Bug 894227 - Add configobj Python package; rs=glandium
authorGregory Szorc <gps@mozilla.com>
Thu, 18 Jul 2013 12:55:41 -0700
changeset 139142 b9fe5a05edd907852d728474a4df43fe80c1e197
parent 139141 b9ded7687cdf3cde8f2ee84fd91e61963c313323
child 139143 4c89002460da068084558b7e54d602d67362d667
push idunknown
push userunknown
push dateunknown
reviewersglandium
bugs894227
milestone25.0a1
Bug 894227 - Add configobj Python package; rs=glandium Version 4.7.2 added without modifications. Source obtained from PyPI.
build/mach_bootstrap.py
build/virtualenv/packages.txt
python/configobj/PKG-INFO
python/configobj/configobj.py
python/configobj/setup.py
python/configobj/validate.py
--- a/build/mach_bootstrap.py
+++ b/build/mach_bootstrap.py
@@ -24,16 +24,17 @@ want to export this environment variable
 
 
 # TODO Bug 794506 Integrate with the in-tree virtualenv configuration.
 SEARCH_PATHS = [
     'python/mach',
     'python/mozboot',
     'python/mozbuild',
     'python/blessings',
+    'python/configobj',
     'python/psutil',
     'python/which',
     'build/pymake',
     'config',
     'other-licenses/ply',
     'xpcom/idl-parser',
     'testing',
     'testing/xpcshell',
--- a/build/virtualenv/packages.txt
+++ b/build/virtualenv/packages.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,12 @@
 simplejson.pth:python/simplejson-2.1.1
 marionette.pth:testing/marionette/client
 blessings.pth:python/blessings
+configobj.pth:python/configobj
 mach.pth:python/mach
 mozbuild.pth:python/mozbuild
 pymake.pth:build/pymake
 optional:setup.py:python/psutil:build_ext:--inplace
 optional:psutil.pth:python/psutil
 which.pth:python/which
 ply.pth:other-licenses/ply/
 codegen.pth:python/codegen/
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/PKG-INFO
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Metadata-Version: 1.0
+Name: configobj
+Version: 4.7.2
+Summary: Config file reading, writing and validation.
+Home-page: http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+Author: Michael Foord & Nicola Larosa
+Author-email: fuzzyman@voidspace.org.uk
+License: UNKNOWN
+Download-URL: http://www.voidspace.org.uk/downloads/configobj-4.7.2.zip
+Description: **ConfigObj** is a simple but powerful config file reader and writer: an *ini
+        file round tripper*. Its main feature is that it is very easy to use, with a
+        straightforward programmer's interface and a simple syntax for config files.
+        It has lots of other features though :
+        
+        * Nested sections (subsections), to any level
+        * List values
+        * Multiple line values
+        * Full Unicode support
+        * String interpolation (substitution)
+        * Integrated with a powerful validation system
+        
+        - including automatic type checking/conversion
+        - and allowing default values
+        - repeated sections
+        
+        * All comments in the file are preserved
+        * The order of keys/sections is preserved
+        * Powerful ``unrepr`` mode for storing/retrieving Python data-types
+        
+        | Release 4.7.2 fixes several bugs in 4.7.1
+        | Release 4.7.1 fixes a bug with the deprecated options keyword in
+        | 4.7.0.
+        | Release 4.7.0 improves performance adds features for validation and
+        | fixes some bugs.
+Keywords: config,ini,dictionary,application,admin,sysadmin,configuration,validation
+Platform: UNKNOWN
+Classifier: Development Status :: 6 - Mature
+Classifier: Intended Audience :: Developers
+Classifier: License :: OSI Approved :: BSD License
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.3
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.4
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.5
+Classifier: Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6
+Classifier: Operating System :: OS Independent
+Classifier: Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries
+Classifier: Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/configobj.py
@@ -0,0 +1,2468 @@
+# configobj.py
+# A config file reader/writer that supports nested sections in config files.
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# ConfigObj 4
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+
+# Released subject to the BSD License
+# Please see http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+
+# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
+# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
+# ConfigObj mailing list:
+# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
+# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.
+
+from __future__ import generators
+
+import os
+import re
+import sys
+
+from codecs import BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_BE, BOM_UTF16_LE
+
+
+# imported lazily to avoid startup performance hit if it isn't used
+compiler = None
+
+# A dictionary mapping BOM to
+# the encoding to decode with, and what to set the
+# encoding attribute to.
+BOMS = {
+    BOM_UTF8: ('utf_8', None),
+    BOM_UTF16_BE: ('utf16_be', 'utf_16'),
+    BOM_UTF16_LE: ('utf16_le', 'utf_16'),
+    BOM_UTF16: ('utf_16', 'utf_16'),
+    }
+# All legal variants of the BOM codecs.
+# TODO: the list of aliases is not meant to be exhaustive, is there a
+#   better way ?
+BOM_LIST = {
+    'utf_16': 'utf_16',
+    'u16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf-16': 'utf_16',
+    'utf16_be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf_16_be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf-16be': 'utf16_be',
+    'utf16_le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf_16_le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf-16le': 'utf16_le',
+    'utf_8': 'utf_8',
+    'u8': 'utf_8',
+    'utf': 'utf_8',
+    'utf8': 'utf_8',
+    'utf-8': 'utf_8',
+    }
+
+# Map of encodings to the BOM to write.
+BOM_SET = {
+    'utf_8': BOM_UTF8,
+    'utf_16': BOM_UTF16,
+    'utf16_be': BOM_UTF16_BE,
+    'utf16_le': BOM_UTF16_LE,
+    None: BOM_UTF8
+    }
+
+
+def match_utf8(encoding):
+    return BOM_LIST.get(encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'
+
+
+# Quote strings used for writing values
+squot = "'%s'"
+dquot = '"%s"'
+noquot = "%s"
+wspace_plus = ' \r\n\v\t\'"'
+tsquot = '"""%s"""'
+tdquot = "'''%s'''"
+
+# Sentinel for use in getattr calls to replace hasattr
+MISSING = object()
+
+__version__ = '4.7.2'
+
+try:
+    any
+except NameError:
+    def any(iterable):
+        for entry in iterable:
+            if entry:
+                return True
+        return False
+
+
+__all__ = (
+    '__version__',
+    'DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE',
+    'DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION',
+    'ConfigObjError',
+    'NestingError',
+    'ParseError',
+    'DuplicateError',
+    'ConfigspecError',
+    'ConfigObj',
+    'SimpleVal',
+    'InterpolationError',
+    'InterpolationLoopError',
+    'MissingInterpolationOption',
+    'RepeatSectionError',
+    'ReloadError',
+    'UnreprError',
+    'UnknownType',
+    'flatten_errors',
+    'get_extra_values'
+)
+
+DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION = 'configparser'
+DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE = '    '
+MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH = 10
+
+OPTION_DEFAULTS = {
+    'interpolation': True,
+    'raise_errors': False,
+    'list_values': True,
+    'create_empty': False,
+    'file_error': False,
+    'configspec': None,
+    'stringify': True,
+    # option may be set to one of ('', ' ', '\t')
+    'indent_type': None,
+    'encoding': None,
+    'default_encoding': None,
+    'unrepr': False,
+    'write_empty_values': False,
+}
+
+
+
+def getObj(s):
+    global compiler
+    if compiler is None:
+        import compiler
+    s = "a=" + s
+    p = compiler.parse(s)
+    return p.getChildren()[1].getChildren()[0].getChildren()[1]
+
+
+class UnknownType(Exception):
+    pass
+
+
+class Builder(object):
+    
+    def build(self, o):
+        m = getattr(self, 'build_' + o.__class__.__name__, None)
+        if m is None:
+            raise UnknownType(o.__class__.__name__)
+        return m(o)
+    
+    def build_List(self, o):
+        return map(self.build, o.getChildren())
+    
+    def build_Const(self, o):
+        return o.value
+    
+    def build_Dict(self, o):
+        d = {}
+        i = iter(map(self.build, o.getChildren()))
+        for el in i:
+            d[el] = i.next()
+        return d
+    
+    def build_Tuple(self, o):
+        return tuple(self.build_List(o))
+    
+    def build_Name(self, o):
+        if o.name == 'None':
+            return None
+        if o.name == 'True':
+            return True
+        if o.name == 'False':
+            return False
+        
+        # An undefined Name
+        raise UnknownType('Undefined Name')
+    
+    def build_Add(self, o):
+        real, imag = map(self.build_Const, o.getChildren())
+        try:
+            real = float(real)
+        except TypeError:
+            raise UnknownType('Add')
+        if not isinstance(imag, complex) or imag.real != 0.0:
+            raise UnknownType('Add')
+        return real+imag
+    
+    def build_Getattr(self, o):
+        parent = self.build(o.expr)
+        return getattr(parent, o.attrname)
+    
+    def build_UnarySub(self, o):
+        return -self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])
+    
+    def build_UnaryAdd(self, o):
+        return self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])
+
+
+_builder = Builder()
+
+
+def unrepr(s):
+    if not s:
+        return s
+    return _builder.build(getObj(s))
+
+
+
+class ConfigObjError(SyntaxError):
+    """
+    This is the base class for all errors that ConfigObj raises.
+    It is a subclass of SyntaxError.
+    """
+    def __init__(self, message='', line_number=None, line=''):
+        self.line = line
+        self.line_number = line_number
+        SyntaxError.__init__(self, message)
+
+
+class NestingError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates a level of nesting that doesn't match.
+    """
+
+
+class ParseError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates that a line is badly written.
+    It is neither a valid ``key = value`` line,
+    nor a valid section marker line.
+    """
+
+
+class ReloadError(IOError):
+    """
+    A 'reload' operation failed.
+    This exception is a subclass of ``IOError``.
+    """
+    def __init__(self):
+        IOError.__init__(self, 'reload failed, filename is not set.')
+
+
+class DuplicateError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    The keyword or section specified already exists.
+    """
+
+
+class ConfigspecError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    An error occured whilst parsing a configspec.
+    """
+
+
+class InterpolationError(ConfigObjError):
+    """Base class for the two interpolation errors."""
+
+
+class InterpolationLoopError(InterpolationError):
+    """Maximum interpolation depth exceeded in string interpolation."""
+
+    def __init__(self, option):
+        InterpolationError.__init__(
+            self,
+            'interpolation loop detected in value "%s".' % option)
+
+
+class RepeatSectionError(ConfigObjError):
+    """
+    This error indicates additional sections in a section with a
+    ``__many__`` (repeated) section.
+    """
+
+
+class MissingInterpolationOption(InterpolationError):
+    """A value specified for interpolation was missing."""
+    def __init__(self, option):
+        msg = 'missing option "%s" in interpolation.' % option
+        InterpolationError.__init__(self, msg)
+
+
+class UnreprError(ConfigObjError):
+    """An error parsing in unrepr mode."""
+
+
+
+class InterpolationEngine(object):
+    """
+    A helper class to help perform string interpolation.
+
+    This class is an abstract base class; its descendants perform
+    the actual work.
+    """
+
+    # compiled regexp to use in self.interpolate()
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")
+    _cookie = '%'
+
+    def __init__(self, section):
+        # the Section instance that "owns" this engine
+        self.section = section
+
+
+    def interpolate(self, key, value):
+        # short-cut
+        if not self._cookie in value:
+            return value
+        
+        def recursive_interpolate(key, value, section, backtrail):
+            """The function that does the actual work.
+
+            ``value``: the string we're trying to interpolate.
+            ``section``: the section in which that string was found
+            ``backtrail``: a dict to keep track of where we've been,
+            to detect and prevent infinite recursion loops
+
+            This is similar to a depth-first-search algorithm.
+            """
+            # Have we been here already?
+            if (key, section.name) in backtrail:
+                # Yes - infinite loop detected
+                raise InterpolationLoopError(key)
+            # Place a marker on our backtrail so we won't come back here again
+            backtrail[(key, section.name)] = 1
+
+            # Now start the actual work
+            match = self._KEYCRE.search(value)
+            while match:
+                # The actual parsing of the match is implementation-dependent,
+                # so delegate to our helper function
+                k, v, s = self._parse_match(match)
+                if k is None:
+                    # That's the signal that no further interpolation is needed
+                    replacement = v
+                else:
+                    # Further interpolation may be needed to obtain final value
+                    replacement = recursive_interpolate(k, v, s, backtrail)
+                # Replace the matched string with its final value
+                start, end = match.span()
+                value = ''.join((value[:start], replacement, value[end:]))
+                new_search_start = start + len(replacement)
+                # Pick up the next interpolation key, if any, for next time
+                # through the while loop
+                match = self._KEYCRE.search(value, new_search_start)
+
+            # Now safe to come back here again; remove marker from backtrail
+            del backtrail[(key, section.name)]
+
+            return value
+
+        # Back in interpolate(), all we have to do is kick off the recursive
+        # function with appropriate starting values
+        value = recursive_interpolate(key, value, self.section, {})
+        return value
+
+
+    def _fetch(self, key):
+        """Helper function to fetch values from owning section.
+
+        Returns a 2-tuple: the value, and the section where it was found.
+        """
+        # switch off interpolation before we try and fetch anything !
+        save_interp = self.section.main.interpolation
+        self.section.main.interpolation = False
+
+        # Start at section that "owns" this InterpolationEngine
+        current_section = self.section
+        while True:
+            # try the current section first
+            val = current_section.get(key)
+            if val is not None and not isinstance(val, Section):
+                break
+            # try "DEFAULT" next
+            val = current_section.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(key)
+            if val is not None and not isinstance(val, Section):
+                break
+            # move up to parent and try again
+            # top-level's parent is itself
+            if current_section.parent is current_section:
+                # reached top level, time to give up
+                break
+            current_section = current_section.parent
+
+        # restore interpolation to previous value before returning
+        self.section.main.interpolation = save_interp
+        if val is None:
+            raise MissingInterpolationOption(key)
+        return val, current_section
+
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        """Implementation-dependent helper function.
