third_party/python/psutil/psutil/tests/test_linux.py
author Ted Mielczarek <ted@mielczarek.org>
Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:39:35 -0400
changeset 496241 c8f12706c4218440a04cbcb822f032306360d0cb
parent 456041 f3bfda748e339695fee5912acd12cd0c7a913b58
permissions -rwxr-xr-x
bug 1481612 - Re-vendor psutil 5.4.3 using `mach vendor python`. r=gps psutil was previously vendored manually, so re-vendor it using our new tooling to make for smaller diffs in follow-up patches. This mostly just winds up adding some extra files that must have been left out of the manual vendoring, but it also updates the root Pipfile + Pipfile.lock. Differential Revision: https://phabricator.services.mozilla.com/D3434

#!/usr/bin/env python

# Copyright (c) 2009, Giampaolo Rodola'. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.

"""Linux specific tests."""

from __future__ import division
import collections
import contextlib
import errno
import glob
import io
import os
import pprint
import re
import shutil
import socket
import struct
import tempfile
import textwrap
import time
import warnings

import psutil
from psutil import LINUX
from psutil._compat import PY3
from psutil._compat import u
from psutil.tests import call_until
from psutil.tests import HAS_BATTERY
from psutil.tests import HAS_CPU_FREQ
from psutil.tests import HAS_RLIMIT
from psutil.tests import MEMORY_TOLERANCE
from psutil.tests import mock
from psutil.tests import PYPY
from psutil.tests import pyrun
from psutil.tests import reap_children
from psutil.tests import reload_module
from psutil.tests import retry_before_failing
from psutil.tests import run_test_module_by_name
from psutil.tests import safe_rmpath
from psutil.tests import sh
from psutil.tests import skip_on_not_implemented
from psutil.tests import TESTFN
from psutil.tests import ThreadTask
from psutil.tests import TRAVIS
from psutil.tests import unittest
from psutil.tests import which


HERE = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
SIOCGIFADDR = 0x8915
SIOCGIFCONF = 0x8912
SIOCGIFHWADDR = 0x8927
if LINUX:
    SECTOR_SIZE = 512


# =====================================================================
# --- utils
# =====================================================================


def get_ipv4_address(ifname):
    import fcntl
    ifname = ifname[:15]
    if PY3:
        ifname = bytes(ifname, 'ascii')
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
    with contextlib.closing(s):
        return socket.inet_ntoa(
            fcntl.ioctl(s.fileno(),
                        SIOCGIFADDR,
                        struct.pack('256s', ifname))[20:24])


def get_mac_address(ifname):
    import fcntl
    ifname = ifname[:15]
    if PY3:
        ifname = bytes(ifname, 'ascii')
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
    with contextlib.closing(s):
        info = fcntl.ioctl(
            s.fileno(), SIOCGIFHWADDR, struct.pack('256s', ifname))
        if PY3:
            def ord(x):
                return x
        else:
            import __builtin__
            ord = __builtin__.ord
        return ''.join(['%02x:' % ord(char) for char in info[18:24]])[:-1]


def free_swap():
    """Parse 'free' cmd and return swap memory's s total, used and free
    values.
    """
    out = sh('free -b')
    lines = out.split('\n')
    for line in lines:
        if line.startswith('Swap'):
            _, total, used, free = line.split()
            nt = collections.namedtuple('free', 'total used free')
            return nt(int(total), int(used), int(free))
    raise ValueError(
        "can't find 'Swap' in 'free' output:\n%s" % '\n'.join(lines))


def free_physmem():
    """Parse 'free' cmd and return physical memory's total, used
    and free values.
    """
    # Note: free can have 2 different formats, invalidating 'shared'
    # and 'cached' memory which may have different positions so we
    # do not return them.
    # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/538#issuecomment-57059946
    out = sh('free -b')
    lines = out.split('\n')
    for line in lines:
        if line.startswith('Mem'):
            total, used, free, shared = \
                [int(x) for x in line.split()[1:5]]
            nt = collections.namedtuple(
                'free', 'total used free shared output')
            return nt(total, used, free, shared, out)
    raise ValueError(
        "can't find 'Mem' in 'free' output:\n%s" % '\n'.join(lines))


def vmstat(stat):
    out = sh("vmstat -s")
    for line in out.split("\n"):
        line = line.strip()
        if stat in line:
            return int(line.split(' ')[0])
    raise ValueError("can't find %r in 'vmstat' output" % stat)


def get_free_version_info():
    out = sh("free -V").strip()
    return tuple(map(int, out.split()[-1].split('.')))


# =====================================================================
# --- system virtual memory
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemVirtualMemory(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_total(self):
        # free_value = free_physmem().total
        # psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().total
        # self.assertEqual(free_value, psutil_value)
        vmstat_value = vmstat('total memory') * 1024
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().total
        self.assertAlmostEqual(vmstat_value, psutil_value)

    # Older versions of procps used slab memory to calculate used memory.
    # This got changed in:
    # https://gitlab.com/procps-ng/procps/commit/
    #     05d751c4f076a2f0118b914c5e51cfbb4762ad8e
    @unittest.skipIf(LINUX and get_free_version_info() < (3, 3, 12),
                     "old free version")
    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_used(self):
        free = free_physmem()
        free_value = free.used
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().used
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE,
            msg='%s %s \n%s' % (free_value, psutil_value, free.output))

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "unreliable on TRAVIS")
    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_free(self):
        # _, _, free_value, _ = free_physmem()
        # psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().free
        # self.assertAlmostEqual(
        #     free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)
        vmstat_value = vmstat('free memory') * 1024
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().free
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_buffers(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat('buffer memory') * 1024
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().buffers
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    # https://travis-ci.org/giampaolo/psutil/jobs/226719664
    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "unreliable on TRAVIS")
    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_active(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat('active memory') * 1024
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().active
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    # https://travis-ci.org/giampaolo/psutil/jobs/227242952
    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "unreliable on TRAVIS")
    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_inactive(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat('inactive memory') * 1024
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().inactive
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_shared(self):
        free = free_physmem()
        free_value = free.shared
        if free_value == 0:
            raise unittest.SkipTest("free does not support 'shared' column")
        psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().shared
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE,
            msg='%s %s \n%s' % (free_value, psutil_value, free.output))

