr)->op==TK_COLUMN
+   && pTerm->iColumn==XN_ROWID
+  ){
+    /* The conflict-target is the rowid of the primary table */
+    assert( pUpsert->pUpsertIdx==0 );
+    return SQLITE_OK;
+  }
+
+  /* Initialize sCol[0..1] to be an expression parse tree for a
+  ** single column of an index.  The sCol[0] node will be the TK_COLLATE
+  ** operator and sCol[1] will be the TK_COLUMN operator.  Code below
+  ** will populate the specific collation and column number values
+  ** prior to comparing against the conflict-target expression.
+  */
+  memset(sCol, 0, sizeof(sCol));
+  sCol[0].op = TK_COLLATE;
+  sCol[0].pLeft = &sCol[1];
+  sCol[1].op = TK_COLUMN;
+  sCol[1].iTable = pTabList->a[0].iCursor;
+
+  /* Check for matches against other indexes */
+  for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
+    int ii, jj, nn;
+    if( !IsUniqueIndex(pIdx) ) continue;
+    if( pTarget->nExpr!=pIdx->nKeyCol ) continue;
+    if( pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
+      if( pUpsert->pUpsertTargetWhere==0 ) continue;
+      if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pUpsert->pUpsertTargetWhere,
+                             pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, iCursor)!=0 ){
+        continue;
+      }
+    }
+    nn = pIdx->nKeyCol;
+    for(ii=0; ii<nn; ii++){
+      Expr *pExpr;
+      sCol[0].u.zToken = (char*)pIdx->azColl[ii];
+      if( pIdx->aiColumn[ii]==XN_EXPR ){
+        assert( pIdx->aColExpr!=0 );
+        assert( pIdx->aColExpr->nExpr>ii );
+        pExpr = pIdx->aColExpr->a[ii].pExpr;
+        if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLLATE ){
+          sCol[0].pLeft = pExpr;
+          pExpr = &sCol[0];
+        }
+      }else{
+        sCol[0].pLeft = &sCol[1];
+        sCol[1].iColumn = pIdx->aiColumn[ii];
+        pExpr = &sCol[0];
+      }
+      for(jj=0; jj<nn; jj++){
+        if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pParse, pTarget->a[jj].pExpr, pExpr,iCursor)<2 ){
+          break;  /* Column ii of the index matches column jj of target */
+        }
+      }
+      if( jj>=nn ){
+        /* The target contains no match for column jj of the index */
+        break;
+      }
+    }
+    if( ii<nn ){
+      /* Column ii of the index did not match any term of the conflict target.
+      ** Continue the search with the next index. */
+      continue;
+    }
+    pUpsert->pUpsertIdx = pIdx;
+    return SQLITE_OK;
+  }
+  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "ON CONFLICT clause does not match any "
+                          "PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint");
+  return SQLITE_ERROR;
+}
+
+/*
+** Generate bytecode that does an UPDATE as part of an upsert.
+**
+** If pIdx is NULL, then the UNIQUE constraint that failed was the IPK.
+** In this case parameter iCur is a cursor open on the table b-tree that
+** currently points to the conflicting table row. Otherwise, if pIdx
+** is not NULL, then pIdx is the constraint that failed and iCur is a
+** cursor points to the conflicting row.
+*/
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UpsertDoUpdate(
+  Parse *pParse,        /* The parsing and code-generating context */
+  Upsert *pUpsert,      /* The ON CONFLICT clause for the upsert */
+  Table *pTab,          /* The table being updated */
+  Index *pIdx,          /* The UNIQUE constraint that failed */
+  int iCur              /* Cursor for pIdx (or pTab if pIdx==NULL) */
+){
+  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
+  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
+  SrcList *pSrc;            /* FROM clause for the UPDATE */
+  int iDataCur = pUpsert->iDataCur;
+
+  assert( v!=0 );
+  VdbeNoopComment((v, "Begin DO UPDATE of UPSERT"));
+  if( pIdx && iCur!=iDataCur ){
+    if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
+      int regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxRowid, iCur, regRowid);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SeekRowid, iDataCur, 0, regRowid);
+      VdbeCoverage(v);
+      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRowid);
+    }else{
+      Index *pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
+      int nPk = pPk->nKeyCol;
+      int iPk = pParse->nMem+1;
+      int i;
+      pParse->nMem += nPk;
+      for(i=0; i<nPk; i++){
+        int k;
+        assert( pPk->aiColumn[i]>=0 );
+        k = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pIdx, pPk->aiColumn[i]);
+        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, k, iPk+i);
+        VdbeComment((v, "%s.%s", pIdx->zName,
+                    pTab->aCol[pPk->aiColumn[i]].zName));
+      }
+      sqlite3VdbeVerifyAbortable(v, OE_Abort);
+      i = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, iDataCur, 0, iPk, nPk);
+      VdbeCoverage(v);
+      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Halt, SQLITE_CORRUPT, OE_Abort, 0, 
+            "corrupt database", P4_STATIC);
+      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, i);
+    }
+  }
+  /* pUpsert does not own pUpsertSrc - the outer INSERT statement does.  So
+  ** we have to make a copy before passing it down into sqlite3Update() */
+  pSrc = sqlite3SrcListDup(db, pUpsert->pUpsertSrc, 0);
+  sqlite3Update(pParse, pSrc, pUpsert->pUpsertSet,
+      pUpsert->pUpsertWhere, OE_Abort, 0, 0, pUpsert);
+  pUpsert->pUpsertSet = 0;    /* Will have been deleted by sqlite3Update() */
+  pUpsert->pUpsertWhere = 0;  /* Will have been deleted by sqlite3Update() */
+  VdbeNoopComment((v, "End DO UPDATE of UPSERT"));
+}
+
+#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_UPSERT */
+
+/************** End of upsert.c **********************************************/
 /************** Begin file vacuum.c ******************************************/
 /*
 ** 2003 April 6
 **
 ** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
 ** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
 **
 **    May you do good and not evil.
@@ -128656,18 +130235,24 @@ static int execSql(sqlite3 *db, char **p
   int rc;
 