+
+        Will be passed a match object corresponding to the interpolation
+        key we just found (e.g., "%(foo)s" or "$foo"). Should look up that
+        key in the appropriate config file section (using the ``_fetch()``
+        helper function) and return a 3-tuple: (key, value, section)
+
+        ``key`` is the name of the key we're looking for
+        ``value`` is the value found for that key
+        ``section`` is a reference to the section where it was found
+
+        ``key`` and ``section`` should be None if no further
+        interpolation should be performed on the resulting value
+        (e.g., if we interpolated "$$" and returned "$").
+        """
+        raise NotImplementedError()
+    
+
+
+class ConfigParserInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
+    """Behaves like ConfigParser."""
+    _cookie = '%'
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        key = match.group(1)
+        value, section = self._fetch(key)
+        return key, value, section
+
+
+
+class TemplateInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
+    """Behaves like string.Template."""
+    _cookie = '$'
+    _delimiter = '$'
+    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"""
+        \$(?:
+          (?P<escaped>\$)              |   # Two $ signs
+          (?P<named>[_a-z][_a-z0-9]*)  |   # $name format
+          {(?P<braced>[^}]*)}              # ${name} format
+        )
+        """, re.IGNORECASE | re.VERBOSE)
+
+    def _parse_match(self, match):
+        # Valid name (in or out of braces): fetch value from section
+        key = match.group('named') or match.group('braced')
+        if key is not None:
+            value, section = self._fetch(key)
+            return key, value, section
+        # Escaped delimiter (e.g., $$): return single delimiter
+        if match.group('escaped') is not None:
+            # Return None for key and section to indicate it's time to stop
+            return None, self._delimiter, None
+        # Anything else: ignore completely, just return it unchanged
+        return None, match.group(), None
+
+
+interpolation_engines = {
+    'configparser': ConfigParserInterpolation,
+    'template': TemplateInterpolation,
+}
+
+
+def __newobj__(cls, *args):
+    # Hack for pickle
+    return cls.__new__(cls, *args) 
+
+class Section(dict):
+    """
+    A dictionary-like object that represents a section in a config file.
+    
+    It does string interpolation if the 'interpolation' attribute
+    of the 'main' object is set to True.
+    
+    Interpolation is tried first from this object, then from the 'DEFAULT'
+    section of this object, next from the parent and its 'DEFAULT' section,
+    and so on until the main object is reached.
+    
+    A Section will behave like an ordered dictionary - following the
+    order of the ``scalars`` and ``sections`` attributes.
+    You can use this to change the order of members.
+    
+    Iteration follows the order: scalars, then sections.
+    """
+
+    
+    def __setstate__(self, state):
+        dict.update(self, state[0])
+        self.__dict__.update(state[1])
+
+    def __reduce__(self):
+        state = (dict(self), self.__dict__)
+        return (__newobj__, (self.__class__,), state)
+    
+    
+    def __init__(self, parent, depth, main, indict=None, name=None):
+        """
+        * parent is the section above
+        * depth is the depth level of this section
+        * main is the main ConfigObj
+        * indict is a dictionary to initialise the section with
+        """
+        if indict is None:
+            indict = {}
+        dict.__init__(self)
+        # used for nesting level *and* interpolation
+        self.parent = parent
+        # used for the interpolation attribute
+        self.main = main
+        # level of nesting depth of this Section
+        self.depth = depth
+        # purely for information
+        self.name = name
+        #
+        self._initialise()
+        # we do this explicitly so that __setitem__ is used properly
+        # (rather than just passing to ``dict.__init__``)
+        for entry, value in indict.iteritems():
+            self[entry] = value
+            
+            
+    def _initialise(self):
+        # the sequence of scalar values in this Section
+        self.scalars = []
+        # the sequence of sections in this Section
+        self.sections = []
+        # for comments :-)
+        self.comments = {}
+        self.inline_comments = {}
+        # the configspec
+        self.configspec = None
+        # for defaults
+        self.defaults = []
+        self.default_values = {}
+        self.extra_values = []
+        self._created = False
+
+
+    def _interpolate(self, key, value):
+        try:
+            # do we already have an interpolation engine?
+            engine = self._interpolation_engine
+        except AttributeError:
+            # not yet: first time running _interpolate(), so pick the engine
+            name = self.main.interpolation
+            if name == True:  # note that "if name:" would be incorrect here
+                # backwards-compatibility: interpolation=True means use default
+                name = DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION
+            name = name.lower()  # so that "Template", "template", etc. all work
+            class_ = interpolation_engines.get(name, None)
+            if class_ is None:
+                # invalid value for self.main.interpolation
+                self.main.interpolation = False
+                return value
+            else:
+                # save reference to engine so we don't have to do this again
+                engine = self._interpolation_engine = class_(self)
+        # let the engine do the actual work
+        return engine.interpolate(key, value)
+
+
+    def __getitem__(self, key):
+        """Fetch the item and do string interpolation."""
+        val = dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        if self.main.interpolation: 
+            if isinstance(val, basestring):
+                return self._interpolate(key, val)
+            if isinstance(val, list):
+                def _check(entry):
+                    if isinstance(entry, basestring):
+                        return self._interpolate(key, entry)
+                    return entry
+                new = [_check(entry) for entry in val]
+                if new != val:
+                    return new
+        return val
+
+
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value, unrepr=False):
+        """
+        Correctly set a value.
+        
+        Making dictionary values Section instances.
+        (We have to special case 'Section' instances - which are also dicts)
+        
+        Keys must be strings.
+        Values need only be strings (or lists of strings) if
+        ``main.stringify`` is set.
+        
+        ``unrepr`` must be set when setting a value to a dictionary, without
+        creating a new sub-section.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(key, basestring):
+            raise ValueError('The key "%s" is not a string.' % key)
+        
+        # add the comment
+        if key not in self.comments:
+            self.comments[key] = []
+            self.inline_comments[key] = ''
+        # remove the entry from defaults
+        if key in self.defaults:
+            self.defaults.remove(key)
+        #
+        if isinstance(value, Section):
+            if key not in self:
+                self.sections.append(key)
+            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
+        elif isinstance(value, dict) and not unrepr:
+            # First create the new depth level,
+            # then create the section
+            if key not in self:
+                self.sections.append(key)
+            new_depth = self.depth + 1
+            dict.__setitem__(
+                self,
+                key,
+                Section(
+                    self,
+                    new_depth,
+                    self.main,
+                    indict=value,
+                    name=key))
+        else:
+            if key not in self:
+                self.scalars.append(key)
+            if not self.main.stringify:
+                if isinstance(value, basestring):
+                    pass
+                elif isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+                    for entry in value:
+                        if not isinstance(entry, basestring):
+                            raise TypeError('Value is not a string "%s".' % entry)
+                else:
+                    raise TypeError('Value is not a string "%s".' % value)
+            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
+
+
+    def __delitem__(self, key):
+        """Remove items from the sequence when deleting."""
+        dict. __delitem__(self, key)
+        if key in self.scalars:
+            self.scalars.remove(key)
+        else:
+            self.sections.remove(key)
+        del self.comments[key]
+        del self.inline_comments[key]
+
+
+    def get(self, key, default=None):
+        """A version of ``get`` that doesn't bypass string interpolation."""
+        try:
+            return self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            return default
+
+
+    def update(self, indict):
+        """
+        A version of update that uses our ``__setitem__``.
+        """
+        for entry in indict:
+            self[entry] = indict[entry]
+
+
+    def pop(self, key, default=MISSING):
+        """
+        'D.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value.
+        If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised'
+        """
+        try:
+            val = self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            if default is MISSING:
+                raise
+            val = default
+        else:
+            del self[key]
+        return val
+
+
+    def popitem(self):
+        """Pops the first (key,val)"""
+        sequence = (self.scalars + self.sections)
+        if not sequence:
+            raise KeyError(": 'popitem(): dictionary is empty'")
+        key = sequence[0]
+        val =  self[key]
+        del self[key]
+        return key, val
+
+
+    def clear(self):
+        """
+        A version of clear that also affects scalars/sections
+        Also clears comments and configspec.
+        
+        Leaves other attributes alone :
+            depth/main/parent are not affected
+        """
+        dict.clear(self)
+        self.scalars = []
+        self.sections = []
+        self.comments = {}
+        self.inline_comments = {}
+        self.configspec = None
+        self.defaults = []
+        self.extra_values = []
+
+
+    def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
+        """A version of setdefault that sets sequence if appropriate."""
+        try:
+            return self[key]
+        except KeyError:
+            self[key] = default
+            return self[key]
+
+
+    def items(self):
+        """D.items() -> list of D's (key, value) pairs, as 2-tuples"""
+        return zip((self.scalars + self.sections), self.values())
+
+
+    def keys(self):
+        """D.keys() -> list of D's keys"""
+        return (self.scalars + self.sections)
+
+
+    def values(self):
+        """D.values() -> list of D's values"""
+        return [self[key] for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]
+
+
+    def iteritems(self):
+        """D.iteritems() -> an iterator over the (key, value) items of D"""
+        return iter(self.items())
+
+
+    def iterkeys(self):
+        """D.iterkeys() -> an iterator over the keys of D"""
+        return iter((self.scalars + self.sections))
+
+    __iter__ = iterkeys
+
+
+    def itervalues(self):
+        """D.itervalues() -> an iterator over the values of D"""
+        return iter(self.values())
+
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        """x.__repr__() <==> repr(x)"""
+        def _getval(key):
+            try:
+                return self[key]
+            except MissingInterpolationOption:
+                return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        return '{%s}' % ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(_getval(key))))
+            for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)])
+
+    __str__ = __repr__
+    __str__.__doc__ = "x.__str__() <==> str(x)"
+
+
+    # Extra methods - not in a normal dictionary
+
+    def dict(self):
+        """
+        Return a deepcopy of self as a dictionary.
+        
+        All members that are ``Section`` instances are recursively turned to
+        ordinary dictionaries - by calling their ``dict`` method.
+        
+        >>> n = a.dict()
+        >>> n == a
+        1
+        >>> n is a
+        0
+        """
+        newdict = {}
+        for entry in self:
+            this_entry = self[entry]
+            if isinstance(this_entry, Section):
+                this_entry = this_entry.dict()
+            elif isinstance(this_entry, list):
+                # create a copy rather than a reference
+                this_entry = list(this_entry)
+            elif isinstance(this_entry, tuple):
+                # create a copy rather than a reference
+                this_entry = tuple(this_entry)
+            newdict[entry] = this_entry
+        return newdict
+
+
+    def merge(self, indict):
+        """
+        A recursive update - useful for merging config files.
+        
+        >>> a = '''[section1]
+        ...     option1 = True
+        ...     [[subsection]]
+        ...     more_options = False
+        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
+        >>> b = '''# File is user.ini
+        ...     [section1]
+        ...     option1 = False
+        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
+        >>> c1 = ConfigObj(b)
+        >>> c2 = ConfigObj(a)
+        >>> c2.merge(c1)
+        >>> c2
+        ConfigObj({'section1': {'option1': 'False', 'subsection': {'more_options': 'False'}}})
+        """
+        for key, val in indict.items():
+            if (key in self and isinstance(self[key], dict) and
+                                isinstance(val, dict)):
+                self[key].merge(val)
+            else:   
+                self[key] = val
+
+
+    def rename(self, oldkey, newkey):
+        """
+        Change a keyname to another, without changing position in sequence.
+        
+        Implemented so that transformations can be made on keys,
+        as well as on values. (used by encode and decode)
+        
+        Also renames comments.
+        """
+        if oldkey in self.scalars:
+            the_list = self.scalars
+        elif oldkey in self.sections:
+            the_list = self.sections
+        else:
+            raise KeyError('Key "%s" not found.' % oldkey)
+        pos = the_list.index(oldkey)
+        #
+        val = self[oldkey]
+        dict.__delitem__(self, oldkey)
+        dict.__setitem__(self, newkey, val)
+        the_list.remove(oldkey)
+        the_list.insert(pos, newkey)
+        comm = self.comments[oldkey]
+        inline_comment = self.inline_comments[oldkey]
+        del self.comments[oldkey]
+        del self.inline_comments[oldkey]
+        self.comments[newkey] = comm
+        self.inline_comments[newkey] = inline_comment
+
+
+    def walk(self, function, raise_errors=True,
+            call_on_sections=False, **keywargs):
+        """
+        Walk every member and call a function on the keyword and value.
+        
+        Return a dictionary of the return values
+        
+        If the function raises an exception, raise the errror
+        unless ``raise_errors=False``, in which case set the return value to
+        ``False``.
+        
+        Any unrecognised keyword arguments you pass to walk, will be pased on
+        to the function you pass in.
+        
+        Note: if ``call_on_sections`` is ``True`` then - on encountering a
+        subsection, *first* the function is called for the *whole* subsection,
+        and then recurses into it's members. This means your function must be
+        able to handle strings, dictionaries and lists. This allows you
+        to change the key of subsections as well as for ordinary members. The
+        return value when called on the whole subsection has to be discarded.
+        
+        See  the encode and decode methods for examples, including functions.
+        
+        .. admonition:: caution
+        
+            You can use ``walk`` to transform the names of members of a section
+            but you mustn't add or delete members.