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_available(self):
        # "free" output format has changed at some point:
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/538#issuecomment-147192098
        out = sh("free -b")
        lines = out.split('\n')
        if 'available' not in lines[0]:
            raise unittest.SkipTest("free does not support 'available' column")
        else:
            free_value = int(lines[1].split()[-1])
            psutil_value = psutil.virtual_memory().available
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE,
                msg='%s %s \n%s' % (free_value, psutil_value, out))

    def test_warnings_on_misses(self):
        # Emulate a case where /proc/meminfo provides few info.
        # psutil is supposed to set the missing fields to 0 and
        # raise a warning.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == '/proc/meminfo':
                return io.BytesIO(textwrap.dedent("""\
                    Active(anon):    6145416 kB
                    Active(file):    2950064 kB
                    Inactive(anon):   574764 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1567648 kB
                    MemAvailable:         -1 kB
                    MemFree:         2057400 kB
                    MemTotal:       16325648 kB
                    SReclaimable:     346648 kB
                    """).encode())
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                warnings.simplefilter("always")
                ret = psutil.virtual_memory()
                assert m.called
                self.assertEqual(len(ws), 1)
                w = ws[0]
                assert w.filename.endswith('psutil/_pslinux.py')
                self.assertIn(
                    "memory stats couldn't be determined", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("cached", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("shared", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("active", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("inactive", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("buffers", str(w.message))
                self.assertIn("available", str(w.message))
                self.assertEqual(ret.cached, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.active, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.inactive, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.shared, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.buffers, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.available, 0)

    def test_avail_old_percent(self):
        # Make sure that our calculation of avail mem for old kernels
        # is off by max 10%.
        from psutil._pslinux import calculate_avail_vmem
        from psutil._pslinux import open_binary

        mems = {}
        with open_binary('/proc/meminfo') as f:
            for line in f:
                fields = line.split()
                mems[fields[0]] = int(fields[1]) * 1024

        a = calculate_avail_vmem(mems)
        if b'MemAvailable:' in mems:
            b = mems[b'MemAvailable:']
            diff_percent = abs(a - b) / a * 100
            self.assertLess(diff_percent, 10)

    def test_avail_old_comes_from_kernel(self):
        # Make sure "MemAvailable:" coluimn is used instead of relying
        # on our internal algorithm to calculate avail mem.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/meminfo":
                return io.BytesIO(textwrap.dedent("""\
                    Active:          9444728 kB
                    Active(anon):    6145416 kB
                    Active(file):    2950064 kB
                    Buffers:          287952 kB
                    Cached:          4818144 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1578132 kB
                    Inactive(anon):   574764 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1567648 kB
                    MemAvailable:    6574984 kB
                    MemFree:         2057400 kB
                    MemTotal:       16325648 kB
                    Shmem:            577588 kB
                    SReclaimable:     346648 kB
                    """).encode())
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                ret = psutil.virtual_memory()
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.available, 6574984 * 1024)
            w = ws[0]
            self.assertIn(
                "inactive memory stats couldn't be determined", str(w.message))

    def test_avail_old_missing_fields(self):
        # Remove Active(file), Inactive(file) and SReclaimable
        # from /proc/meminfo and make sure the fallback is used
        # (free + cached),
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/meminfo":
                return io.BytesIO(textwrap.dedent("""\
                    Active:          9444728 kB
                    Active(anon):    6145416 kB
                    Buffers:          287952 kB
                    Cached:          4818144 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1578132 kB
                    Inactive(anon):   574764 kB
                    MemFree:         2057400 kB
                    MemTotal:       16325648 kB
                    Shmem:            577588 kB
                    """).encode())
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                ret = psutil.virtual_memory()
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.available, 2057400 * 1024 + 4818144 * 1024)
            w = ws[0]
            self.assertIn(
                "inactive memory stats couldn't be determined", str(w.message))

    def test_avail_old_missing_zoneinfo(self):
        # Remove /proc/zoneinfo file. Make sure fallback is used
        # (free + cached).
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/meminfo":
                return io.BytesIO(textwrap.dedent("""\
                    Active:          9444728 kB
                    Active(anon):    6145416 kB
                    Active(file):    2950064 kB
                    Buffers:          287952 kB
                    Cached:          4818144 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1578132 kB
                    Inactive(anon):   574764 kB
                    Inactive(file):  1567648 kB
                    MemFree:         2057400 kB
                    MemTotal:       16325648 kB
                    Shmem:            577588 kB
                    SReclaimable:     346648 kB
                    """).encode())
            elif name == "/proc/zoneinfo":
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'no such file or directory')
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                ret = psutil.virtual_memory()
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.available, 2057400 * 1024 + 4818144 * 1024)
            w = ws[0]
            self.assertIn(
                "inactive memory stats couldn't be determined", str(w.message))


# =====================================================================
# --- system swap memory
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemSwapMemory(unittest.TestCase):

    @staticmethod
    def meminfo_has_swap_info():
        """Return True if /proc/meminfo provides swap metrics."""
        with open("/proc/meminfo") as f:
            data = f.read()
        return 'SwapTotal:' in data and 'SwapFree:' in data

    def test_total(self):
        free_value = free_swap().total
        psutil_value = psutil.swap_memory().total
        return self.assertAlmostEqual(
            free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_used(self):
        free_value = free_swap().used
        psutil_value = psutil.swap_memory().used
        return self.assertAlmostEqual(
            free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_free(self):
        free_value = free_swap().free
        psutil_value = psutil.swap_memory().free
        return self.assertAlmostEqual(
            free_value, psutil_value, delta=MEMORY_TOLERANCE)

    def test_missing_sin_sout(self):
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open', create=True) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                warnings.simplefilter("always")
                ret = psutil.swap_memory()
                assert m.called
                self.assertEqual(len(ws), 1)
                w = ws[0]
                assert w.filename.endswith('psutil/_pslinux.py')
                self.assertIn(
                    "'sin' and 'sout' swap memory stats couldn't "
                    "be determined", str(w.message))
                self.assertEqual(ret.sin, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.sout, 0)

    def test_no_vmstat_mocked(self):
        # see https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/722
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/vmstat":
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'no such file or directory')
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                warnings.simplefilter("always")
                ret = psutil.swap_memory()
                assert m.called
                self.assertEqual(len(ws), 1)
                w = ws[0]
                assert w.filename.endswith('psutil/_pslinux.py')
                self.assertIn(
                    "'sin' and 'sout' swap memory stats couldn't "
                    "be determined and were set to 0",
                    str(w.message))
                self.assertEqual(ret.sin, 0)
                self.assertEqual(ret.sout, 0)

    def test_meminfo_against_sysinfo(self):
        # Make sure the content of /proc/meminfo about swap memory
        # matches sysinfo() syscall, see:
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/1015
        if not self.meminfo_has_swap_info():
            return unittest.skip("/proc/meminfo has no swap metrics")
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.cext.linux_sysinfo') as m:
            swap = psutil.swap_memory()
        assert not m.called
        import psutil._psutil_linux as cext
        _, _, _, _, total, free, unit_multiplier = cext.linux_sysinfo()
        total *= unit_multiplier
        free *= unit_multiplier
        self.assertEqual(swap.total, total)
        self.assertEqual(swap.free, free)

    def test_emulate_meminfo_has_no_metrics(self):
        # Emulate a case where /proc/meminfo provides no swap metrics
        # in which case sysinfo() syscall is supposed to be used
        # as a fallback.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/meminfo":
                return io.BytesIO(b"")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, create=True, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            psutil.swap_memory()
            assert m.called


