mfbt/RefPtr.h
author Gregory Szorc <gps@mozilla.com>
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:37:00 -0800
branchGECKO140_2012062401_RELBRANCH
changeset 120204 49838761146e772650e6739254d82541b76d2540
parent 85980 ad85a745d2fbf9a34c5d32cd3471cc6635c79ccf
child 98529 f4157e8c410708d76703f19e4dfb61859bfe32d8
permissions -rw-r--r--
Close old release branch GECKO140_2012062401_RELBRANCH

/* -*- Mode: C++; tab-width: 4; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 4 -*-
 * vim: set ts=8 sw=4 et tw=99 ft=cpp:
 *
 * ***** BEGIN LICENSE BLOCK *****
 * Version: MPL 1.1/GPL 2.0/LGPL 2.1
 *
 * The contents of this file are subject to the Mozilla Public License Version
 * 1.1 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
 * http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/
 *
 * Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" basis,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
 * for the specific language governing rights and limitations under the
 * License.
 *
 * The Original Code is Mozilla Code.
 *
 * The Initial Developer of the Original Code is
 *   The Mozilla Foundation
 * Portions created by the Initial Developer are Copyright (C) 2011
 * the Initial Developer. All Rights Reserved.
 *
 * Contributor(s):
 *   Chris Jones <jones.chris.g@gmail.com>
 *
 * Alternatively, the contents of this file may be used under the terms of
 * either the GNU General Public License Version 2 or later (the "GPL"), or
 * the GNU Lesser General Public License Version 2.1 or later (the "LGPL"),
 * in which case the provisions of the GPL or the LGPL are applicable instead
 * of those above. If you wish to allow use of your version of this file only
 * under the terms of either the GPL or the LGPL, and not to allow others to
 * use your version of this file under the terms of the MPL, indicate your
 * decision by deleting the provisions above and replace them with the notice
 * and other provisions required by the GPL or the LGPL. If you do not delete
 * the provisions above, a recipient may use your version of this file under
 * the terms of any one of the MPL, the GPL or the LGPL.
 *
 * ***** END LICENSE BLOCK ***** */

/* Helpers for defining and using refcounted objects. */

#ifndef mozilla_RefPtr_h_
#define mozilla_RefPtr_h_

#include "mozilla/Assertions.h"
#include "mozilla/Attributes.h"

namespace mozilla {

template<typename T> class RefCounted;
template<typename T> class RefPtr;
template<typename T> class TemporaryRef;
template<typename T> class OutParamRef;
template<typename T> OutParamRef<T> byRef(RefPtr<T>&);

/**
 * RefCounted<T> is a sort of a "mixin" for a class T.  RefCounted
 * manages, well, refcounting for T, and because RefCounted is
 * parameterized on T, RefCounted<T> can call T's destructor directly.
 * This means T doesn't need to have a virtual dtor and so doesn't
 * need a vtable.
 *
 * RefCounted<T> is created with refcount == 0.  Newly-allocated
 * RefCounted<T> must immediately be assigned to a RefPtr to make the
 * refcount > 0.  It's an error to allocate and free a bare
 * RefCounted<T>, i.e. outside of the RefPtr machinery.  Attempts to
 * do so will abort DEBUG builds.
 *
 * Live RefCounted<T> have refcount > 0.  The lifetime (refcounts) of
 * live RefCounted<T> are controlled by RefPtr<T> and
 * RefPtr<super/subclass of T>.  Upon a transition from refcounted==1
 * to 0, the RefCounted<T> "dies" and is destroyed.  The "destroyed"
 * state is represented in DEBUG builds by refcount==-0xdead.  This
 * state distinguishes use-before-ref (refcount==0) from
 * use-after-destroy (refcount==-0xdead).
 */
template<typename T>
class RefCounted
{
    friend class RefPtr<T>;

public:
    RefCounted() : refCnt(0) { }
    ~RefCounted() { MOZ_ASSERT(refCnt == -0xdead); }

    // Compatibility with nsRefPtr.
    void AddRef() {
        MOZ_ASSERT(refCnt >= 0);
        ++refCnt;
    }

    void Release() {
        MOZ_ASSERT(refCnt > 0);
        if (0 == --refCnt) {
#ifdef DEBUG
            refCnt = -0xdead;
#endif
            delete static_cast<T*>(this);
        }
    }

    // Compatibility with wtf::RefPtr.
    void ref() { AddRef(); }
    void deref() { Release(); }
    int refCount() const { return refCnt; }
    bool hasOneRef() const {
        MOZ_ASSERT(refCnt > 0);
        return refCnt == 1;
    }

private:
    int refCnt;
};