+        
+        >>> config = '''[XXXXsection]
+        ... XXXXkey = XXXXvalue'''.splitlines()
+        >>> cfg = ConfigObj(config)
+        >>> cfg
+        ConfigObj({'XXXXsection': {'XXXXkey': 'XXXXvalue'}})
+        >>> def transform(section, key):
+        ...     val = section[key]
+        ...     newkey = key.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
+        ...     section.rename(key, newkey)
+        ...     if isinstance(val, (tuple, list, dict)):
+        ...         pass
+        ...     else:
+        ...         val = val.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
+        ...         section[newkey] = val
+        >>> cfg.walk(transform, call_on_sections=True)
+        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': None}}
+        >>> cfg
+        ConfigObj({'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': 'CLIENT1value'}})
+        """
+        out = {}
+        # scalars first
+        for i in range(len(self.scalars)):
+            entry = self.scalars[i]
+            try:
+                val = function(self, entry, **keywargs)
+                # bound again in case name has changed
+                entry = self.scalars[i]
+                out[entry] = val
+            except Exception:
+                if raise_errors:
+                    raise
+                else:
+                    entry = self.scalars[i]
+                    out[entry] = False
+        # then sections
+        for i in range(len(self.sections)):
+            entry = self.sections[i]
+            if call_on_sections:
+                try:
+                    function(self, entry, **keywargs)
+                except Exception:
+                    if raise_errors:
+                        raise
+                    else:
+                        entry = self.sections[i]
+                        out[entry] = False
+                # bound again in case name has changed
+                entry = self.sections[i]
+            # previous result is discarded
+            out[entry] = self[entry].walk(
+                function,
+                raise_errors=raise_errors,
+                call_on_sections=call_on_sections,
+                **keywargs)
+        return out
+
+
+    def as_bool(self, key):
+        """
+        Accepts a key as input. The corresponding value must be a string or
+        the objects (``True`` or 1) or (``False`` or 0). We allow 0 and 1 to
+        retain compatibility with Python 2.2.
+        
+        If the string is one of  ``True``, ``On``, ``Yes``, or ``1`` it returns 
+        ``True``.
+        
+        If the string is one of  ``False``, ``Off``, ``No``, or ``0`` it returns 
+        ``False``.
+        
+        ``as_bool`` is not case sensitive.
+        
+        Any other input will raise a ``ValueError``.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_bool('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: Value "fish" is neither True nor False
+        >>> a['b'] = 'True'
+        >>> a.as_bool('b')
+        1
+        >>> a['b'] = 'off'
+        >>> a.as_bool('b')
+        0
+        """
+        val = self[key]
+        if val == True:
+            return True
+        elif val == False:
+            return False
+        else:
+            try:
+                if not isinstance(val, basestring):
+                    # TODO: Why do we raise a KeyError here?
+                    raise KeyError()
+                else:
+                    return self.main._bools[val.lower()]
+            except KeyError:
+                raise ValueError('Value "%s" is neither True nor False' % val)
+
+
+    def as_int(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to an integer.
+        
+        If the value is an invalid literal for ``int``, a ``ValueError`` will
+        be raised.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_int('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: 'fish'
+        >>> a['b'] = '1'
+        >>> a.as_int('b')
+        1
+        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
+        >>> a.as_int('b')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: '3.2'
+        """
+        return int(self[key])
+
+
+    def as_float(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to a float.
+        
+        If the value is an invalid literal for ``float``, a ``ValueError`` will
+        be raised.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
+        >>> a.as_float('a')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        ValueError: invalid literal for float(): fish
+        >>> a['b'] = '1'
+        >>> a.as_float('b')
+        1.0
+        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
+        >>> a.as_float('b')
+        3.2000000000000002
+        """
+        return float(self[key])
+    
+    
+    def as_list(self, key):
+        """
+        A convenience method which fetches the specified value, guaranteeing
+        that it is a list.
+        
+        >>> a = ConfigObj()
+        >>> a['a'] = 1
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        >>> a['a'] = (1,)
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        >>> a['a'] = [1]
+        >>> a.as_list('a')
+        [1]
+        """
+        result = self[key]
+        if isinstance(result, (tuple, list)):
+            return list(result)
+        return [result]
+        
+
+    def restore_default(self, key):
+        """
+        Restore (and return) default value for the specified key.
+        
+        This method will only work for a ConfigObj that was created
+        with a configspec and has been validated.
+        
+        If there is no default value for this key, ``KeyError`` is raised.
+        """
+        default = self.default_values[key]
+        dict.__setitem__(self, key, default)
+        if key not in self.defaults:
+            self.defaults.append(key)
+        return default
+
+    
+    def restore_defaults(self):
+        """
+        Recursively restore default values to all members
+        that have them.
+        
+        This method will only work for a ConfigObj that was created
+        with a configspec and has been validated.
+        
+        It doesn't delete or modify entries without default values.
+        """
+        for key in self.default_values:
+            self.restore_default(key)
+            
+        for section in self.sections:
+            self[section].restore_defaults()
+
+
+class ConfigObj(Section):
+    """An object to read, create, and write config files."""
+
+    _keyword = re.compile(r'''^ # line start
+        (\s*)                   # indentation
+        (                       # keyword
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'"=].*?)       # no quotes
+        )
+        \s*=\s*                 # divider
+        (.*)                    # value (including list values and comments)
+        $   # line end
+        ''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    _sectionmarker = re.compile(r'''^
+        (\s*)                     # 1: indentation
+        ((?:\[\s*)+)              # 2: section marker open
+        (                         # 3: section name open
+            (?:"\s*\S.*?\s*")|    # at least one non-space with double quotes
+            (?:'\s*\S.*?\s*')|    # at least one non-space with single quotes
+            (?:[^'"\s].*?)        # at least one non-space unquoted
+        )                         # section name close
+        ((?:\s*\])+)              # 4: section marker close
+        \s*(\#.*)?                # 5: optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # this regexp pulls list values out as a single string
+    # or single values and comments
+    # FIXME: this regex adds a '' to the end of comma terminated lists
+    #   workaround in ``_handle_value``
+    _valueexp = re.compile(r'''^
+        (?:
+            (?:
+                (
+                    (?:
+                        (?:
+                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                            (?:[^'",\#][^,\#]*?)    # unquoted
+                        )
+                        \s*,\s*                     # comma
+                    )*      # match all list items ending in a comma (if any)
+                )
+                (
+                    (?:".*?")|                      # double quotes
+                    (?:'.*?')|                      # single quotes
+                    (?:[^'",\#\s][^,]*?)|           # unquoted
+                    (?:(?<!,))                      # Empty value
+                )?          # last item in a list - or string value
+            )|
+            (,)             # alternatively a single comma - empty list
+        )
+        \s*(\#.*)?          # optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # use findall to get the members of a list value
+    _listvalueexp = re.compile(r'''
+        (
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'",\#]?.*?)       # unquoted
+        )
+        \s*,\s*                 # comma
+        ''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # this regexp is used for the value
+    # when lists are switched off
+    _nolistvalue = re.compile(r'''^
+        (
+            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
+            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
+            (?:[^'"\#].*?)|     # unquoted
+            (?:)                # Empty value
+        )
+        \s*(\#.*)?              # optional comment
+        $''',
+        re.VERBOSE)
+
+    # regexes for finding triple quoted values on one line
+    _single_line_single = re.compile(r"^'''(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
+    _single_line_double = re.compile(r'^"""(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
+    _multi_line_single = re.compile(r"^(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
+    _multi_line_double = re.compile(r'^(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
+
+    _triple_quote = {
+        "'''": (_single_line_single, _multi_line_single),
+        '"""': (_single_line_double, _multi_line_double),
+    }
+
+    # Used by the ``istrue`` Section method
+    _bools = {
+        'yes': True, 'no': False,
+        'on': True, 'off': False,
+        '1': True, '0': False,
+        'true': True, 'false': False,
+        }
+
+
+    def __init__(self, infile=None, options=None, configspec=None, encoding=None,
+                 interpolation=True, raise_errors=False, list_values=True,
+                 create_empty=False, file_error=False, stringify=True,
+                 indent_type=None, default_encoding=None, unrepr=False,
+                 write_empty_values=False, _inspec=False):
+        """
+        Parse a config file or create a config file object.
+        
+        ``ConfigObj(infile=None, configspec=None, encoding=None,
+                    interpolation=True, raise_errors=False, list_values=True,
+                    create_empty=False, file_error=False, stringify=True,
+                    indent_type=None, default_encoding=None, unrepr=False,
+                    write_empty_values=False, _inspec=False)``
+        """
+        self._inspec = _inspec
+        # init the superclass
+        Section.__init__(self, self, 0, self)
+        
+        infile = infile or []
+        
+        _options = {'configspec': configspec,
+                    'encoding': encoding, 'interpolation': interpolation,
+                    'raise_errors': raise_errors, 'list_values': list_values,
+                    'create_empty': create_empty, 'file_error': file_error,
+                    'stringify': stringify, 'indent_type': indent_type,
+                    'default_encoding': default_encoding, 'unrepr': unrepr,
+                    'write_empty_values': write_empty_values}
+
+        if options is None:
+            options = _options
+        else:
+            import warnings
+            warnings.warn('Passing in an options dictionary to ConfigObj() is '
+                          'deprecated. Use **options instead.',
+                          DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
+            
+            # TODO: check the values too.
+            for entry in options:
+                if entry not in OPTION_DEFAULTS:
+                    raise TypeError('Unrecognised option "%s".' % entry)
+            for entry, value in OPTION_DEFAULTS.items():
+                if entry not in options:
+                    options[entry] = value
+                keyword_value = _options[entry]
+                if value != keyword_value:
+                    options[entry] = keyword_value
+        
+        # XXXX this ignores an explicit list_values = True in combination
+        # with _inspec. The user should *never* do that anyway, but still...
+        if _inspec:
+            options['list_values'] = False
+        
+        self._initialise(options)
+        configspec = options['configspec']
+        self._original_configspec = configspec
+        self._load(infile, configspec)
+        
+        
+    def _load(self, infile, configspec):
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            self.filename = infile
+            if os.path.isfile(infile):
+                h = open(infile, 'rb')
+                infile = h.read() or []
+                h.close()
+            elif self.file_error:
+                # raise an error if the file doesn't exist
+                raise IOError('Config file not found: "%s".' % self.filename)
+            else:
+                # file doesn't already exist
+                if self.create_empty:
+                    # this is a good test that the filename specified
+                    # isn't impossible - like on a non-existent device
+                    h = open(infile, 'w')
+                    h.write('')
+                    h.close()
+                infile = []
+                
+        elif isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+            infile = list(infile)
+            
+        elif isinstance(infile, dict):
+            # initialise self
+            # the Section class handles creating subsections
+            if isinstance(infile, ConfigObj):
+                # get a copy of our ConfigObj
+                def set_section(in_section, this_section):
+                    for entry in in_section.scalars:
+                        this_section[entry] = in_section[entry]
+                    for section in in_section.sections:
+                        this_section[section] = {}
+                        set_section(in_section[section], this_section[section])
+                set_section(infile, self)
+                
+            else:
+                for entry in infile:
+                    self[entry] = infile[entry]
+            del self._errors
+            
+            if configspec is not None:
+                self._handle_configspec(configspec)
+            else:
+                self.configspec = None
+            return
+        
+        elif getattr(infile, 'read', MISSING) is not MISSING:
+            # This supports file like objects
+            infile = infile.read() or []
+            # needs splitting into lines - but needs doing *after* decoding
+            # in case it's not an 8 bit encoding
+        else:
+            raise TypeError('infile must be a filename, file like object, or list of lines.')
+        
+        if infile:
+            # don't do it for the empty ConfigObj
+            infile = self._handle_bom(infile)
+            # infile is now *always* a list
+            #
+            # Set the newlines attribute (first line ending it finds)
+            # and strip trailing '\n' or '\r' from lines
+            for line in infile:
+                if (not line) or (line[-1] not in ('\r', '\n', '\r\n')):
+                    continue
+                for end in ('\r\n', '\n', '\r'):
+                    if line.endswith(end):
+                        self.newlines = end
+                        break
+                break
+
+            infile = [line.rstrip('\r\n') for line in infile]
+            
+        self._parse(infile)
+        # if we had any errors, now is the time to raise them
+        if self._errors:
+            info = "at line %s." % self._errors[0].line_number
+            if len(self._errors) > 1:
+                msg = "Parsing failed with several errors.\nFirst error %s" % info
+                error = ConfigObjError(msg)
+            else:
+                error = self._errors[0]
+            # set the errors attribute; it's a list of tuples:
+            # (error_type, message, line_number)
+            error.errors = self._errors
+            # set the config attribute
+            error.config = self
+            raise error
+        # delete private attributes
+        del self._errors
+        
+        if configspec is None:
+            self.configspec = None
+        else:
+            self._handle_configspec(configspec)
+    
+    
+    def _initialise(self, options=None):
+        if options is None:
+            options = OPTION_DEFAULTS
+            
+        # initialise a few variables
+        self.filename = None
+        self._errors = []
+        self.raise_errors = options['raise_errors']
+        self.interpolation = options['interpolation']
+        self.list_values = options['list_values']
+        self.create_empty = options['create_empty']
+        self.file_error = options['file_error']
+        self.stringify = options['stringify']
+        self.indent_type = options['indent_type']
+        self.encoding = options['encoding']
+        self.default_encoding = options['default_encoding']
+        self.BOM = False
+        self.newlines = None
+        self.write_empty_values = options['write_empty_values']
+        self.unrepr = options['unrepr']
+        
+        self.initial_comment = []
+        self.final_comment = []
+        self.configspec = None
+        
+        if self._inspec:
+            self.list_values = False
+        
+        # Clear section attributes as well
+        Section._initialise(self)
+        
+        
+    def __repr__(self):
+        def _getval(key):
+            try:
+                return self[key]
+            except MissingInterpolationOption:
+                return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
+        return ('ConfigObj({%s})' % 
+                ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(_getval(key)))) 
+                for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]))
+    
+    
+    def _handle_bom(self, infile):
+        """
+        Handle any BOM, and decode if necessary.