# =====================================================================
# --- system CPU
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemCPU(unittest.TestCase):

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "unknown failure on travis")
    def test_cpu_times(self):
        fields = psutil.cpu_times()._fields
        kernel_ver = re.findall(r'\d+\.\d+\.\d+', os.uname()[2])[0]
        kernel_ver_info = tuple(map(int, kernel_ver.split('.')))
        if kernel_ver_info >= (2, 6, 11):
            self.assertIn('steal', fields)
        else:
            self.assertNotIn('steal', fields)
        if kernel_ver_info >= (2, 6, 24):
            self.assertIn('guest', fields)
        else:
            self.assertNotIn('guest', fields)
        if kernel_ver_info >= (3, 2, 0):
            self.assertIn('guest_nice', fields)
        else:
            self.assertNotIn('guest_nice', fields)

    @unittest.skipIf(not os.path.exists("/sys/devices/system/cpu/online"),
                     "/sys/devices/system/cpu/online does not exist")
    def test_cpu_count_logical_w_sysdev_cpu_online(self):
        with open("/sys/devices/system/cpu/online") as f:
            value = f.read().strip()
        if "-" in str(value):
            value = int(value.split('-')[1]) + 1
            self.assertEqual(psutil.cpu_count(), value)

    @unittest.skipIf(not os.path.exists("/sys/devices/system/cpu"),
                     "/sys/devices/system/cpu does not exist")
    def test_cpu_count_logical_w_sysdev_cpu_num(self):
        ls = os.listdir("/sys/devices/system/cpu")
        count = len([x for x in ls if re.search(r"cpu\d+$", x) is not None])
        self.assertEqual(psutil.cpu_count(), count)

    @unittest.skipIf(not which("nproc"), "nproc utility not available")
    def test_cpu_count_logical_w_nproc(self):
        num = int(sh("nproc --all"))
        self.assertEqual(psutil.cpu_count(logical=True), num)

    @unittest.skipIf(not which("lscpu"), "lscpu utility not available")
    def test_cpu_count_logical_w_lscpu(self):
        out = sh("lscpu -p")
        num = len([x for x in out.split('\n') if not x.startswith('#')])
        self.assertEqual(psutil.cpu_count(logical=True), num)

    def test_cpu_count_logical_mocked(self):
        import psutil._pslinux
        original = psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_logical()
        # Here we want to mock os.sysconf("SC_NPROCESSORS_ONLN") in
        # order to cause the parsing of /proc/cpuinfo and /proc/stat.
        with mock.patch(
                'psutil._pslinux.os.sysconf', side_effect=ValueError) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_logical(), original)
            assert m.called

            # Let's have open() return emtpy data and make sure None is
            # returned ('cause we mimick os.cpu_count()).
            with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open', create=True) as m:
                self.assertIsNone(psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_logical())
                self.assertEqual(m.call_count, 2)
                # /proc/stat should be the last one
                self.assertEqual(m.call_args[0][0], '/proc/stat')

            # Let's push this a bit further and make sure /proc/cpuinfo
            # parsing works as expected.
            with open('/proc/cpuinfo', 'rb') as f:
                cpuinfo_data = f.read()
            fake_file = io.BytesIO(cpuinfo_data)
            with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                            return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m:
                self.assertEqual(psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_logical(), original)

            # Finally, let's make /proc/cpuinfo return meaningless data;
            # this way we'll fall back on relying on /proc/stat
            def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
                if name.startswith('/proc/cpuinfo'):
                    return io.BytesIO(b"")
                else:
                    return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

            orig_open = open
            patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
            with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock, create=True):
                self.assertEqual(psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_logical(), original)

    def test_cpu_count_physical_mocked(self):
        # Have open() return emtpy data and make sure None is returned
        # ('cause we want to mimick os.cpu_count())
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open', create=True) as m:
            self.assertIsNone(psutil._pslinux.cpu_count_physical())
            assert m.called

    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_CPU_FREQ, "not supported")
    def test_cpu_freq_no_result(self):
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.glob.glob", return_value=[]):
            self.assertIsNone(psutil.cpu_freq())

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "fails on Travis")
    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_CPU_FREQ, "not supported")
    def test_cpu_freq_use_second_file(self):
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/981
        def glob_mock(pattern):
            if pattern.startswith("/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy"):
                flags.append(None)
                return []
            else:
                flags.append(None)
                return orig_glob(pattern)

        flags = []
        orig_glob = glob.glob
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.glob.glob", side_effect=glob_mock,
                        create=True):
            assert psutil.cpu_freq()
            self.assertEqual(len(flags), 2)

    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_CPU_FREQ, "not supported")
    def test_cpu_freq_emulate_data(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/scaling_cur_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"500000")
            elif name.endswith('/scaling_min_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"600000")
            elif name.endswith('/scaling_max_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"700000")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch(
                    'glob.glob',
                    return_value=['/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0']):
                freq = psutil.cpu_freq()
                self.assertEqual(freq.current, 500.0)
                self.assertEqual(freq.min, 600.0)
                self.assertEqual(freq.max, 700.0)

    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_CPU_FREQ, "not supported")
    def test_cpu_freq_emulate_multi_cpu(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/scaling_cur_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"100000")
            elif name.endswith('/scaling_min_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"200000")
            elif name.endswith('/scaling_max_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"300000")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        policies = ['/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0',
                    '/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy1',
                    '/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy2']
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch('glob.glob', return_value=policies):
                freq = psutil.cpu_freq()
                self.assertEqual(freq.current, 100.0)
                self.assertEqual(freq.min, 200.0)
                self.assertEqual(freq.max, 300.0)

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "fails on Travis")
    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_CPU_FREQ, "not supported")
    def test_cpu_freq_no_scaling_cur_freq_file(self):
        # See: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/1071
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/scaling_cur_freq'):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.endswith('/cpuinfo_cur_freq'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"200000")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        policies = ['/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0',
                    '/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy1',
                    '/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy2']

        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch('glob.glob', return_value=policies):
                freq = psutil.cpu_freq()
                self.assertEqual(freq.current, 200)

        # Also test that NotImplementedError is raised in case no
        # current freq file is present.

        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/scaling_cur_freq'):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.endswith('/cpuinfo_cur_freq'):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch('glob.glob', return_value=policies):
                self.assertRaises(NotImplementedError, psutil.cpu_freq)