   /* printf("SQL: [%s]\n", zSql); fflush(stdout); */
   rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
   while( SQLITE_ROW==(rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt)) ){
     const char *zSubSql = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0);
     assert( sqlite3_strnicmp(zSql,"SELECT",6)==0 );
-    assert( sqlite3_strnicmp(zSubSql,"SELECT",6)!=0 || CORRUPT_DB );
-    if( zSubSql && zSubSql[0]!='S' ){
+    /* The secondary SQL must be one of CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX,
+    ** or INSERT.  Historically there have been attacks that first
+    ** corrupt the sqlite_master.sql field with other kinds of statements
+    ** then run VACUUM to get those statements to execute at inappropriate
+    ** times. */
+    if( zSubSql
+     && (strncmp(zSubSql,"CRE",3)==0 || strncmp(zSubSql,"INS",3)==0)
+    ){
       rc = execSql(db, pzErrMsg, zSubSql);
       if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;
     }
   }
   assert( rc!=SQLITE_ROW );
   if( rc==SQLITE_DONE ) rc = SQLITE_OK;
   if( rc ){
     sqlite3SetString(pzErrMsg, db, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
@@ -128870,17 +130455,17 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunVacuum(char
       "SELECT sql FROM \"%w\".sqlite_master"
       " WHERE type='table'AND name<>'sqlite_sequence'"
       " AND coalesce(rootpage,1)>0",
       zDbMain
   );
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto end_of_vacuum;
   rc = execSqlF(db, pzErrMsg,
       "SELECT sql FROM \"%w\".sqlite_master"
-      " WHERE type='index' AND length(sql)>10",
+      " WHERE type='index'",
       zDbMain
   );
   if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto end_of_vacuum;
   db->init.iDb = 0;
 
   /* Loop through the tables in the main database. For each, do
   ** an "INSERT INTO vacuum_db.xxx SELECT * FROM main.xxx;" to copy
   ** the contents to the temporary database.
@@ -130040,43 +131625,46 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverl
 ){
   Table *pTab;
   sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;
   sqlite3_module *pMod;
   void (*xSFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**) = 0;
   void *pArg = 0;
   FuncDef *pNew;
   int rc = 0;
-  char *zLowerName;
-  unsigned char *z;
-
 
   /* Check to see the left operand is a column in a virtual table */
   if( NEVER(pExpr==0) ) return pDef;
   if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return pDef;
   pTab = pExpr->pTab;
   if( pTab==0 ) return pDef;
   if( !IsVirtual(pTab) ) return pDef;
   pVtab = sqlite3GetVTable(db, pTab)->pVtab;
   assert( pVtab!=0 );
   assert( pVtab->pModule!=0 );
   pMod = (sqlite3_module *)pVtab->pModule;
   if( pMod->xFindFunction==0 ) return pDef;
  