+        
+        If an encoding is specified, that *must* be used - but the BOM should
+        still be removed (and the BOM attribute set).
+        
+        (If the encoding is wrongly specified, then a BOM for an alternative
+        encoding won't be discovered or removed.)
+        
+        If an encoding is not specified, UTF8 or UTF16 BOM will be detected and
+        removed. The BOM attribute will be set. UTF16 will be decoded to
+        unicode.
+        
+        NOTE: This method must not be called with an empty ``infile``.
+        
+        Specifying the *wrong* encoding is likely to cause a
+        ``UnicodeDecodeError``.
+        
+        ``infile`` must always be returned as a list of lines, but may be
+        passed in as a single string.
+        """
+        if ((self.encoding is not None) and
+            (self.encoding.lower() not in BOM_LIST)):
+            # No need to check for a BOM
+            # the encoding specified doesn't have one
+            # just decode
+            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+        
+        if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+            line = infile[0]
+        else:
+            line = infile
+        if self.encoding is not None:
+            # encoding explicitly supplied
+            # And it could have an associated BOM
+            # TODO: if encoding is just UTF16 - we ought to check for both
+            # TODO: big endian and little endian versions.
+            enc = BOM_LIST[self.encoding.lower()]
+            if enc == 'utf_16':
+                # For UTF16 we try big endian and little endian
+                for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
+                    if not final_encoding:
+                        # skip UTF8
+                        continue
+                    if infile.startswith(BOM):
+                        ### BOM discovered
+                        ##self.BOM = True
+                        # Don't need to remove BOM
+                        return self._decode(infile, encoding)
+                    
+                # If we get this far, will *probably* raise a DecodeError
+                # As it doesn't appear to start with a BOM
+                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+            
+            # Must be UTF8
+            BOM = BOM_SET[enc]
+            if not line.startswith(BOM):
+                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+            
+            newline = line[len(BOM):]
+            
+            # BOM removed
+            if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+                infile[0] = newline
+            else:
+                infile = newline
+            self.BOM = True
+            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
+        
+        # No encoding specified - so we need to check for UTF8/UTF16
+        for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
+            if not line.startswith(BOM):
+                continue
+            else:
+                # BOM discovered
+                self.encoding = final_encoding
+                if not final_encoding:
+                    self.BOM = True
+                    # UTF8
+                    # remove BOM
+                    newline = line[len(BOM):]
+                    if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
+                        infile[0] = newline
+                    else:
+                        infile = newline
+                    # UTF8 - don't decode
+                    if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+                        return infile.splitlines(True)
+                    else:
+                        return infile
+                # UTF16 - have to decode
+                return self._decode(infile, encoding)
+            
+        # No BOM discovered and no encoding specified, just return
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            # infile read from a file will be a single string
+            return infile.splitlines(True)
+        return infile
+
+
+    def _a_to_u(self, aString):
+        """Decode ASCII strings to unicode if a self.encoding is specified."""
+        if self.encoding:
+            return aString.decode('ascii')
+        else:
+            return aString
+
+
+    def _decode(self, infile, encoding):
+        """
+        Decode infile to unicode. Using the specified encoding.
+        
+        if is a string, it also needs converting to a list.
+        """
+        if isinstance(infile, basestring):
+            # can't be unicode
+            # NOTE: Could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
+            return infile.decode(encoding).splitlines(True)
+        for i, line in enumerate(infile):
+            if not isinstance(line, unicode):
+                # NOTE: The isinstance test here handles mixed lists of unicode/string
+                # NOTE: But the decode will break on any non-string values
+                # NOTE: Or could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
+                infile[i] = line.decode(encoding)
+        return infile
+
+
+    def _decode_element(self, line):
+        """Decode element to unicode if necessary."""
+        if not self.encoding:
+            return line
+        if isinstance(line, str) and self.default_encoding:
+            return line.decode(self.default_encoding)
+        return line
+
+
+    def _str(self, value):
+        """
+        Used by ``stringify`` within validate, to turn non-string values
+        into strings.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            return str(value)
+        else:
+            return value
+
+
+    def _parse(self, infile):
+        """Actually parse the config file."""
+        temp_list_values = self.list_values
+        if self.unrepr:
+            self.list_values = False
+            
+        comment_list = []
+        done_start = False
+        this_section = self
+        maxline = len(infile) - 1
+        cur_index = -1
+        reset_comment = False
+        
+        while cur_index < maxline:
+            if reset_comment:
+                comment_list = []
+            cur_index += 1
+            line = infile[cur_index]
+            sline = line.strip()
+            # do we have anything on the line ?
+            if not sline or sline.startswith('#'):
+                reset_comment = False
+                comment_list.append(line)
+                continue
+            
+            if not done_start:
+                # preserve initial comment
+                self.initial_comment = comment_list
+                comment_list = []
+                done_start = True
+                
+            reset_comment = True
+            # first we check if it's a section marker
+            mat = self._sectionmarker.match(line)
+            if mat is not None:
+                # is a section line
+                (indent, sect_open, sect_name, sect_close, comment) = mat.groups()
+                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
+                    self.indent_type = indent
+                cur_depth = sect_open.count('[')
+                if cur_depth != sect_close.count(']'):
+                    self._handle_error("Cannot compute the section depth at line %s.",
+                                       NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                
+                if cur_depth < this_section.depth:
+                    # the new section is dropping back to a previous level
+                    try:
+                        parent = self._match_depth(this_section,
+                                                   cur_depth).parent
+                    except SyntaxError:
+                        self._handle_error("Cannot compute nesting level at line %s.",
+                                           NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                        continue
+                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth:
+                    # the new section is a sibling of the current section
+                    parent = this_section.parent
+                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth + 1:
+                    # the new section is a child the current section
+                    parent = this_section
+                else:
+                    self._handle_error("Section too nested at line %s.",
+                                       NestingError, infile, cur_index)
+                    
+                sect_name = self._unquote(sect_name)
+                if sect_name in parent:
+                    self._handle_error('Duplicate section name at line %s.',
+                                       DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                
+                # create the new section
+                this_section = Section(
+                    parent,
+                    cur_depth,
+                    self,
+                    name=sect_name)
+                parent[sect_name] = this_section
+                parent.inline_comments[sect_name] = comment
+                parent.comments[sect_name] = comment_list
+                continue
+            #
+            # it's not a section marker,
+            # so it should be a valid ``key = value`` line
+            mat = self._keyword.match(line)
+            if mat is None:
+                # it neither matched as a keyword
+                # or a section marker
+                self._handle_error(
+                    'Invalid line at line "%s".',
+                    ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+            else:
+                # is a keyword value
+                # value will include any inline comment
+                (indent, key, value) = mat.groups()
+                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
+                    self.indent_type = indent
+                # check for a multiline value
+                if value[:3] in ['"""', "'''"]:
+                    try:
+                        value, comment, cur_index = self._multiline(
+                            value, infile, cur_index, maxline)
+                    except SyntaxError:
+                        self._handle_error(
+                            'Parse error in value at line %s.',
+                            ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+                        continue
+                    else:
+                        if self.unrepr:
+                            comment = ''
+                            try:
+                                value = unrepr(value)
+                            except Exception, e:
+                                if type(e) == UnknownType:
+                                    msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
+                                else:
+                                    msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
+                                self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
+                                    cur_index)
+                                continue
+                else:
+                    if self.unrepr:
+                        comment = ''
+                        try:
+                            value = unrepr(value)
+                        except Exception, e:
+                            if isinstance(e, UnknownType):
+                                msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
+                            else:
+                                msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
+                            self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
+                                cur_index)
+                            continue
+                    else:
+                        # extract comment and lists
+                        try:
+                            (value, comment) = self._handle_value(value)
+                        except SyntaxError:
+                            self._handle_error(
+                                'Parse error in value at line %s.',
+                                ParseError, infile, cur_index)
+                            continue
+                #
+                key = self._unquote(key)
+                if key in this_section:
+                    self._handle_error(
+                        'Duplicate keyword name at line %s.',
+                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
+                    continue
+                # add the key.
+                # we set unrepr because if we have got this far we will never
+                # be creating a new section
+                this_section.__setitem__(key, value, unrepr=True)
+                this_section.inline_comments[key] = comment
+                this_section.comments[key] = comment_list
+                continue
+        #
+        if self.indent_type is None:
+            # no indentation used, set the type accordingly
+            self.indent_type = ''
+
+        # preserve the final comment
+        if not self and not self.initial_comment:
+            self.initial_comment = comment_list
+        elif not reset_comment:
+            self.final_comment = comment_list
+        self.list_values = temp_list_values
+
+
+    def _match_depth(self, sect, depth):
+        """
+        Given a section and a depth level, walk back through the sections
+        parents to see if the depth level matches a previous section.
+        
+        Return a reference to the right section,
+        or raise a SyntaxError.
+        """
+        while depth < sect.depth:
+            if sect is sect.parent:
+                # we've reached the top level already
+                raise SyntaxError()
+            sect = sect.parent
+        if sect.depth == depth:
+            return sect
+        # shouldn't get here
+        raise SyntaxError()
+
+
+    def _handle_error(self, text, ErrorClass, infile, cur_index):
+        """
+        Handle an error according to the error settings.
+        
+        Either raise the error or store it.
+        The error will have occured at ``cur_index``
+        """
+        line = infile[cur_index]
+        cur_index += 1
+        message = text % cur_index
+        error = ErrorClass(message, cur_index, line)
+        if self.raise_errors:
+            # raise the error - parsing stops here
+            raise error
+        # store the error
+        # reraise when parsing has finished
+        self._errors.append(error)
+
+
+    def _unquote(self, value):
+        """Return an unquoted version of a value"""
+        if not value:
+            # should only happen during parsing of lists
+            raise SyntaxError
+        if (value[0] == value[-1]) and (value[0] in ('"', "'")):
+            value = value[1:-1]
+        return value
+
+
+    def _quote(self, value, multiline=True):
+        """
+        Return a safely quoted version of a value.
+        
+        Raise a ConfigObjError if the value cannot be safely quoted.
+        If multiline is ``True`` (default) then use triple quotes
+        if necessary.
+        
+        * Don't quote values that don't need it.
+        * Recursively quote members of a list and return a comma joined list.
+        * Multiline is ``False`` for lists.
+        * Obey list syntax for empty and single member lists.
+        
+        If ``list_values=False`` then the value is only quoted if it contains
+        a ``\\n`` (is multiline) or '#'.
+        
+        If ``write_empty_values`` is set, and the value is an empty string, it
+        won't be quoted.
+        """
+        if multiline and self.write_empty_values and value == '':
+            # Only if multiline is set, so that it is used for values not
+            # keys, and not values that are part of a list
+            return ''
+        
+        if multiline and isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+            if not value:
+                return ','
+            elif len(value) == 1:
+                return self._quote(value[0], multiline=False) + ','
+            return ', '.join([self._quote(val, multiline=False)
+                for val in value])
+        if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            if self.stringify:
+                value = str(value)
+            else:
+                raise TypeError('Value "%s" is not a string.' % value)
+
+        if not value:
+            return '""'
+        
+        no_lists_no_quotes = not self.list_values and '\n' not in value and '#' not in value
+        need_triple = multiline and ((("'" in value) and ('"' in value)) or ('\n' in value ))
+        hash_triple_quote = multiline and not need_triple and ("'" in value) and ('"' in value) and ('#' in value)
+        check_for_single = (no_lists_no_quotes or not need_triple) and not hash_triple_quote
+        
+        if check_for_single:
+            if not self.list_values:
+                # we don't quote if ``list_values=False``
+                quot = noquot
+            # for normal values either single or double quotes will do
+            elif '\n' in value:
+                # will only happen if multiline is off - e.g. '\n' in key
+                raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+            elif ((value[0] not in wspace_plus) and
+                    (value[-1] not in wspace_plus) and
+                    (',' not in value)):
+                quot = noquot
+            else:
+                quot = self._get_single_quote(value)
+        else:
+            # if value has '\n' or "'" *and* '"', it will need triple quotes
+            quot = self._get_triple_quote(value)
+        
+        if quot == noquot and '#' in value and self.list_values:
+            quot = self._get_single_quote(value)
+                
+        return quot % value
+    
+    
+    def _get_single_quote(self, value):
+        if ("'" in value) and ('"' in value):
+            raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+        elif '"' in value:
+            quot = squot
+        else:
+            quot = dquot
+        return quot
+    
+    
+    def _get_triple_quote(self, value):
+        if (value.find('"""') != -1) and (value.find("'''") != -1):
+            raise ConfigObjError('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
+        if value.find('"""') == -1:
+            quot = tdquot
+        else:
+            quot = tsquot 
+        return quot
+
+
+    def _handle_value(self, value):
+        """
+        Given a value string, unquote, remove comment,
+        handle lists. (including empty and single member lists)
+        """
+        if self._inspec:
+            # Parsing a configspec so don't handle comments
+            return (value, '')
+        # do we look for lists in values ?