# =====================================================================
# --- system CPU stats
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemCPUStats(unittest.TestCase):

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "fails on Travis")
    def test_ctx_switches(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat("context switches")
        psutil_value = psutil.cpu_stats().ctx_switches
        self.assertAlmostEqual(vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=500)

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "fails on Travis")
    def test_interrupts(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat("interrupts")
        psutil_value = psutil.cpu_stats().interrupts
        self.assertAlmostEqual(vmstat_value, psutil_value, delta=500)


# =====================================================================
# --- system network
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemNetwork(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_net_if_addrs_ips(self):
        for name, addrs in psutil.net_if_addrs().items():
            for addr in addrs:
                if addr.family == psutil.AF_LINK:
                    self.assertEqual(addr.address, get_mac_address(name))
                elif addr.family == socket.AF_INET:
                    self.assertEqual(addr.address, get_ipv4_address(name))
                # TODO: test for AF_INET6 family

    def test_net_if_stats(self):
        for name, stats in psutil.net_if_stats().items():
            try:
                out = sh("ifconfig %s" % name)
            except RuntimeError:
                pass
            else:
                # Not always reliable.
                # self.assertEqual(stats.isup, 'RUNNING' in out, msg=out)
                self.assertEqual(stats.mtu,
                                 int(re.findall(r'(?i)MTU[: ](\d+)', out)[0]))

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_net_io_counters(self):
        def ifconfig(nic):
            ret = {}
            out = sh("ifconfig %s" % name)
            ret['packets_recv'] = int(
                re.findall(r'RX packets[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            ret['packets_sent'] = int(
                re.findall(r'TX packets[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            ret['errin'] = int(re.findall(r'errors[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            ret['errout'] = int(re.findall(r'errors[: ](\d+)', out)[1])
            ret['dropin'] = int(re.findall(r'dropped[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            ret['dropout'] = int(re.findall(r'dropped[: ](\d+)', out)[1])
            ret['bytes_recv'] = int(
                re.findall(r'RX (?:packets \d+ +)?bytes[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            ret['bytes_sent'] = int(
                re.findall(r'TX (?:packets \d+ +)?bytes[: ](\d+)', out)[0])
            return ret

        nio = psutil.net_io_counters(pernic=True, nowrap=False)
        for name, stats in nio.items():
            try:
                ifconfig_ret = ifconfig(name)
            except RuntimeError:
                continue
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.bytes_recv, ifconfig_ret['bytes_recv'], delta=1024 * 5)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.bytes_sent, ifconfig_ret['bytes_sent'], delta=1024 * 5)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.packets_recv, ifconfig_ret['packets_recv'], delta=1024)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.packets_sent, ifconfig_ret['packets_sent'], delta=1024)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.errin, ifconfig_ret['errin'], delta=10)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.errout, ifconfig_ret['errout'], delta=10)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.dropin, ifconfig_ret['dropin'], delta=10)
            self.assertAlmostEqual(
                stats.dropout, ifconfig_ret['dropout'], delta=10)

    @unittest.skipIf(not which('ip'), "'ip' utility not available")
    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "skipped on Travis")
    def test_net_if_names(self):
        out = sh("ip addr").strip()
        nics = [x for x in psutil.net_if_addrs().keys() if ':' not in x]
        found = 0
        for line in out.split('\n'):
            line = line.strip()
            if re.search(r"^\d+:", line):
                found += 1
                name = line.split(':')[1].strip()
                self.assertIn(name, nics)
        self.assertEqual(len(nics), found, msg="%s\n---\n%s" % (
            pprint.pformat(nics), out))

    @mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.socket.inet_ntop', side_effect=ValueError)
    @mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.supports_ipv6', return_value=False)
    def test_net_connections_ipv6_unsupported(self, supports_ipv6, inet_ntop):
        # see: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/623
        try:
            s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET6, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
            self.addCleanup(s.close)
            s.bind(("::1", 0))
        except socket.error:
            pass
        psutil.net_connections(kind='inet6')

    def test_net_connections_mocked(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == '/proc/net/unix':
                return io.StringIO(textwrap.dedent(u"""\
                    0: 00000003 000 000 0001 03 462170 @/tmp/dbus-Qw2hMPIU3n
                    0: 00000003 000 000 0001 03 35010 @/tmp/dbus-tB2X8h69BQ
                    0: 00000003 000 000 0001 03 34424 @/tmp/dbus-cHy80Y8O
                    000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
                    """))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            psutil.net_connections(kind='unix')
            assert m.called


# =====================================================================
# --- system disk
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSystemDisks(unittest.TestCase):

    @unittest.skipIf(not hasattr(os, 'statvfs'), "os.statvfs() not available")
    @skip_on_not_implemented()
    def test_disk_partitions_and_usage(self):
        # test psutil.disk_usage() and psutil.disk_partitions()
        # against "df -a"
        def df(path):
            out = sh('df -P -B 1 "%s"' % path).strip()
            lines = out.split('\n')
            lines.pop(0)
            line = lines.pop(0)
            dev, total, used, free = line.split()[:4]
            if dev == 'none':
                dev = ''
            total, used, free = int(total), int(used), int(free)
            return dev, total, used, free

        for part in psutil.disk_partitions(all=False):
            usage = psutil.disk_usage(part.mountpoint)
            dev, total, used, free = df(part.mountpoint)
            self.assertEqual(usage.total, total)
            # 10 MB tollerance
            if abs(usage.free - free) > 10 * 1024 * 1024:
                self.fail("psutil=%s, df=%s" % (usage.free, free))
            if abs(usage.used - used) > 10 * 1024 * 1024:
                self.fail("psutil=%s, df=%s" % (usage.used, used))

    def test_disk_partitions_mocked(self):
        # Test that ZFS partitions are returned.
        with open("/proc/filesystems", "r") as f:
            data = f.read()
        if 'zfs' in data:
            for part in psutil.disk_partitions():
                if part.fstype == 'zfs':
                    break
            else:
                self.fail("couldn't find any ZFS partition")
        else:
            # No ZFS partitions on this system. Let's fake one.
            fake_file = io.StringIO(u("nodev\tzfs\n"))
            with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                            return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m1:
                with mock.patch(
                        'psutil._pslinux.cext.disk_partitions',
                        return_value=[('/dev/sdb3', '/', 'zfs', 'rw')]) as m2:
                    ret = psutil.disk_partitions()
                    assert m1.called
                    assert m2.called
                    assert ret
                    self.assertEqual(ret[0].fstype, 'zfs')

    def test_disk_io_counters_kernel_2_4_mocked(self):
        # Tests /proc/diskstats parsing format for 2.4 kernels, see:
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/767
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == '/proc/partitions':
                return io.StringIO(textwrap.dedent(u"""\
                    major minor  #blocks  name