   /* Call the xFindFunction method on the virtual table implementation
-  ** to see if the implementation wants to overload this function 
-  */
-  zLowerName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pDef->zName);
-  if( zLowerName ){
-    for(z=(unsigned char*)zLowerName; *z; z++){
-      *z = sqlite3UpperToLower[*z];
-    }
-    rc = pMod->xFindFunction(pVtab, nArg, zLowerName, &xSFunc, &pArg);
-    sqlite3DbFree(db, zLowerName);
-  }
+  ** to see if the implementation wants to overload this function.
+  **
+  ** Though undocumented, we have historically always invoked xFindFunction
+  ** with an all lower-case function name.  Continue in this tradition to
+  ** avoid any chance of an incompatibility.
+  */
+#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
+  {
+    int i;
+    for(i=0; pDef->zName[i]; i++){
+      unsigned char x = (unsigned char)pDef->zName[i];
+      assert( x==sqlite3UpperToLower[x] );
+    }
+  }
+#endif
+  rc = pMod->xFindFunction(pVtab, nArg, pDef->zName, &xSFunc, &pArg);
   if( rc==0 ){
     return pDef;
   }
 
   /* Create a new ephemeral function definition for the overloaded
   ** function */
   pNew = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(*pNew)
                              + sqlite3Strlen30(pDef->zName) + 1);
@@ -130726,22 +132314,20 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereTerm *sqlite3WhereFi
 );
 
 /* wherecode.c: */
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(
   Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
   SrcList *pTabList,              /* Table list this loop refers to */
   WhereLevel *pLevel,             /* Scan to write OP_Explain opcode for */
-  int iLevel,                     /* Value for "level" column of output */
-  int iFrom,                      /* Value for "from" column of output */
   u16 wctrlFlags                  /* Flags passed to sqlite3WhereBegin() */
 );
 #else
-# define sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(u,v,w,x,y,z) 0
+# define sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(u,v,w,x) 0
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
 SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereAddScanStatus(
   Vdbe *v,                        /* Vdbe to add scanstatus entry to */
   SrcList *pSrclist,              /* FROM clause pLvl reads data from */
   WhereLevel *pLvl,               /* Level to add scanstatus() entry for */
   int addrExplain                 /* Address of OP_Explain (or 0) */
 );
@@ -130851,33 +132437,33 @@ static void explainAppendTerm(
   int nTerm,                  /* Number of terms */
   int iTerm,                  /* Zero-based index of first term. */
   int bAnd,                   /* Non-zero to append " AND " */
   const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
 ){
   int i;
 
   assert( nTerm>=1 );
-  if( bAnd ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
-
-  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
+  if( bAnd ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " AND ", 5);
+
+  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "(", 1);
   for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
-    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
-  }
-  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
-
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, zOp, 1);
-
-  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
+    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ",", 1);
+    sqlite3_str_appendall(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
+  }
+  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);
+
+  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, zOp, 1);
+
+  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "(", 1);
   for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
-    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "?", 1);
-  }
-  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
+    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ",", 1);
+    sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "?", 1);
+  }
+  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);
 }
 
 /*
 ** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
 ** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
 ** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
 **
 ** For example, if the query:
@@ -130891,85 +132477,82 @@ static void explainAppendTerm(
 */
 static void explainIndexRange(StrAccum *pStr, WhereLoop *pLoop){
   Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
   u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
   u16 nSkip = pLoop->nSkip;
   int i, j;
 
   if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ) return;
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " (", 2);
+  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " (", 2);
   for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
     const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
-    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
-    sqlite3XPrintf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
+    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " AND ", 5);
+    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
   }
 
   j = i;
   if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
     explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm, j, i, ">");
     i = 1;
   }
   if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
     explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nTop, j, i, "<");
   }
-  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
+  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);
 }
 
 /*
 ** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
 ** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
 ** defined at compile-time. If it is not a no-op, a single OP_Explain opcode 
 ** is added to the output to describe the table scan strategy in pLevel.
 **
 ** If an OP_Explain opcode is added to the VM, its address is returned.
 ** Otherwise, if no OP_Explain is coded, zero is returned.
 */
 SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(
   Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
   SrcList *pTabList,              /* Table list this loop refers to */
   WhereLevel *pLevel,             /* Scan to write OP_Explain opcode for */
-  int iLevel,                     /* Value for "level" column of output */
-  int iFrom,                      /* Value for "from" column of output */
   u16 wctrlFlags                  /* Flags passed to sqlite3WhereBegin() */
 ){
   int ret = 0;
 #if !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS)
   if( sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse)->explain==2 )
 #endif
   {
     struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom];
     Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;      /* VM being constructed */
     sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;     /* Database handle */
-    int iId = pParse->iSelectId;  /* Select id (left-most output column) */
     int isSearch;                 /* True for a SEARCH. False for SCAN. */
     WhereLoop *pLoop;             /* The controlling WhereLoop object */
     u32 flags;                    /* Flags that describe this loop */
     char *zMsg;                   /* Text to add to EQP output */
     StrAccum str;                 /* EQP output string */
     char zBuf[100];               /* Initial space for EQP output string */
 
     pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
     flags = pLoop->wsFlags;
     if( (flags&WHERE_MULTI_OR) || (wctrlFlags&WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE) ) return 0;
 