+        if not self.list_values:
+            mat = self._nolistvalue.match(value)
+            if mat is None:
+                raise SyntaxError()
+            # NOTE: we don't unquote here
+            return mat.groups()
+        #
+        mat = self._valueexp.match(value)
+        if mat is None:
+            # the value is badly constructed, probably badly quoted,
+            # or an invalid list
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        (list_values, single, empty_list, comment) = mat.groups()
+        if (list_values == '') and (single is None):
+            # change this if you want to accept empty values
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        # NOTE: note there is no error handling from here if the regex
+        # is wrong: then incorrect values will slip through
+        if empty_list is not None:
+            # the single comma - meaning an empty list
+            return ([], comment)
+        if single is not None:
+            # handle empty values
+            if list_values and not single:
+                # FIXME: the '' is a workaround because our regex now matches
+                #   '' at the end of a list if it has a trailing comma
+                single = None
+            else:
+                single = single or '""'
+                single = self._unquote(single)
+        if list_values == '':
+            # not a list value
+            return (single, comment)
+        the_list = self._listvalueexp.findall(list_values)
+        the_list = [self._unquote(val) for val in the_list]
+        if single is not None:
+            the_list += [single]
+        return (the_list, comment)
+
+
+    def _multiline(self, value, infile, cur_index, maxline):
+        """Extract the value, where we are in a multiline situation."""
+        quot = value[:3]
+        newvalue = value[3:]
+        single_line = self._triple_quote[quot][0]
+        multi_line = self._triple_quote[quot][1]
+        mat = single_line.match(value)
+        if mat is not None:
+            retval = list(mat.groups())
+            retval.append(cur_index)
+            return retval
+        elif newvalue.find(quot) != -1:
+            # somehow the triple quote is missing
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        #
+        while cur_index < maxline:
+            cur_index += 1
+            newvalue += '\n'
+            line = infile[cur_index]
+            if line.find(quot) == -1:
+                newvalue += line
+            else:
+                # end of multiline, process it
+                break
+        else:
+            # we've got to the end of the config, oops...
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        mat = multi_line.match(line)
+        if mat is None:
+            # a badly formed line
+            raise SyntaxError()
+        (value, comment) = mat.groups()
+        return (newvalue + value, comment, cur_index)
+
+
+    def _handle_configspec(self, configspec):
+        """Parse the configspec."""
+        # FIXME: Should we check that the configspec was created with the 
+        #        correct settings ? (i.e. ``list_values=False``)
+        if not isinstance(configspec, ConfigObj):
+            try:
+                configspec = ConfigObj(configspec,
+                                       raise_errors=True,
+                                       file_error=True,
+                                       _inspec=True)
+            except ConfigObjError, e:
+                # FIXME: Should these errors have a reference
+                #        to the already parsed ConfigObj ?
+                raise ConfigspecError('Parsing configspec failed: %s' % e)
+            except IOError, e:
+                raise IOError('Reading configspec failed: %s' % e)
+        
+        self.configspec = configspec
+            
+
+        
+    def _set_configspec(self, section, copy):
+        """
+        Called by validate. Handles setting the configspec on subsections
+        including sections to be validated by __many__
+        """
+        configspec = section.configspec
+        many = configspec.get('__many__')
+        if isinstance(many, dict):
+            for entry in section.sections:
+                if entry not in configspec:
+                    section[entry].configspec = many
+                    
+        for entry in configspec.sections:
+            if entry == '__many__':
+                continue
+            if entry not in section:
+                section[entry] = {}
+                section[entry]._created = True
+                if copy:
+                    # copy comments
+                    section.comments[entry] = configspec.comments.get(entry, [])
+                    section.inline_comments[entry] = configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, '')
+                
+            # Could be a scalar when we expect a section
+            if isinstance(section[entry], Section):
+                section[entry].configspec = configspec[entry]
+                        
+
+    def _write_line(self, indent_string, entry, this_entry, comment):
+        """Write an individual line, for the write method"""
+        # NOTE: the calls to self._quote here handles non-StringType values.
+        if not self.unrepr:
+            val = self._decode_element(self._quote(this_entry))
+        else:
+            val = repr(this_entry)
+        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (indent_string,
+                               self._decode_element(self._quote(entry, multiline=False)),
+                               self._a_to_u(' = '),
+                               val,
+                               self._decode_element(comment))
+
+
+    def _write_marker(self, indent_string, depth, entry, comment):
+        """Write a section marker line"""
+        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (indent_string,
+                               self._a_to_u('[' * depth),
+                               self._quote(self._decode_element(entry), multiline=False),
+                               self._a_to_u(']' * depth),
+                               self._decode_element(comment))
+
+
+    def _handle_comment(self, comment):
+        """Deal with a comment."""
+        if not comment:
+            return ''
+        start = self.indent_type
+        if not comment.startswith('#'):
+            start += self._a_to_u(' # ')
+        return (start + comment)
+
+
+    # Public methods
+
+    def write(self, outfile=None, section=None):
+        """
+        Write the current ConfigObj as a file
+        
+        tekNico: FIXME: use StringIO instead of real files
+        
+        >>> filename = a.filename
+        >>> a.filename = 'test.ini'
+        >>> a.write()
+        >>> a.filename = filename
+        >>> a == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
+        1
+        >>> import os
+        >>> os.remove('test.ini')
+        """
+        if self.indent_type is None:
+            # this can be true if initialised from a dictionary
+            self.indent_type = DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE
+            
+        out = []
+        cs = self._a_to_u('#')
+        csp = self._a_to_u('# ')
+        if section is None:
+            int_val = self.interpolation
+            self.interpolation = False
+            section = self
+            for line in self.initial_comment:
+                line = self._decode_element(line)
+                stripped_line = line.strip()
+                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
+                    line = csp + line
+                out.append(line)
+                
+        indent_string = self.indent_type * section.depth
+        for entry in (section.scalars + section.sections):
+            if entry in section.defaults:
+                # don't write out default values
+                continue
+            for comment_line in section.comments[entry]:
+                comment_line = self._decode_element(comment_line.lstrip())
+                if comment_line and not comment_line.startswith(cs):
+                    comment_line = csp + comment_line
+                out.append(indent_string + comment_line)
+            this_entry = section[entry]
+            comment = self._handle_comment(section.inline_comments[entry])
+            
+            if isinstance(this_entry, dict):
+                # a section
+                out.append(self._write_marker(
+                    indent_string,
+                    this_entry.depth,
+                    entry,
+                    comment))
+                out.extend(self.write(section=this_entry))
+            else:
+                out.append(self._write_line(
+                    indent_string,
+                    entry,
+                    this_entry,
+                    comment))
+                
+        if section is self:
+            for line in self.final_comment:
+                line = self._decode_element(line)
+                stripped_line = line.strip()
+                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
+                    line = csp + line
+                out.append(line)
+            self.interpolation = int_val
+            
+        if section is not self:
+            return out
+        
+        if (self.filename is None) and (outfile is None):
+            # output a list of lines
+            # might need to encode
+            # NOTE: This will *screw* UTF16, each line will start with the BOM
+            if self.encoding:
+                out = [l.encode(self.encoding) for l in out]
+            if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
+                (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
+                # Add the UTF8 BOM
+                if not out:
+                    out.append('')
+                out[0] = BOM_UTF8 + out[0]
+            return out
+        
+        # Turn the list to a string, joined with correct newlines
+        newline = self.newlines or os.linesep
+        if (getattr(outfile, 'mode', None) is not None and outfile.mode == 'w'
+            and sys.platform == 'win32' and newline == '\r\n'):
+            # Windows specific hack to avoid writing '\r\r\n'
+            newline = '\n'
+        output = self._a_to_u(newline).join(out)
+        if self.encoding:
+            output = output.encode(self.encoding)
+        if self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or match_utf8(self.encoding)):
+            # Add the UTF8 BOM
+            output = BOM_UTF8 + output
+            
+        if not output.endswith(newline):
+            output += newline
+        if outfile is not None:
+            outfile.write(output)
+        else:
+            h = open(self.filename, 'wb')
+            h.write(output)
+            h.close()
+
+
+    def validate(self, validator, preserve_errors=False, copy=False,
+                 section=None):
+        """
+        Test the ConfigObj against a configspec.
+        
+        It uses the ``validator`` object from *validate.py*.
+        
+        To run ``validate`` on the current ConfigObj, call: ::
+        
+            test = config.validate(validator)
+        
+        (Normally having previously passed in the configspec when the ConfigObj
+        was created - you can dynamically assign a dictionary of checks to the
+        ``configspec`` attribute of a section though).
+        
+        It returns ``True`` if everything passes, or a dictionary of
+        pass/fails (True/False). If every member of a subsection passes, it
+        will just have the value ``True``. (It also returns ``False`` if all
+        members fail).
+        
+        In addition, it converts the values from strings to their native
+        types if their checks pass (and ``stringify`` is set).
+        
+        If ``preserve_errors`` is ``True`` (``False`` is default) then instead
+        of a marking a fail with a ``False``, it will preserve the actual
+        exception object. This can contain info about the reason for failure.
+        For example the ``VdtValueTooSmallError`` indicates that the value
+        supplied was too small. If a value (or section) is missing it will
+        still be marked as ``False``.
+        
+        You must have the validate module to use ``preserve_errors=True``.
+        
+        You can then use the ``flatten_errors`` function to turn your nested
+        results dictionary into a flattened list of failures - useful for
+        displaying meaningful error messages.
+        """
+        if section is None:
+            if self.configspec is None:
+                raise ValueError('No configspec supplied.')
+            if preserve_errors:
+                # We do this once to remove a top level dependency on the validate module
+                # Which makes importing configobj faster
+                from validate import VdtMissingValue
+                self._vdtMissingValue = VdtMissingValue
+                
+            section = self
+
+            if copy:
+                section.initial_comment = section.configspec.initial_comment
+                section.final_comment = section.configspec.final_comment
+                section.encoding = section.configspec.encoding
+                section.BOM = section.configspec.BOM
+                section.newlines = section.configspec.newlines
+                section.indent_type = section.configspec.indent_type
+            
+        #
+        # section.default_values.clear() #??
+        configspec = section.configspec
+        self._set_configspec(section, copy)
+
+        
+        def validate_entry(entry, spec, val, missing, ret_true, ret_false):
+            section.default_values.pop(entry, None)
+                
+            try:
+                section.default_values[entry] = validator.get_default_value(configspec[entry])
+            except (KeyError, AttributeError, validator.baseErrorClass):
+                # No default, bad default or validator has no 'get_default_value'
+                # (e.g. SimpleVal)
+                pass
+            
+            try:
+                check = validator.check(spec,
+                                        val,
+                                        missing=missing
+                                        )
+            except validator.baseErrorClass, e:
+                if not preserve_errors or isinstance(e, self._vdtMissingValue):
+                    out[entry] = False
+                else:
+                    # preserve the error
+                    out[entry] = e
+                    ret_false = False
+                ret_true = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                out[entry] = True
+                if self.stringify or missing:
+                    # if we are doing type conversion
+                    # or the value is a supplied default
+                    if not self.stringify:
+                        if isinstance(check, (list, tuple)):
+                            # preserve lists
+                            check = [self._str(item) for item in check]
+                        elif missing and check is None:
+                            # convert the None from a default to a ''
+                            check = ''
+                        else:
+                            check = self._str(check)
+                    if (check != val) or missing:
+                        section[entry] = check
+                if not copy and missing and entry not in section.defaults:
+                    section.defaults.append(entry)
+            return ret_true, ret_false
+        
+        #
+        out = {}
+        ret_true = True
+        ret_false = True
+        
+        unvalidated = [k for k in section.scalars if k not in configspec]
+        incorrect_sections = [k for k in configspec.sections if k in section.scalars]        
+        incorrect_scalars = [k for k in configspec.scalars if k in section.sections]
+        
+        for entry in configspec.scalars:
+            if entry in ('__many__', '___many___'):
+                # reserved names
+                continue
+            if (not entry in section.scalars) or (entry in section.defaults):
+                # missing entries
+                # or entries from defaults
+                missing = True
+                val = None
+                if copy and entry not in section.scalars:
+                    # copy comments
+                    section.comments[entry] = (
+                        configspec.comments.get(entry, []))
+                    section.inline_comments[entry] = (
+                        configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, ''))
+                #
+            else:
+                missing = False
+                val = section[entry]
+            
+            ret_true, ret_false = validate_entry(entry, configspec[entry], val, 
+                                                 missing, ret_true, ret_false)
+        
+        many = None
+        if '__many__' in configspec.scalars:
+            many = configspec['__many__']
+        elif '___many___' in configspec.scalars:
+            many = configspec['___many___']
+        
+        if many is not None:
+            for entry in unvalidated:
+                val = section[entry]
+                ret_true, ret_false = validate_entry(entry, many, val, False,
+                                                     ret_true, ret_false)
+            unvalidated = []
+
+        for entry in incorrect_scalars:
+            ret_true = False
+            if not preserve_errors:
+                out[entry] = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                msg = 'Value %r was provided as a section' % entry
+                out[entry] = validator.baseErrorClass(msg)
+        for entry in incorrect_sections:
+            ret_true = False
+            if not preserve_errors:
+                out[entry] = False
+            else:
+                ret_false = False
+                msg = 'Section %r was provided as a single value' % entry
+                out[entry] = validator.baseErrorClass(msg)
+                
+        # Missing sections will have been created as empty ones when the
+        # configspec was read.