                       8        0  488386584 hda
                    """))
            elif name == '/proc/diskstats':
                return io.StringIO(
                    u("   3     0   1 hda 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            ret = psutil.disk_io_counters(nowrap=False)
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_count, 1)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_merged_count, 2)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_bytes, 3 * SECTOR_SIZE)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_time, 4)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_count, 5)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_merged_count, 6)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_bytes, 7 * SECTOR_SIZE)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_time, 8)
            self.assertEqual(ret.busy_time, 10)

    def test_disk_io_counters_kernel_2_6_full_mocked(self):
        # Tests /proc/diskstats parsing format for 2.6 kernels,
        # lines reporting all metrics:
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/767
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == '/proc/partitions':
                return io.StringIO(textwrap.dedent(u"""\
                    major minor  #blocks  name

                       8        0  488386584 hda
                    """))
            elif name == '/proc/diskstats':
                return io.StringIO(
                    u("   3    0   hda 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            ret = psutil.disk_io_counters(nowrap=False)
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_count, 1)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_merged_count, 2)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_bytes, 3 * SECTOR_SIZE)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_time, 4)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_count, 5)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_merged_count, 6)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_bytes, 7 * SECTOR_SIZE)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_time, 8)
            self.assertEqual(ret.busy_time, 10)

    def test_disk_io_counters_kernel_2_6_limited_mocked(self):
        # Tests /proc/diskstats parsing format for 2.6 kernels,
        # where one line of /proc/partitions return a limited
        # amount of metrics when it bumps into a partition
        # (instead of a disk). See:
        # https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/767
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == '/proc/partitions':
                return io.StringIO(textwrap.dedent(u"""\
                    major minor  #blocks  name

                       8        0  488386584 hda
                    """))
            elif name == '/proc/diskstats':
                return io.StringIO(
                    u("   3    1   hda 1 2 3 4"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            ret = psutil.disk_io_counters(nowrap=False)
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_count, 1)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_bytes, 2 * SECTOR_SIZE)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_count, 3)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_bytes, 4 * SECTOR_SIZE)

            self.assertEqual(ret.read_merged_count, 0)
            self.assertEqual(ret.read_time, 0)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_merged_count, 0)
            self.assertEqual(ret.write_time, 0)
            self.assertEqual(ret.busy_time, 0)


# =====================================================================
# --- misc
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestMisc(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_boot_time(self):
        vmstat_value = vmstat('boot time')
        psutil_value = psutil.boot_time()
        self.assertEqual(int(vmstat_value), int(psutil_value))

    @mock.patch('psutil.traceback.print_exc')
    def test_no_procfs_on_import(self, tb):
        my_procfs = tempfile.mkdtemp()

        with open(os.path.join(my_procfs, 'stat'), 'w') as f:
            f.write('cpu   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')
            f.write('cpu0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')
            f.write('cpu1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')

        try:
            orig_open = open

            def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
                if name.startswith('/proc'):
                    raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, 'rejecting access for test')
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

            patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
            with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
                reload_module(psutil)
                assert tb.called

                self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_times)
                self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_times, percpu=True)
                self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_percent)
                self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_percent, percpu=True)
                self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_times_percent)
                self.assertRaises(
                    IOError, psutil.cpu_times_percent, percpu=True)

                psutil.PROCFS_PATH = my_procfs

                self.assertEqual(psutil.cpu_percent(), 0)
                self.assertEqual(sum(psutil.cpu_times_percent()), 0)

                # since we don't know the number of CPUs at import time,
                # we awkwardly say there are none until the second call
                per_cpu_percent = psutil.cpu_percent(percpu=True)
                self.assertEqual(sum(per_cpu_percent), 0)

                # ditto awkward length
                per_cpu_times_percent = psutil.cpu_times_percent(percpu=True)
                self.assertEqual(sum(map(sum, per_cpu_times_percent)), 0)

                # much user, very busy
                with open(os.path.join(my_procfs, 'stat'), 'w') as f:
                    f.write('cpu   1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')
                    f.write('cpu0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')
                    f.write('cpu1  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0\n')

                self.assertNotEqual(psutil.cpu_percent(), 0)
                self.assertNotEqual(
                    sum(psutil.cpu_percent(percpu=True)), 0)
                self.assertNotEqual(sum(psutil.cpu_times_percent()), 0)
                self.assertNotEqual(
                    sum(map(sum, psutil.cpu_times_percent(percpu=True))), 0)
        finally:
            shutil.rmtree(my_procfs)
            reload_module(psutil)

        self.assertEqual(psutil.PROCFS_PATH, '/proc')

    def test_boot_time_mocked(self):
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open', create=True) as m:
            self.assertRaises(
                RuntimeError,
                psutil._pslinux.boot_time)
            assert m.called

    def test_users_mocked(self):
        # Make sure ':0' and ':0.0' (returned by C ext) are converted
        # to 'localhost'.
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.cext.users',
                        return_value=[('giampaolo', 'pts/2', ':0',
                                       1436573184.0, True, 2)]) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.users()[0].host, 'localhost')
            assert m.called
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.cext.users',
                        return_value=[('giampaolo', 'pts/2', ':0.0',
                                       1436573184.0, True, 2)]) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.users()[0].host, 'localhost')
            assert m.called
        # ...otherwise it should be returned as-is
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.cext.users',
                        return_value=[('giampaolo', 'pts/2', 'foo',
                                       1436573184.0, True, 2)]) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.users()[0].host, 'foo')
            assert m.called

    def test_procfs_path(self):
        tdir = tempfile.mkdtemp()
        try:
            psutil.PROCFS_PATH = tdir
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.virtual_memory)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_times)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.cpu_times, percpu=True)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.boot_time)
            # self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.pids)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.net_connections)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.net_io_counters)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.net_if_stats)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.disk_io_counters)
            self.assertRaises(IOError, psutil.disk_partitions)
            self.assertRaises(psutil.NoSuchProcess, psutil.Process)
        finally:
            psutil.PROCFS_PATH = "/proc"
            os.rmdir(tdir)

    def test_sector_size_mock(self):
        # Test SECTOR_SIZE fallback in case 'hw_sector_size' file
        # does not exist.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if PY3 and isinstance(name, bytes):
                name = name.decode()
            if "hw_sector_size" in name:
                flag.append(None)
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, '')
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        flag = []
        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            psutil.disk_io_counters()
            assert flag

    def test_issue_687(self):
        # In case of thread ID:
        # - pid_exists() is supposed to return False
        # - Process(tid) is supposed to work
        # - pids() should not return the TID
        # See: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/687
        t = ThreadTask()
        t.start()
        try:
            p = psutil.Process()
            tid = p.threads()[1].id
            assert not psutil.pid_exists(tid), tid
            pt = psutil.Process(tid)
            pt.as_dict()
            self.assertNotIn(tid, psutil.pids())
        finally:
            t.stop()

    def test_pid_exists_no_proc_status(self):
        # Internally pid_exists relies on /proc/{pid}/status.
        # Emulate a case where this file is empty in which case
        # psutil is supposed to fall back on using pids().
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name == "/proc/%s/status" % os.getpid():
                return io.StringIO(u(""))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            assert psutil.pid_exists(os.getpid())