     isSearch = (flags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))!=0
             || ((flags&WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 && (pLoop->u.btree.nEq>0))
             || (wctrlFlags&(WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN|WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX));
 
     sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
-    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&str, isSearch ? "SEARCH" : "SCAN");
+    sqlite3_str_appendall(&str, isSearch ? "SEARCH" : "SCAN");
     if( pItem->pSelect ){
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " SUBQUERY %d", pItem->iSelectId);
-    }else{
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " TABLE %s", pItem->zName);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " SUBQUERY 0x%p", pItem->pSelect);
+    }else{
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " TABLE %s", pItem->zName);
     }
 
     if( pItem->zAlias ){
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " AS %s", pItem->zAlias);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " AS %s", pItem->zAlias);
     }
     if( (flags & (WHERE_IPK|WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE))==0 ){
       const char *zFmt = 0;
       Index *pIdx;
 
       assert( pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0 );
       pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
       assert( !(flags&WHERE_AUTO_INDEX) || (flags&WHERE_IDX_ONLY) );
@@ -130982,49 +132565,52 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereExplainOn
       }else if( flags & WHERE_AUTO_INDEX ){
         zFmt = "AUTOMATIC COVERING INDEX";
       }else if( flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY ){
         zFmt = "COVERING INDEX %s";
       }else{
         zFmt = "INDEX %s";
       }
       if( zFmt ){
-        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " USING ", 7);
-        sqlite3XPrintf(&str, zFmt, pIdx->zName);
+        sqlite3_str_append(&str, " USING ", 7);
+        sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, zFmt, pIdx->zName);
         explainIndexRange(&str, pLoop);
       }
     }else if( (flags & WHERE_IPK)!=0 && (flags & WHERE_CONSTRAINT)!=0 ){
       const char *zRangeOp;
       if( flags&(WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_IN) ){
         zRangeOp = "=";
       }else if( (flags&WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT)==WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT ){
         zRangeOp = ">? AND rowid<";
       }else if( flags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
         zRangeOp = ">";
       }else{
         assert( flags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT);
         zRangeOp = "<";
       }
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid%s?)",zRangeOp);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, 
+          " USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid%s?)",zRangeOp);
     }
 #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
     else if( (flags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)!=0 ){
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s",
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s",
                   pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr);
     }
 #endif
 #ifdef SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS
     if( pLoop->nOut>=10 ){
-      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " (~%llu rows)", sqlite3LogEstToInt(pLoop->nOut));
-    }else{
-      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " (~1 row)", 9);
+      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " (~%llu rows)",
+             sqlite3LogEstToInt(pLoop->nOut));
+    }else{
+      sqlite3_str_append(&str, " (~1 row)", 9);
     }
 #endif
     zMsg = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str);
-    ret = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, iId, iLevel, iFrom, zMsg,P4_DYNAMIC);
+    ret = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v),
+                            pParse->addrExplain, 0, zMsg,P4_DYNAMIC);
   }
   return ret;
 }
 #endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */
 
 #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
 /*
 ** Configure the VM passed as the first argument with an
@@ -132015,16 +133601,19 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE Bitmask sqlite3WhereCodeO
   */
   addrBrk = pLevel->addrBrk = pLevel->addrNxt = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
   addrCont = pLevel->addrCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
 
   /* If this is the right table of a LEFT OUTER JOIN, allocate and
   ** initialize a memory cell that records if this table matches any
   ** row of the left table of the join.
   */
+  assert( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)
+       || pLevel->iFrom>0 || (pTabItem[0].fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)==0
+  );
   if( pLevel->iFrom>0 && (pTabItem[0].fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
     pLevel->iLeftJoin = ++pParse->nMem;
     sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, pLevel->iLeftJoin);
     VdbeComment((v, "init LEFT JOIN no-match flag"));
   }
 
   /* Compute a safe address to jump to if we discover that the table for
   ** this loop is empty and can never contribute content. */
@@ -132548,19 +134137,26 @@ SQLITE_PRIVATE Bitmask sqlite3WhereCodeO
       }
       sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iCur, addrCont,
                            iRowidReg, pPk->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
     }
 
     /* If pIdx is an index on one or more expressions, then look through
     ** all the expressions in pWInfo and try to transform matching expressions
     ** into reference to index columns.
-    */
-    whereIndexExprTrans(pIdx, iCur, iIdxCur, pWInfo);
-
+    **
+    ** Do not do this for the RHS of a LEFT JOIN. This is because the 
+    ** expression may be evaluated after OP_NullRow has been executed on
+    ** the cursor. In this case it is important to do the full evaluation,
+    ** as the result of the expression may not be NULL, even if all table
+    ** column values are.  https://www.sqlite.org/src/info/7fa8049685b50b5a