+        for entry in section.sections:
+            # FIXME: this means DEFAULT is not copied in copy mode
+            if section is self and entry == 'DEFAULT':
+                continue
+            if section[entry].configspec is None:
+                unvalidated.append(entry)
+                continue
+            if copy:
+                section.comments[entry] = configspec.comments.get(entry, [])
+                section.inline_comments[entry] = configspec.inline_comments.get(entry, '')
+            check = self.validate(validator, preserve_errors=preserve_errors, copy=copy, section=section[entry])
+            out[entry] = check
+            if check == False:
+                ret_true = False
+            elif check == True:
+                ret_false = False
+            else:
+                ret_true = False
+        
+        section.extra_values = unvalidated
+        if preserve_errors and not section._created:
+            # If the section wasn't created (i.e. it wasn't missing)
+            # then we can't return False, we need to preserve errors
+            ret_false = False
+        #
+        if ret_false and preserve_errors and out:
+            # If we are preserving errors, but all
+            # the failures are from missing sections / values
+            # then we can return False. Otherwise there is a
+            # real failure that we need to preserve.
+            ret_false = not any(out.values())
+        if ret_true:
+            return True
+        elif ret_false:
+            return False
+        return out
+
+
+    def reset(self):
+        """Clear ConfigObj instance and restore to 'freshly created' state."""
+        self.clear()
+        self._initialise()
+        # FIXME: Should be done by '_initialise', but ConfigObj constructor (and reload)
+        #        requires an empty dictionary
+        self.configspec = None
+        # Just to be sure ;-)
+        self._original_configspec = None
+        
+        
+    def reload(self):
+        """
+        Reload a ConfigObj from file.
+        
+        This method raises a ``ReloadError`` if the ConfigObj doesn't have
+        a filename attribute pointing to a file.
+        """
+        if not isinstance(self.filename, basestring):
+            raise ReloadError()
+
+        filename = self.filename
+        current_options = {}
+        for entry in OPTION_DEFAULTS:
+            if entry == 'configspec':
+                continue
+            current_options[entry] = getattr(self, entry)
+            
+        configspec = self._original_configspec
+        current_options['configspec'] = configspec
+            
+        self.clear()
+        self._initialise(current_options)
+        self._load(filename, configspec)
+        
+
+
+class SimpleVal(object):
+    """
+    A simple validator.
+    Can be used to check that all members expected are present.
+    
+    To use it, provide a configspec with all your members in (the value given
+    will be ignored). Pass an instance of ``SimpleVal`` to the ``validate``
+    method of your ``ConfigObj``. ``validate`` will return ``True`` if all
+    members are present, or a dictionary with True/False meaning
+    present/missing. (Whole missing sections will be replaced with ``False``)
+    """
+    
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.baseErrorClass = ConfigObjError
+    
+    def check(self, check, member, missing=False):
+        """A dummy check method, always returns the value unchanged."""
+        if missing:
+            raise self.baseErrorClass()
+        return member
+
+
+def flatten_errors(cfg, res, levels=None, results=None):
+    """
+    An example function that will turn a nested dictionary of results
+    (as returned by ``ConfigObj.validate``) into a flat list.
+    
+    ``cfg`` is the ConfigObj instance being checked, ``res`` is the results
+    dictionary returned by ``validate``.
+    
+    (This is a recursive function, so you shouldn't use the ``levels`` or
+    ``results`` arguments - they are used by the function.)
+    
+    Returns a list of keys that failed. Each member of the list is a tuple::
+    
+        ([list of sections...], key, result)
+    
+    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=False`` (the default)
+    then ``result`` will always be ``False``.
+
+    *list of sections* is a flattened list of sections that the key was found
+    in.
+    
+    If the section was missing (or a section was expected and a scalar provided
+    - or vice-versa) then key will be ``None``.
+    
+    If the value (or section) was missing then ``result`` will be ``False``.
+    
+    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=True`` and a value
+    was present, but failed the check, then ``result`` will be the exception
+    object returned. You can use this as a string that describes the failure.
+    
+    For example *The value "3" is of the wrong type*.
+    """
+    if levels is None:
+        # first time called
+        levels = []
+        results = []
+    if res == True:
+        return results
+    if res == False or isinstance(res, Exception):
+        results.append((levels[:], None, res))
+        if levels:
+            levels.pop()
+        return results
+    for (key, val) in res.items():
+        if val == True:
+            continue
+        if isinstance(cfg.get(key), dict):
+            # Go down one level
+            levels.append(key)
+            flatten_errors(cfg[key], val, levels, results)
+            continue
+        results.append((levels[:], key, val))
+    #
+    # Go up one level
+    if levels:
+        levels.pop()
+    #
+    return results
+
+
+def get_extra_values(conf, _prepend=()):
+    """
+    Find all the values and sections not in the configspec from a validated
+    ConfigObj.
+    
+    ``get_extra_values`` returns a list of tuples where each tuple represents
+    either an extra section, or an extra value.
+    
+    The tuples contain two values, a tuple representing the section the value 
+    is in and the name of the extra values. For extra values in the top level
+    section the first member will be an empty tuple. For values in the 'foo'
+    section the first member will be ``('foo',)``. For members in the 'bar'
+    subsection of the 'foo' section the first member will be ``('foo', 'bar')``.
+    
+    NOTE: If you call ``get_extra_values`` on a ConfigObj instance that hasn't
+    been validated it will return an empty list.
+    """
+    out = []
+    
+    out.extend([(_prepend, name) for name in conf.extra_values])
+    for name in conf.sections:
+        if name not in conf.extra_values:
+            out.extend(get_extra_values(conf[name], _prepend + (name,)))
+    return out
+
+
+"""*A programming language is a medium of expression.* - Paul Graham"""
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/setup.py
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+# setup.py
+# Install script for ConfigObj
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Mark Andrews, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         mark AT la-la DOT com
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# This software is licensed under the terms of the BSD license.
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+
+import sys
+from distutils.core import setup
+from configobj import __version__ as VERSION
+
+NAME = 'configobj'
+
+MODULES = 'configobj', 'validate'
+
+DESCRIPTION = 'Config file reading, writing and validation.'
+
+URL = 'http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html'
+
+DOWNLOAD_URL = "http://www.voidspace.org.uk/downloads/configobj-%s.zip" % VERSION
+
+LONG_DESCRIPTION = """**ConfigObj** is a simple but powerful config file reader and writer: an *ini
+file round tripper*. Its main feature is that it is very easy to use, with a
+straightforward programmer's interface and a simple syntax for config files.
+It has lots of other features though :
+
+* Nested sections (subsections), to any level
+* List values
+* Multiple line values
+* Full Unicode support
+* String interpolation (substitution)
+* Integrated with a powerful validation system
+
+    - including automatic type checking/conversion
+    - and allowing default values
+    - repeated sections
+
+* All comments in the file are preserved
+* The order of keys/sections is preserved
+* Powerful ``unrepr`` mode for storing/retrieving Python data-types
+
+| Release 4.7.2 fixes several bugs in 4.7.1
+| Release 4.7.1 fixes a bug with the deprecated options keyword in
+| 4.7.0.
+| Release 4.7.0 improves performance adds features for validation and
+| fixes some bugs."""
+
+CLASSIFIERS = [
+    'Development Status :: 6 - Mature',
+    'Intended Audience :: Developers',
+    'License :: OSI Approved :: BSD License',
+    'Programming Language :: Python',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.3',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.4',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.5',
+    'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6',
+    'Operating System :: OS Independent',
+    'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries',
+    'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules',
+]
+
+AUTHOR = 'Michael Foord & Nicola Larosa'
+
+AUTHOR_EMAIL = 'fuzzyman@voidspace.org.uk'
+
+KEYWORDS = "config, ini, dictionary, application, admin, sysadmin, configuration, validation".split(', ')
+
+
+setup(name=NAME,
+      version=VERSION,
+      description=DESCRIPTION,
+      long_description=LONG_DESCRIPTION,
+      download_url=DOWNLOAD_URL,
+      author=AUTHOR,
+      author_email=AUTHOR_EMAIL,
+      url=URL,
+      py_modules=MODULES,
+      classifiers=CLASSIFIERS,
+      keywords=KEYWORDS
+     )
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/python/configobj/validate.py
@@ -0,0 +1,1450 @@
+# validate.py
+# A Validator object
+# Copyright (C) 2005-2010 Michael Foord, Mark Andrews, Nicola Larosa
+# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
+#         mark AT la-la DOT com
+#         nico AT tekNico DOT net
+
+# This software is licensed under the terms of the BSD license.
+# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml
+# Basically you're free to copy, modify, distribute and relicense it,
+# So long as you keep a copy of the license with it.
+
+# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
+# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
+# ConfigObj mailing list:
+# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
+# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.
+
+"""
+    The Validator object is used to check that supplied values 
+    conform to a specification.
+    
+    The value can be supplied as a string - e.g. from a config file.
+    In this case the check will also *convert* the value to
+    the required type. This allows you to add validation
+    as a transparent layer to access data stored as strings.
+    The validation checks that the data is correct *and*
+    converts it to the expected type.
+    
+    Some standard checks are provided for basic data types.
+    Additional checks are easy to write. They can be
+    provided when the ``Validator`` is instantiated or
+    added afterwards.
+    
+    The standard functions work with the following basic data types :
+    
+    * integers
+    * floats
+    * booleans
+    * strings
+    * ip_addr
+    
+    plus lists of these datatypes
+    
+    Adding additional checks is done through coding simple functions.
+    
+    The full set of standard checks are : 
+    
+    * 'integer': matches integer values (including negative)
+                 Takes optional 'min' and 'max' arguments : ::
+    
+                   integer()
+                   integer(3, 9)  # any value from 3 to 9
+                   integer(min=0) # any positive value
+                   integer(max=9)
+    
+    * 'float': matches float values
+               Has the same parameters as the integer check.
+    
+    * 'boolean': matches boolean values - ``True`` or ``False``
+                 Acceptable string values for True are :
+                   true, on, yes, 1
+                 Acceptable string values for False are :
+                   false, off, no, 0
+    
+                 Any other value raises an error.
+    
+    * 'ip_addr': matches an Internet Protocol address, v.4, represented
+                 by a dotted-quad string, i.e. '1.2.3.4'.
+    
+    * 'string': matches any string.
+                Takes optional keyword args 'min' and 'max'
+                to specify min and max lengths of the string.
+    
+    * 'list': matches any list.
+              Takes optional keyword args 'min', and 'max' to specify min and
+              max sizes of the list. (Always returns a list.)
+    
+    * 'tuple': matches any tuple.
+              Takes optional keyword args 'min', and 'max' to specify min and
+              max sizes of the tuple. (Always returns a tuple.)
+    
+    * 'int_list': Matches a list of integers.
+                  Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'float_list': Matches a list of floats.
+                    Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'bool_list': Matches a list of boolean values.
+                   Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'ip_addr_list': Matches a list of IP addresses.
+                     Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'string_list': Matches a list of strings.
+                     Takes the same arguments as list.
+    
+    * 'mixed_list': Matches a list with different types in 
+                    specific positions. List size must match
+                    the number of arguments.
+    
+                    Each position can be one of :
+                    'integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean'
+    
+                    So to specify a list with two strings followed
+                    by two integers, you write the check as : ::
+    
+                      mixed_list('string', 'string', 'integer', 'integer')
+    
+    * 'pass': This check matches everything ! It never fails
+              and the value is unchanged.
+    
+              It is also the default if no check is specified.
+    
+    * 'option': This check matches any from a list of options.
+                You specify this check with : ::
+    
+                  option('option 1', 'option 2', 'option 3')
+    
+    You can supply a default value (returned if no value is supplied)
+    using the default keyword argument.
+    
+    You specify a list argument for default using a list constructor syntax in
+    the check : ::
+    
+        checkname(arg1, arg2, default=list('val 1', 'val 2', 'val 3'))
+    
+    A badly formatted set of arguments will raise a ``VdtParamError``.