# =====================================================================
# --- sensors
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
@unittest.skipIf(not HAS_BATTERY, "no battery")
class TestSensorsBattery(unittest.TestCase):

    @unittest.skipIf(not which("acpi"), "acpi utility not available")
    def test_percent(self):
        out = sh("acpi -b")
        acpi_value = int(out.split(",")[1].strip().replace('%', ''))
        psutil_value = psutil.sensors_battery().percent
        self.assertAlmostEqual(acpi_value, psutil_value, delta=1)

    @unittest.skipIf(not which("acpi"), "acpi utility not available")
    def test_power_plugged(self):
        out = sh("acpi -b")
        if 'unknown' in out.lower():
            return unittest.skip("acpi output not reliable")
        if 'discharging at zero rate' in out:
            plugged = True
        else:
            plugged = "Charging" in out.split('\n')[0]
        self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged, plugged)

    def test_emulate_power_plugged(self):
        # Pretend the AC power cable is connected.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith("AC0/online") or name.endswith("AC/online"):
                return io.BytesIO(b"1")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged, True)
            self.assertEqual(
                psutil.sensors_battery().secsleft, psutil.POWER_TIME_UNLIMITED)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_power_plugged_2(self):
        # Same as above but pretend /AC0/online does not exist in which
        # case code relies on /status file.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith("AC0/online") or name.endswith("AC/online"):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.endswith("/status"):
                return io.StringIO(u("charging"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged, True)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_power_not_plugged(self):
        # Pretend the AC power cable is not connected.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith("AC0/online") or name.endswith("AC/online"):
                return io.BytesIO(b"0")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged, False)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_power_not_plugged_2(self):
        # Same as above but pretend /AC0/online does not exist in which
        # case code relies on /status file.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith("AC0/online") or name.endswith("AC/online"):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.endswith("/status"):
                return io.StringIO(u("discharging"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged, False)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_power_undetermined(self):
        # Pretend we can't know whether the AC power cable not
        # connected (assert fallback to False).
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/AC0/online") or \
                    name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/AC/online"):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/status"):
                return io.BytesIO(b"???")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertIsNone(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_no_base_files(self):
        # Emulate a case where base metrics files are not present,
        # in which case we're supposed to get None.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_now") or \
                    name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_now"):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertIsNone(psutil.sensors_battery())
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_energy_full_0(self):
        # Emulate a case where energy_full files returns 0.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_full"):
                return io.BytesIO(b"0")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().percent, 0)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_energy_full_not_avail(self):
        # Emulate a case where energy_full file does not exist.
        # Expected fallback on /capacity.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            energy_full = "/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/energy_full"
            charge_full = "/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_full"
            if name.startswith(energy_full) or name.startswith(charge_full):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            elif name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/capacity"):
                return io.BytesIO(b"88")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_battery().percent, 88)
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_no_ac0_online(self):
        # Emulate a case where /AC0/online file does not exist.
        def path_exists_mock(name):
            if name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/AC0/online"):
                return False
            else:
                return orig_path_exists(name)

        orig_path_exists = os.path.exists
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.os.path.exists",
                        side_effect=path_exists_mock) as m:
            psutil.sensors_battery()
            assert m.called

    def test_emulate_no_power(self):
        # Emulate a case where /AC0/online file nor /BAT0/status exist.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/AC/online") or \
                    name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/AC0/online") or \
                    name.startswith("/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/status"):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            self.assertIsNone(psutil.sensors_battery().power_plugged)
            assert m.called


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSensorsTemperatures(unittest.TestCase):

    @unittest.skipIf(TRAVIS, "unreliable on TRAVIS")
    def test_emulate_eio_error(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith("_input"):
                raise OSError(errno.EIO, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as ws:
                self.assertEqual(psutil.sensors_temperatures(), {})
                assert m.called
                self.assertIn("ignoring", str(ws[0].message))

    def test_emulate_data(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/name'):
                return io.StringIO(u("name"))
            elif name.endswith('/temp1_label'):
                return io.StringIO(u("label"))
            elif name.endswith('/temp1_input'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"30000")
            elif name.endswith('/temp1_max'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"40000")
            elif name.endswith('/temp1_crit'):
                return io.BytesIO(b"50000")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch('glob.glob',
                            return_value=['/sys/class/hwmon/hwmon0/temp1']):
                temp = psutil.sensors_temperatures()['name'][0]
                self.assertEqual(temp.label, 'label')
                self.assertEqual(temp.current, 30.0)
                self.assertEqual(temp.high, 40.0)
                self.assertEqual(temp.critical, 50.0)


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestSensorsFans(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_emulate_data(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.endswith('/name'):
                return io.StringIO(u("name"))
            elif name.endswith('/fan1_label'):
                return io.StringIO(u("label"))
            elif name.endswith('/fan1_input'):
                return io.StringIO(u("2000"))
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            with mock.patch('glob.glob',
                            return_value=['/sys/class/hwmon/hwmon2/fan1']):
                fan = psutil.sensors_fans()['name'][0]
                self.assertEqual(fan.label, 'label')
                self.assertEqual(fan.current, 2000)


# =====================================================================
# --- test process
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestProcess(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        safe_rmpath(TESTFN)

    tearDown = setUp

    def test_memory_full_info(self):
        src = textwrap.dedent("""
            import time
            with open("%s", "w") as f:
                time.sleep(10)
            """ % TESTFN)
        sproc = pyrun(src)
        self.addCleanup(reap_children)
        call_until(lambda: os.listdir('.'), "'%s' not in ret" % TESTFN)
        p = psutil.Process(sproc.pid)
        time.sleep(.1)
        mem = p.memory_full_info()
        maps = p.memory_maps(grouped=False)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            mem.uss, sum([x.private_dirty + x.private_clean for x in maps]),
            delta=4096)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            mem.pss, sum([x.pss for x in maps]), delta=4096)
        self.assertAlmostEqual(
            mem.swap, sum([x.swap for x in maps]), delta=4096)

    # On PYPY file descriptors are not closed fast enough.
    @unittest.skipIf(PYPY, "unreliable on PYPY")
    def test_open_files_mode(self):
        def get_test_file():
            p = psutil.Process()
            giveup_at = time.time() + 2
            while True:
                for file in p.open_files():
                    if file.path == os.path.abspath(TESTFN):
                        return file
                    elif time.time() > giveup_at:
                        break
            raise RuntimeError("timeout looking for test file")

        #
        with open(TESTFN, "w"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "w")
        with open(TESTFN, "r"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "r")
        with open(TESTFN, "a"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "a")
        #
        with open(TESTFN, "r+"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "r+")
        with open(TESTFN, "w+"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "r+")
        with open(TESTFN, "a+"):
            self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "a+")
        # note: "x" bit is not supported
        if PY3:
            safe_rmpath(TESTFN)
            with open(TESTFN, "x"):
                self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "w")
            safe_rmpath(TESTFN)
            with open(TESTFN, "x+"):
                self.assertEqual(get_test_file().mode, "r+")

    def test_open_files_file_gone(self):
        # simulates a file which gets deleted during open_files()
        # execution
        p = psutil.Process()
        files = p.open_files()
        with tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile():
            # give the kernel some time to see the new file
            call_until(p.open_files, "len(ret) != %i" % len(files))
            with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.os.readlink',
                            side_effect=OSError(errno.ENOENT, "")) as m:
                files = p.open_files()
                assert not files
                assert m.called
            # also simulate the case where os.readlink() returns EINVAL
            # in which case psutil is supposed to 'continue'
            with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.os.readlink',
                            side_effect=OSError(errno.EINVAL, "")) as m:
                self.assertEqual(p.open_files(), [])
                assert m.called

    def test_open_files_fd_gone(self):
        # Simulate a case where /proc/{pid}/fdinfo/{fd} disappears
        # while iterating through fds.
        # https://travis-ci.org/giampaolo/psutil/jobs/225694530
        p = psutil.Process()
        files = p.open_files()
        with tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile():
            # give the kernel some time to see the new file
            call_until(p.open_files, "len(ret) != %i" % len(files))
            patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
            with mock.patch(patch_point,
                            side_effect=IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")) as m:
                files = p.open_files()
                assert not files
                assert m.called

    # --- mocked tests

    def test_terminal_mocked(self):
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux._psposix.get_terminal_map',
                        return_value={}) as m:
            self.assertIsNone(psutil._pslinux.Process(os.getpid()).terminal())
            assert m.called

    # TODO: re-enable this test.
    # def test_num_ctx_switches_mocked(self):
    #     with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open', create=True) as m:
    #         self.assertRaises(
    #             NotImplementedError,
    #             psutil._pslinux.Process(os.getpid()).num_ctx_switches)
    #         assert m.called

    def test_cmdline_mocked(self):
        # see: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/639
        p = psutil.Process()
        fake_file = io.StringIO(u('foo\x00bar\x00'))
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                        return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m:
            self.assertEqual(p.cmdline(), ['foo', 'bar'])
            assert m.called
        fake_file = io.StringIO(u('foo\x00bar\x00\x00'))
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                        return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m:
            self.assertEqual(p.cmdline(), ['foo', 'bar', ''])
            assert m.called

    def test_cmdline_spaces_mocked(self):
        # see: https://github.com/giampaolo/psutil/issues/1179
        p = psutil.Process()
        fake_file = io.StringIO(u('foo bar '))
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                        return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m:
            self.assertEqual(p.cmdline(), ['foo', 'bar'])
            assert m.called
        fake_file = io.StringIO(u('foo bar  '))
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.open',
                        return_value=fake_file, create=True) as m:
            self.assertEqual(p.cmdline(), ['foo', 'bar', ''])
            assert m.called

    def test_readlink_path_deleted_mocked(self):
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.os.readlink',
                        return_value='/home/foo (deleted)'):
            self.assertEqual(psutil.Process().exe(), "/home/foo")
            self.assertEqual(psutil.Process().cwd(), "/home/foo")

    def test_threads_mocked(self):
        # Test the case where os.listdir() returns a file (thread)
        # which no longer exists by the time we open() it (race
        # condition). threads() is supposed to ignore that instead
        # of raising NSP.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith('/proc/%s/task' % os.getpid()):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            ret = psutil.Process().threads()
            assert m.called
            self.assertEqual(ret, [])

        # ...but if it bumps into something != ENOENT we want an
        # exception.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith('/proc/%s/task' % os.getpid()):
                raise IOError(errno.EPERM, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            self.assertRaises(psutil.AccessDenied, psutil.Process().threads)

    def test_exe_mocked(self):
        with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.readlink',
                        side_effect=OSError(errno.ENOENT, "")) as m1:
            with mock.patch('psutil.Process.cmdline',
                            side_effect=psutil.AccessDenied(0, "")) as m2:
                # No such file error; might be raised also if /proc/pid/exe
                # path actually exists for system processes with low pids
                # (about 0-20). In this case psutil is supposed to return
                # an empty string.
                ret = psutil.Process().exe()
                assert m1.called
                assert m2.called
                self.assertEqual(ret, "")

                # ...but if /proc/pid no longer exist we're supposed to treat
                # it as an alias for zombie process
                with mock.patch('psutil._pslinux.os.path.lexists',
                                return_value=False):
                    self.assertRaises(
                        psutil.ZombieProcess, psutil.Process().exe)

    def test_issue_1014(self):
        # Emulates a case where smaps file does not exist. In this case
        # wrap_exception decorator should not raise NoSuchProcess.
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith('/proc/%s/smaps' % os.getpid()):
                raise IOError(errno.ENOENT, "")
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock) as m:
            p = psutil.Process()
            with self.assertRaises(IOError) as err:
                p.memory_maps()
            self.assertEqual(err.exception.errno, errno.ENOENT)
            assert m.called

    @unittest.skipIf(not HAS_RLIMIT, "not supported")
    def test_rlimit_zombie(self):
        # Emulate a case where rlimit() raises ENOSYS, which may
        # happen in case of zombie process:
        # https://travis-ci.org/giampaolo/psutil/jobs/51368273
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.cext.linux_prlimit",
                        side_effect=OSError(errno.ENOSYS, "")) as m:
            p = psutil.Process()
            p.name()
            with self.assertRaises(psutil.ZombieProcess) as exc:
                p.rlimit(psutil.RLIMIT_NOFILE)
            assert m.called
        self.assertEqual(exc.exception.pid, p.pid)
        self.assertEqual(exc.exception.name, p.name())

    def test_cwd_zombie(self):
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.os.readlink",
                        side_effect=OSError(errno.ENOENT, "")) as m:
            p = psutil.Process()
            p.name()
            with self.assertRaises(psutil.ZombieProcess) as exc:
                p.cwd()
            assert m.called
        self.assertEqual(exc.exception.pid, p.pid)
        self.assertEqual(exc.exception.name, p.name())

    def test_stat_file_parsing(self):
        from psutil._pslinux import CLOCK_TICKS