+"""
+
+__version__ = '1.0.1'
+
+
+__all__ = (
+    '__version__',
+    'dottedQuadToNum',
+    'numToDottedQuad',
+    'ValidateError',
+    'VdtUnknownCheckError',
+    'VdtParamError',
+    'VdtTypeError',
+    'VdtValueError',
+    'VdtValueTooSmallError',
+    'VdtValueTooBigError',
+    'VdtValueTooShortError',
+    'VdtValueTooLongError',
+    'VdtMissingValue',
+    'Validator',
+    'is_integer',
+    'is_float',
+    'is_boolean',
+    'is_list',
+    'is_tuple',
+    'is_ip_addr',
+    'is_string',
+    'is_int_list',
+    'is_bool_list',
+    'is_float_list',
+    'is_string_list',
+    'is_ip_addr_list',
+    'is_mixed_list',
+    'is_option',
+    '__docformat__',
+)
+
+
+import re
+
+
+_list_arg = re.compile(r'''
+    (?:
+        ([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*)\s*=\s*list\(
+            (
+                (?:
+                    \s*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)  # unquoted
+                    )
+                    \s*,\s*
+                )*
+                (?:
+                    (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                    (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                    (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)  # unquoted
+                )?                          # last one
+            )
+        \)
+    )
+''', re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)    # two groups
+
+_list_members = re.compile(r'''
+    (
+        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+        (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)       # unquoted
+    )
+    (?:
+    (?:\s*,\s*)|(?:\s*$)            # comma
+    )
+''', re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)    # one group
+
+_paramstring = r'''
+    (?:
+        (
+            (?:
+                [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*\s*=\s*list\(
+                    (?:
+                        \s*
+                        (?:
+                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                            (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)       # unquoted
+                        )
+                        \s*,\s*
+                    )*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s\)][^,\)]*?)       # unquoted
+                    )?                              # last one
+                \)
+            )|
+            (?:
+                (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)|       # unquoted
+                (?:                         # keyword argument
+                    [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*\s*=\s*
+                    (?:
+                        (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
+                        (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
+                        (?:[^'",\s=][^,=]*?)       # unquoted
+                    )
+                )
+            )
+        )
+        (?:
+            (?:\s*,\s*)|(?:\s*$)            # comma
+        )
+    )
+    '''
+
+_matchstring = '^%s*' % _paramstring
+
+# Python pre 2.2.1 doesn't have bool
+try:
+    bool
+except NameError:
+    def bool(val):
+        """Simple boolean equivalent function. """
+        if val:
+            return 1
+        else:
+            return 0
+
+
+def dottedQuadToNum(ip):
+    """
+    Convert decimal dotted quad string to long integer
+    
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum('1 '))
+    1
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum(' 1.2'))
+    16777218
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum(' 1.2.3 '))
+    16908291
+    >>> int(dottedQuadToNum('1.2.3.4'))
+    16909060
+    >>> dottedQuadToNum('255.255.255.255')
+    4294967295L
+    >>> dottedQuadToNum('255.255.255.256')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good dotted-quad IP: 255.255.255.256
+    """
+    
+    # import here to avoid it when ip_addr values are not used
+    import socket, struct
+    
+    try:
+        return struct.unpack('!L',
+            socket.inet_aton(ip.strip()))[0]
+    except socket.error:
+        # bug in inet_aton, corrected in Python 2.4
+        if ip.strip() == '255.255.255.255':
+            return 0xFFFFFFFFL
+        else:
+            raise ValueError('Not a good dotted-quad IP: %s' % ip)
+    return
+
+
+def numToDottedQuad(num):
+    """
+    Convert long int to dotted quad string
+    
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(-1L)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good numeric IP: -1
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(1L)
+    '0.0.0.1'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16777218L)
+    '1.0.0.2'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16908291L)
+    '1.2.0.3'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(16909060L)
+    '1.2.3.4'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(4294967295L)
+    '255.255.255.255'
+    >>> numToDottedQuad(4294967296L)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValueError: Not a good numeric IP: 4294967296
+    """
+    
+    # import here to avoid it when ip_addr values are not used
+    import socket, struct
+    
+    # no need to intercept here, 4294967295L is fine
+    if num > 4294967295L or num < 0:
+        raise ValueError('Not a good numeric IP: %s' % num)
+    try:
+        return socket.inet_ntoa(
+            struct.pack('!L', long(num)))
+    except (socket.error, struct.error, OverflowError):
+        raise ValueError('Not a good numeric IP: %s' % num)
+
+
+class ValidateError(Exception):
+    """
+    This error indicates that the check failed.
+    It can be the base class for more specific errors.
+    
+    Any check function that fails ought to raise this error.
+    (or a subclass)
+    
+    >>> raise ValidateError
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    ValidateError
+    """
+
+
+class VdtMissingValue(ValidateError):
+    """No value was supplied to a check that needed one."""
+
+
+class VdtUnknownCheckError(ValidateError):
+    """An unknown check function was requested"""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtUnknownCheckError('yoda')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the check "%s" is unknown.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtParamError(SyntaxError):
+    """An incorrect parameter was passed"""
+
+    def __init__(self, name, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtParamError('yoda', 'jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtParamError: passed an incorrect value "jedi" for parameter "yoda".
+        """
+        SyntaxError.__init__(self, 'passed an incorrect value "%s" for parameter "%s".' % (value, name))
+
+
+class VdtTypeError(ValidateError):
+    """The value supplied was of the wrong type"""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtTypeError('jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtTypeError: the value "jedi" is of the wrong type.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is of the wrong type.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueError(ValidateError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was not an allowed value."""
+    
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueError('jedi')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueError: the value "jedi" is unacceptable.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is unacceptable.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooSmallError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too small."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooSmallError('0')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "0" is too small.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too small.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooBigError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too big."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooBigError('1')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooBigError: the value "1" is too big.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too big.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooShortError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too short."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooShortError('jed')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooShortError: the value "jed" is too short.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(
+            self,
+            'the value "%s" is too short.' % (value,))
+
+
+class VdtValueTooLongError(VdtValueError):
+    """The value supplied was of the correct type, but was too long."""
+
+    def __init__(self, value):
+        """
+        >>> raise VdtValueTooLongError('jedie')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtValueTooLongError: the value "jedie" is too long.
+        """
+        ValidateError.__init__(self, 'the value "%s" is too long.' % (value,))
+
+
+class Validator(object):
+    """
+    Validator is an object that allows you to register a set of 'checks'.
+    These checks take input and test that it conforms to the check.
+    
+    This can also involve converting the value from a string into
+    the correct datatype.
+    
+    The ``check`` method takes an input string which configures which
+    check is to be used and applies that check to a supplied value.
+    
+    An example input string would be:
+    'int_range(param1, param2)'
+    
+    You would then provide something like:
+    
+    >>> def int_range_check(value, min, max):
+    ...     # turn min and max from strings to integers
+    ...     min = int(min)
+    ...     max = int(max)
+    ...     # check that value is of the correct type.
+    ...     # possible valid inputs are integers or strings
+    ...     # that represent integers
+    ...     if not isinstance(value, (int, long, basestring)):
+    ...         raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    ...     elif isinstance(value, basestring):
+    ...         # if we are given a string
+    ...         # attempt to convert to an integer
+    ...         try:
+    ...             value = int(value)
+    ...         except ValueError:
+    ...             raise VdtValueError(value)
+    ...     # check the value is between our constraints
+    ...     if not min <= value:
+    ...          raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    ...     if not value <= max:
+    ...          raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    ...     return value
+    
+    >>> fdict = {'int_range': int_range_check}
+    >>> vtr1 = Validator(fdict)
+    >>> vtr1.check('int_range(20, 40)', '30')
+    30
+    >>> vtr1.check('int_range(20, 40)', '60')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "60" is too big.
+    
+    New functions can be added with : ::
+    
+    >>> vtr2 = Validator()       
+    >>> vtr2.functions['int_range'] = int_range_check
+    
+    Or by passing in a dictionary of functions when Validator 
+    is instantiated.
+    
+    Your functions *can* use keyword arguments,
+    but the first argument should always be 'value'.
+    
+    If the function doesn't take additional arguments,
+    the parentheses are optional in the check.
+    It can be written with either of : ::
+    
+        keyword = function_name
+        keyword = function_name()
+    
+    The first program to utilise Validator() was Michael Foord's
+    ConfigObj, an alternative to ConfigParser which supports lists and
+    can validate a config file using a config schema.
+    For more details on using Validator with ConfigObj see:
+    http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html
+    """
+
+    # this regex does the initial parsing of the checks
+    _func_re = re.compile(r'(.+?)\((.*)\)', re.DOTALL)
+
+    # this regex takes apart keyword arguments
+    _key_arg = re.compile(r'^([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*)\s*=\s*(.*)$',  re.DOTALL)
+
+
+    # this regex finds keyword=list(....) type values
+    _list_arg = _list_arg
+
+    # this regex takes individual values out of lists - in one pass
+    _list_members = _list_members
+
+    # These regexes check a set of arguments for validity
+    # and then pull the members out
+    _paramfinder = re.compile(_paramstring, re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)
+    _matchfinder = re.compile(_matchstring, re.VERBOSE | re.DOTALL)
+
+
+    def __init__(self, functions=None):
+        """
+        >>> vtri = Validator()
+        """
+        self.functions = {
+            '': self._pass,
+            'integer': is_integer,
+            'float': is_float,
+            'boolean': is_boolean,
+            'ip_addr': is_ip_addr,
+            'string': is_string,
+            'list': is_list,
+            'tuple': is_tuple,
+            'int_list': is_int_list,
+            'float_list': is_float_list,
+            'bool_list': is_bool_list,
+            'ip_addr_list': is_ip_addr_list,
+            'string_list': is_string_list,
+            'mixed_list': is_mixed_list,
+            'pass': self._pass,
+            'option': is_option,
+            'force_list': force_list,
+        }
+        if functions is not None:
+            self.functions.update(functions)
+        # tekNico: for use by ConfigObj
+        self.baseErrorClass = ValidateError
+        self._cache = {}
+
+
+    def check(self, check, value, missing=False):
+        """
+        Usage: check(check, value)
+        
+        Arguments:
+            check: string representing check to apply (including arguments)
+            value: object to be checked
+        Returns value, converted to correct type if necessary
+        
+        If the check fails, raises a ``ValidateError`` subclass.
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('yoda', '')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        >>> vtor.check('yoda()', '')
+        Traceback (most recent call last):
+        VdtUnknownCheckError: the check "yoda" is unknown.
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('string(default="")', '', missing=True)
+        ''
+        """
+        fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_with_caching(check)
+            
+        if missing:
+            if default is None:
+                # no information needed here - to be handled by caller
+                raise VdtMissingValue()
+            value = self._handle_none(default)
+        
+        if value is None:
+            return None
+        
+        return self._check_value(value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs)
+
+
+    def _handle_none(self, value):
+        if value == 'None':
+            return None
+        elif value in ("'None'", '"None"'):
+            # Special case a quoted None
+            value = self._unquote(value)
+        return value
+
+
+    def _parse_with_caching(self, check):
+        if check in self._cache:
+            fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._cache[check]
+            # We call list and dict below to work with *copies* of the data
+            # rather than the original (which are mutable of course)
+            fun_args = list(fun_args)
+            fun_kwargs = dict(fun_kwargs)
+        else:
+            fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_check(check)
+            fun_kwargs = dict([(str(key), value) for (key, value) in fun_kwargs.items()])
+            self._cache[check] = fun_name, list(fun_args), dict(fun_kwargs), default
+        return fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default
+        
+        
+    def _check_value(self, value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs):
+        try:
+            fun = self.functions[fun_name]
+        except KeyError:
+            raise VdtUnknownCheckError(fun_name)
+        else:
+            return fun(value, *fun_args, **fun_kwargs)
+
+
+    def _parse_check(self, check):
+        fun_match = self._func_re.match(check)
+        if fun_match:
+            fun_name = fun_match.group(1)
+            arg_string = fun_match.group(2)
+            arg_match = self._matchfinder.match(arg_string)
+            if arg_match is None:
+                # Bad syntax
+                raise VdtParamError('Bad syntax in check "%s".' % check)
+            fun_args = []
+            fun_kwargs = {}
+            # pull out args of group 2
+            for arg in self._paramfinder.findall(arg_string):
+                # args may need whitespace removing (before removing quotes)
+                arg = arg.strip()
+                listmatch = self._list_arg.match(arg)
+                if listmatch:
+                    key, val = self._list_handle(listmatch)
+                    fun_kwargs[key] = val
+                    continue
+                keymatch = self._key_arg.match(arg)
+                if keymatch:
+                    val = keymatch.group(2)
+                    if not val in ("'None'", '"None"'):
+                        # Special case a quoted None
+                        val = self._unquote(val)
+                    fun_kwargs[keymatch.group(1)] = val
+                    continue
+                
+                fun_args.append(self._unquote(arg))
+        else:
+            # allows for function names without (args)
+            return check, (), {}, None
+
+        # Default must be deleted if the value is specified too,
+        # otherwise the check function will get a spurious "default" keyword arg
+        default = fun_kwargs.pop('default', None)
+        return fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default
+
+
+    def _unquote(self, val):
+        """Unquote a value if necessary."""
+        if (len(val) >= 2) and (val[0] in ("'", '"')) and (val[0] == val[-1]):
+            val = val[1:-1]
+        return val
+
+
+    def _list_handle(self, listmatch):
+        """Take apart a ``keyword=list('val, 'val')`` type string."""
+        out = []
+        name = listmatch.group(1)
+        args = listmatch.group(2)
+        for arg in self._list_members.findall(args):
+            out.append(self._unquote(arg))
+        return name, out
+
+
+    def _pass(self, value):
+        """
+        Dummy check that always passes
+        
+        >>> vtor.check('', 0)
+        0
+        >>> vtor.check('', '0')
+        '0'
+        """
+        return value
+    
+    
+    def get_default_value(self, check):
+        """
+        Given a check, return the default value for the check
+        (converted to the right type).
+        
+        If the check doesn't specify a default value then a
+        ``KeyError`` will be raised.
+        """
+        fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs, default = self._parse_with_caching(check)
+        if default is None:
+            raise KeyError('Check "%s" has no default value.' % check)
+        value = self._handle_none(default)
+        if value is None:
+            return value
+        return self._check_value(value, fun_name, fun_args, fun_kwargs)
+
+
+def _is_num_param(names, values, to_float=False):
+    """
+    Return numbers from inputs or raise VdtParamError.
+    
+    Lets ``None`` pass through.
+    Pass in keyword argument ``to_float=True`` to
+    use float for the conversion rather than int.
+    
+    >>> _is_num_param(('', ''), (0, 1.0))
+    [0, 1]
+    >>> _is_num_param(('', ''), (0, 1.0), to_float=True)
+    [0.0, 1.0]
+    >>> _is_num_param(('a'), ('a'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtParamError: passed an incorrect value "a" for parameter "a".
+    """
+    fun = to_float and float or int
+    out_params = []
+    for (name, val) in zip(names, values):
+        if val is None:
+            out_params.append(val)
+        elif isinstance(val, (int, long, float, basestring)):
+            try:
+                out_params.append(fun(val))
+            except ValueError, e:
+                raise VdtParamError(name, val)
+        else:
+            raise VdtParamError(name, val)
+    return out_params
+
+
+# built in checks
+# you can override these by setting the appropriate name
+# in Validator.functions
+# note: if the params are specified wrongly in your input string,
+#       you will also raise errors.