        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith('/proc/%s/stat' % os.getpid()):
                args = [
                    "0",      # pid
                    "(cat)",  # name
                    "Z",      # status
                    "1",      # ppid
                    "0",      # pgrp
                    "0",      # session
                    "0",      # tty
                    "0",      # tpgid
                    "0",      # flags
                    "0",      # minflt
                    "0",      # cminflt
                    "0",      # majflt
                    "0",      # cmajflt
                    "2",      # utime
                    "3",      # stime
                    "4",      # cutime
                    "5",      # cstime
                    "0",      # priority
                    "0",      # nice
                    "0",      # num_threads
                    "0",      # itrealvalue
                    "6",      # starttime
                    "0",      # vsize
                    "0",      # rss
                    "0",      # rsslim
                    "0",      # startcode
                    "0",      # endcode
                    "0",      # startstack
                    "0",      # kstkesp
                    "0",      # kstkeip
                    "0",      # signal
                    "0",      # blocked
                    "0",      # sigignore
                    "0",      # sigcatch
                    "0",      # wchan
                    "0",      # nswap
                    "0",      # cnswap
                    "0",      # exit_signal
                    "6",      # processor
                ]
                return io.BytesIO(" ".join(args).encode())
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            p = psutil.Process()
            self.assertEqual(p.name(), 'cat')
            self.assertEqual(p.status(), psutil.STATUS_ZOMBIE)
            self.assertEqual(p.ppid(), 1)
            self.assertEqual(
                p.create_time(), 6 / CLOCK_TICKS + psutil.boot_time())
            cpu = p.cpu_times()
            self.assertEqual(cpu.user, 2 / CLOCK_TICKS)
            self.assertEqual(cpu.system, 3 / CLOCK_TICKS)
            self.assertEqual(cpu.children_user, 4 / CLOCK_TICKS)
            self.assertEqual(cpu.children_system, 5 / CLOCK_TICKS)
            self.assertEqual(p.cpu_num(), 6)

    def test_status_file_parsing(self):
        def open_mock(name, *args, **kwargs):
            if name.startswith('/proc/%s/status' % os.getpid()):
                return io.BytesIO(textwrap.dedent("""\
                    Uid:\t1000\t1001\t1002\t1003
                    Gid:\t1004\t1005\t1006\t1007
                    Threads:\t66
                    Cpus_allowed:\tf
                    Cpus_allowed_list:\t0-7
                    voluntary_ctxt_switches:\t12
                    nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches:\t13""").encode())
            else:
                return orig_open(name, *args, **kwargs)

        orig_open = open
        patch_point = 'builtins.open' if PY3 else '__builtin__.open'
        with mock.patch(patch_point, side_effect=open_mock):
            p = psutil.Process()
            self.assertEqual(p.num_ctx_switches().voluntary, 12)
            self.assertEqual(p.num_ctx_switches().involuntary, 13)
            self.assertEqual(p.num_threads(), 66)
            uids = p.uids()
            self.assertEqual(uids.real, 1000)
            self.assertEqual(uids.effective, 1001)
            self.assertEqual(uids.saved, 1002)
            gids = p.gids()
            self.assertEqual(gids.real, 1004)
            self.assertEqual(gids.effective, 1005)
            self.assertEqual(gids.saved, 1006)
            self.assertEqual(p._proc._get_eligible_cpus(), list(range(0, 8)))


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestProcessAgainstStatus(unittest.TestCase):
    """/proc/pid/stat and /proc/pid/status have many values in common.
    Whenever possible, psutil uses /proc/pid/stat (it's faster).
    For all those cases we check that the value found in
    /proc/pid/stat (by psutil) matches the one found in
    /proc/pid/status.
    """

    @classmethod
    def setUpClass(cls):
        cls.proc = psutil.Process()

    def read_status_file(self, linestart):
        with psutil._psplatform.open_text(
                '/proc/%s/status' % self.proc.pid) as f:
            for line in f:
                line = line.strip()
                if line.startswith(linestart):
                    value = line.partition('\t')[2]
                    try:
                        return int(value)
                    except ValueError:
                        return value
            raise ValueError("can't find %r" % linestart)

    def test_name(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Name:")
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.name(), value)

    def test_status(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("State:")
        value = value[value.find('(') + 1:value.rfind(')')]
        value = value.replace(' ', '-')
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.status(), value)

    def test_ppid(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("PPid:")
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.ppid(), value)

    def test_num_threads(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Threads:")
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.num_threads(), value)

    def test_uids(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Uid:")
        value = tuple(map(int, value.split()[1:4]))
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.uids(), value)

    def test_gids(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Gid:")
        value = tuple(map(int, value.split()[1:4]))
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.gids(), value)

    @retry_before_failing()
    def test_num_ctx_switches(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("voluntary_ctxt_switches:")
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.num_ctx_switches().voluntary, value)
        value = self.read_status_file("nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches:")
        self.assertEqual(self.proc.num_ctx_switches().involuntary, value)

    def test_cpu_affinity(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Cpus_allowed_list:")
        if '-' in str(value):
            min_, max_ = map(int, value.split('-'))
            self.assertEqual(
                self.proc.cpu_affinity(), list(range(min_, max_ + 1)))

    def test_cpu_affinity_eligible_cpus(self):
        value = self.read_status_file("Cpus_allowed_list:")
        with mock.patch("psutil._pslinux.per_cpu_times") as m:
            self.proc._proc._get_eligible_cpus()
        if '-' in str(value):
            assert not m.called
        else:
            assert m.called


# =====================================================================
# --- test utils
# =====================================================================


@unittest.skipIf(not LINUX, "LINUX only")
class TestUtils(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_open_text(self):
        with psutil._psplatform.open_text(__file__) as f:
            self.assertEqual(f.mode, 'rt')

    def test_open_binary(self):
        with psutil._psplatform.open_binary(__file__) as f:
            self.assertEqual(f.mode, 'rb')

    def test_readlink(self):
        with mock.patch("os.readlink", return_value="foo (deleted)") as m:
            self.assertEqual(psutil._psplatform.readlink("bar"), "foo")
            assert m.called

    def test_cat(self):
        fname = os.path.abspath(TESTFN)
        with open(fname, "wt") as f:
            f.write("foo ")
        self.assertEqual(psutil._psplatform.cat(TESTFN, binary=False), "foo")
        self.assertEqual(psutil._psplatform.cat(TESTFN, binary=True), b"foo")
        self.assertEqual(
            psutil._psplatform.cat(TESTFN + '??', fallback="bar"), "bar")


if __name__ == '__main__':
    run_test_module_by_name(__file__)