+
+def is_integer(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    A check that tests that a given value is an integer (int, or long)
+    and optionally, between bounds. A negative value is accepted, while
+    a float will fail.
+    
+    If the value is a string, then the conversion is done - if possible.
+    Otherwise a VdtError is raised.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '-1')
+    -1
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '0')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', 9)
+    9
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', 'a')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer', '2.2')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "2.2" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', '20')
+    20
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', '15')
+    15
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', '9')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(10)', 9)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', '35')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35" is too big.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(max=20)', 35)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35" is too big.
+    >>> vtor.check('integer(0, 9)', False)
+    0
+    """
+    (min_val, max_val) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    if not isinstance(value, (int, long, basestring)):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        # if it's a string - does it represent an integer ?
+        try:
+            value = int(value)
+        except ValueError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if (min_val is not None) and (value < min_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    if (max_val is not None) and (value > max_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_float(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    A check that tests that a given value is a float
+    (an integer will be accepted), and optionally - that it is between bounds.
+    
+    If the value is a string, then the conversion is done - if possible.
+    Otherwise a VdtError is raised.
+    
+    This can accept negative values.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '2')
+    2.0
+    
+    From now on we multiply the value to avoid comparing decimals
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '-6.8') * 10
+    -68.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', '12.2') * 10
+    122.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', 8.4) * 10
+    84.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float', 'a')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('float(10.1)', '10.2') * 10
+    102.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float(max=20.2)', '15.1') * 10
+    151.0
+    >>> vtor.check('float(10.0)', '9.0')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooSmallError: the value "9.0" is too small.
+    >>> vtor.check('float(max=20.0)', '35.0')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooBigError: the value "35.0" is too big.
+    """
+    (min_val, max_val) = _is_num_param(
+        ('min', 'max'), (min, max), to_float=True)
+    if not isinstance(value, (int, long, float, basestring)):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if not isinstance(value, float):
+        # if it's a string - does it represent a float ?
+        try:
+            value = float(value)
+        except ValueError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if (min_val is not None) and (value < min_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooSmallError(value)
+    if (max_val is not None) and (value > max_val):
+        raise VdtValueTooBigError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+bool_dict = {
+    True: True, 'on': True, '1': True, 'true': True, 'yes': True, 
+    False: False, 'off': False, '0': False, 'false': False, 'no': False,
+}
+
+
+def is_boolean(value):
+    """
+    Check if the value represents a boolean.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 0)
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', False)
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '0')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'off')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'false')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'no')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'nO')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'NO')
+    0
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 1)
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', True)
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '1')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'on')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'true')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'yes')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'Yes')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'YES')
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', '')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('boolean', 'up')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "up" is of the wrong type.
+    
+    """
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        try:
+            return bool_dict[value.lower()]
+        except KeyError:
+            raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    # we do an equality test rather than an identity test
+    # this ensures Python 2.2 compatibilty
+    # and allows 0 and 1 to represent True and False
+    if value == False:
+        return False
+    elif value == True:
+        return True
+    else:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+
+
+def is_ip_addr(value):
+    """
+    Check that the supplied value is an Internet Protocol address, v.4,
+    represented by a dotted-quad string, i.e. '1.2.3.4'.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1 ')
+    '1'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', ' 1.2')
+    '1.2'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', ' 1.2.3 ')
+    '1.2.3'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1.2.3.4')
+    '1.2.3.4'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '0.0.0.0')
+    '0.0.0.0'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '255.255.255.255')
+    '255.255.255.255'
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '255.255.255.256')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "255.255.255.256" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', '1.2.3.4.5')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "1.2.3.4.5" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    value = value.strip()
+    try:
+        dottedQuadToNum(value)
+    except ValueError:
+        raise VdtValueError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of values.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    It does no check on list members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('list', (1, 2))
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('list', [1, 2])
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('list(3)', (1, 2))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2)" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('list(max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check('list(min=3, max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4))
+    [1, 2, 3, 4]
+    >>> vtor.check('list', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('list', '12')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "12" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    (min_len, max_len) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    try:
+        num_members = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if min_len is not None and num_members < min_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    if max_len is not None and num_members > max_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    return list(value)
+
+
+def is_tuple(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a tuple of values.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    It does no check on members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', ())
+    ()
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', [])
+    ()
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', (1, 2))
+    (1, 2)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', [1, 2])
+    (1, 2)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(3)', (1, 2))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2)" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple(min=3, max=5)', (1, 2, 3, 4))
+    (1, 2, 3, 4)
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('tuple', '12')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "12" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return tuple(is_list(value, min, max))
+
+
+def is_string(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the supplied value is a string.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('string', '0')
+    '0'
+    >>> vtor.check('string', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('string(2)', '12')
+    '12'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(2)', '1')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "1" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check('string(min=2, max=3)', '123')
+    '123'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(min=2, max=3)', '1234')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "1234" is too long.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    (min_len, max_len) = _is_num_param(('min', 'max'), (min, max))
+    try:
+        num_members = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if min_len is not None and num_members < min_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    if max_len is not None and num_members > max_len:
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def is_int_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of integers.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is an integer.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', (1, 2))
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [1, 2])
+    [1, 2]
+    >>> vtor.check('int_list', [1, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_integer(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_bool_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of booleans.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a boolean.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check('bool_list', (True, False))
+    >>> check_res == [True, False]
+    1
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check('bool_list', [True, False])
+    >>> check_res == [True, False]
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check('bool_list', [True, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_boolean(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_float_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of floats.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a float.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', (1, 2.0))
+    [1.0, 2.0]
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [1, 2.0])
+    [1.0, 2.0]
+    >>> vtor.check('float_list', [1, 'a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "a" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    return [is_float(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_string_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of strings.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is a string.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ('a', 'b'))
+    ['a', 'b']
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', ['a', 1])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "1" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check('string_list', 'hello')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "hello" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    return [is_string(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def is_ip_addr_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list of IP addresses.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    
+    Each list member is checked that it is an IP address.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ('1.2.3.4', '5.6.7.8'))
+    ['1.2.3.4', '5.6.7.8']
+    >>> vtor.check('ip_addr_list', ['a'])
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "a" is unacceptable.
+    """
+    return [is_ip_addr(mem) for mem in is_list(value, min, max)]
+
+
+def force_list(value, min=None, max=None):
+    """
+    Check that a value is a list, coercing strings into
+    a list with one member. Useful where users forget the
+    trailing comma that turns a single value into a list.
+    
+    You can optionally specify the minimum and maximum number of members.
+    A minumum of greater than one will fail if the user only supplies a
+    string.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', ())
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', [])
+    []
+    >>> vtor.check('force_list', 'hello')
+    ['hello']
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
+        value = [value]
+    return is_list(value, min, max)
+    
+    
+
+fun_dict = {
+    'integer': is_integer,
+    'float': is_float,
+    'ip_addr': is_ip_addr,
+    'string': is_string,
+    'boolean': is_boolean,
+}
+
+
+def is_mixed_list(value, *args):
+    """
+    Check that the value is a list.
+    Allow specifying the type of each member.
+    Work on lists of specific lengths.
+    
+    You specify each member as a positional argument specifying type
+    
+    Each type should be one of the following strings :
+      'integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean'
+    
+    So you can specify a list of two strings, followed by
+    two integers as :
+    
+      mixed_list('string', 'string', 'integer', 'integer')
+    
+    The length of the list must match the number of positional
+    arguments you supply.
+    
+    >>> mix_str = "mixed_list('integer', 'float', 'ip_addr', 'string', 'boolean')"
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True))
+    >>> check_res == [1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True]
+    1
+    >>> check_res = vtor.check(mix_str, ('1', '2.0', '1.2.3.4', 'a', 'True'))
+    >>> check_res == [1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True]
+    1
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, ('b', 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', True))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "b" is of the wrong type.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooShortError: the value "(1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a')" is too short.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, (1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', 1, 'b'))
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueTooLongError: the value "(1, 2.0, '1.2.3.4', 'a', 1, 'b')" is too long.
+    >>> vtor.check(mix_str, 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    
+    This test requires an elaborate setup, because of a change in error string
+    output from the interpreter between Python 2.2 and 2.3 .
+    
+    >>> res_seq = (
+    ...     'passed an incorrect value "',
+    ...     'yoda',
+    ...     '" for parameter "mixed_list".',
+    ... )
+    >>> res_str = "'".join(res_seq)
+    >>> try:
+    ...     vtor.check('mixed_list("yoda")', ('a'))
+    ... except VdtParamError, err:
+    ...     str(err) == res_str
+    1
+    """
+    try:
+        length = len(value)
+    except TypeError:
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if length < len(args):
+        raise VdtValueTooShortError(value)
+    elif length > len(args):
+        raise VdtValueTooLongError(value)
+    try:
+        return [fun_dict[arg](val) for arg, val in zip(args, value)]
+    except KeyError, e:
+        raise VdtParamError('mixed_list', e)
+
+
+def is_option(value, *options):
+    """
+    This check matches the value to any of a set of options.
+    
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 'yoda')
+    'yoda'
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 'jed')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtValueError: the value "jed" is unacceptable.
+    >>> vtor.check('option("yoda", "jedi")', 0)
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    VdtTypeError: the value "0" is of the wrong type.
+    """
+    if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+        raise VdtTypeError(value)
+    if not value in options:
+        raise VdtValueError(value)
+    return value
+
+
+def _test(value, *args, **keywargs):
+    """
+    A function that exists for test purposes.
+    
+    >>> checks = [
+    ...     '3, 6, min=1, max=3, test=list(a, b, c)',
+    ...     '3',
+    ...     '3, 6',
+    ...     '3,',
+    ...     'min=1, test="a b c"',
+    ...     'min=5, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     'min=1, max=3, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     'min=-100, test=-99',
+    ...     'min=1, max=3',
+    ...     '3, 6, test="36"',
+    ...     '3, 6, test="a, b, c"',
+    ...     '3, max=3, test=list("a", "b", "c")',
+    ...     '''3, max=3, test=list("'a'", 'b', "x=(c)")''',
+    ...     "test='x=fish(3)'",
+    ...    ]
+    >>> v = Validator({'test': _test})
+    >>> for entry in checks:
+    ...     print v.check(('test(%s)' % entry), 3)
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': ['a', 'b', 'c'], 'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, ('3',), {})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {})
+    (3, ('3',), {})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a b c', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a, b, c', 'min': '5'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'a, b, c', 'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, (), {'test': '-99', 'min': '-100'})
+    (3, (), {'max': '3', 'min': '1'})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': '36'})
+    (3, ('3', '6'), {'test': 'a, b, c'})
+    (3, ('3',), {'test': ['a', 'b', 'c'], 'max': '3'})
+    (3, ('3',), {'test': ["'a'", 'b', 'x=(c)'], 'max': '3'})
+    (3, (), {'test': 'x=fish(3)'})
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check('integer(default=6)', '3')
+    3
+    >>> v.check('integer(default=6)', None, True)
+    6
+    >>> v.get_default_value('integer(default=6)')
+    6
+    >>> v.get_default_value('float(default=6)')
+    6.0
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass(default=None)')
+    >>> v.get_default_value("string(default='None')")
+    'None'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass')
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+    KeyError: 'Check "pass" has no default value.'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('pass(default=list(1, 2, 3, 4))')
+    ['1', '2', '3', '4']
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check("pass(default=None)", None, True)
+    >>> v.check("pass(default='None')", None, True)
+    'None'
+    >>> v.check('pass(default="None")', None, True)
+    'None'
+    >>> v.check('pass(default=list(1, 2, 3, 4))', None, True)
+    ['1', '2', '3', '4']
+    
+    Bug test for unicode arguments
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.check(u'string(min=4)', u'test')
+    u'test'
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.get_default_value(u'string(min=4, default="1234")')
+    u'1234'
+    >>> v.check(u'string(min=4, default="1234")', u'test')
+    u'test'
+    
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> default = v.get_default_value('string(default=None)')
+    >>> default == None
+    1
+    """
+    return (value, args, keywargs)
+
+
+def _test2():
+    """
+    >>> 
+    >>> v = Validator()
+    >>> v.get_default_value('string(default="#ff00dd")')
+    '#ff00dd'
+    >>> v.get_default_value('integer(default=3) # comment')
+    3
+    """
+
+def _test3():
+    r"""
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="")', '', missing=True)
+    ''
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="\n")', '', missing=True)
+    '\n'
+    >>> print vtor.check('string(default="\n")', '', missing=True),
+    <BLANKLINE>
+    >>> vtor.check('string()', '\n')
+    '\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default="\n\n\n")', '', missing=True)
+    '\n\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string()', 'random \n text goes here\n\n')
+    'random \n text goes here\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check('string(default=" \nrandom text\ngoes \n here\n\n ")',
+    ... '', missing=True)
+    ' \nrandom text\ngoes \n here\n\n '
+    >>> vtor.check("string(default='\n\n\n')", '', missing=True)
+    '\n\n\n'
+    >>> vtor.check("option('\n','a','b',default='\n')", '', missing=True)
+    '\n'
+    >>> vtor.check("string_list()", ['foo', '\n', 'bar'])
+    ['foo', '\n', 'bar']
+    >>> vtor.check("string_list(default=list('\n'))", '', missing=True)
+    ['\n']
+    """
+    
+    
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    # run the code tests in doctest format
+    import sys
+    import doctest
+    m = sys.modules.get('__main__')
+    globs = m.__dict__.copy()
+    globs.update({
+        'vtor': Validator(),
+    })
+    doctest.testmod(m, globs=globs)