/**
 * RefPtr points to a refcounted thing that has AddRef and Release
 * methods to increase/decrease the refcount, respectively.  After a
 * RefPtr<T> is assigned a T*, the T* can be used through the RefPtr
 * as if it were a T*.
 *
 * A RefPtr can forget its underlying T*, which results in the T*
 * being wrapped in a temporary object until the T* is either
 * re-adopted from or released by the temporary.
 */
template<typename T>
class RefPtr
{
    // To allow them to use unref()
    friend class TemporaryRef<T>;
    friend class OutParamRef<T>;

    struct dontRef {};

public:
    RefPtr() : ptr(0) { }
    RefPtr(const RefPtr& o) : ptr(ref(o.ptr)) {}
    RefPtr(const TemporaryRef<T>& o) : ptr(o.drop()) {}
    RefPtr(T* t) : ptr(ref(t)) {}

    template<typename U>
    RefPtr(const RefPtr<U>& o) : ptr(ref(o.get())) {}

    ~RefPtr() { unref(ptr); }

    RefPtr& operator=(const RefPtr& o) {
        assign(ref(o.ptr));
        return *this;
    }
    RefPtr& operator=(const TemporaryRef<T>& o) {
        assign(o.drop());
        return *this;
    }
    RefPtr& operator=(T* t) {
        assign(ref(t));
        return *this;
    }

    template<typename U>
    RefPtr& operator=(const RefPtr<U>& o) {
        assign(ref(o.get()));
        return *this;
    }

    TemporaryRef<T> forget() {
        T* tmp = ptr;
        ptr = 0;
        return TemporaryRef<T>(tmp, dontRef());
    }

    T* get() const { return ptr; }
    operator T*() const { return ptr; }
    T* operator->() const { return ptr; }
    T& operator*() const { return *ptr; }
    template<typename U>
    operator TemporaryRef<U>() { return TemporaryRef<U>(ptr); }

private:
    void assign(T* t) {
        unref(ptr);
        ptr = t;
    }

    T* ptr;

    static MOZ_ALWAYS_INLINE T* ref(T* t) {
        if (t) {
            t->AddRef();
        }
        return t;
    }

    static MOZ_ALWAYS_INLINE void unref(T* t) {
        if (t) {
            t->Release();
        }
    }
};

/**
 * TemporaryRef<T> represents an object that holds a temporary
 * reference to a T.  TemporaryRef objects can't be manually ref'd or
 * unref'd (being temporaries, not lvalues), so can only relinquish
 * references to other objects, or unref on destruction.
 */
template<typename T>
class TemporaryRef
{
    // To allow it to construct TemporaryRef from a bare T*
    friend class RefPtr<T>;

    typedef typename RefPtr<T>::dontRef dontRef;

public:
    TemporaryRef(T* t) : ptr(RefPtr<T>::ref(t)) {}
    TemporaryRef(const TemporaryRef& o) : ptr(o.drop()) {}

    template<typename U>
    TemporaryRef(const TemporaryRef<U>& o) : ptr(o.drop()) {}

    ~TemporaryRef() { RefPtr<T>::unref(ptr); }

    T* drop() const {
        T* tmp = ptr;
        ptr = 0;
        return tmp;
    }

private:
    TemporaryRef(T* t, const dontRef&) : ptr(t) {}

    mutable T* ptr;

    TemporaryRef();
    TemporaryRef& operator=(const TemporaryRef&);
};

/**
 * OutParamRef is a wrapper that tracks a refcounted pointer passed as
 * an outparam argument to a function.  OutParamRef implements COM T**
 * outparam semantics: this requires the callee to AddRef() the T*
 * returned through the T** outparam on behalf of the caller.  This
 * means the caller (through OutParamRef) must Release() the old
 * object contained in the tracked RefPtr.  It's OK if the callee
 * returns the same T* passed to it through the T** outparam, as long
 * as the callee obeys the COM discipline.
 *
 * Prefer returning TemporaryRef<T> from functions over creating T**
 * outparams and passing OutParamRef<T> to T**.  Prefer RefPtr<T>*
 * outparams over T** outparams.
 */
template<typename T>
class OutParamRef
{
    friend OutParamRef byRef<T>(RefPtr<T>&);

public:
    ~OutParamRef() {
        RefPtr<T>::unref(refPtr.ptr);
        refPtr.ptr = tmp;
    }

    operator T**() { return &tmp; }

private:
    OutParamRef(RefPtr<T>& p) : refPtr(p), tmp(p.get()) {}

    RefPtr<T>& refPtr;
    T* tmp;

    OutParamRef() MOZ_DELETE;
    OutParamRef& operator=(const OutParamRef&) MOZ_DELETE;
};

/**
 * byRef cooperates with OutParamRef to implement COM outparam semantics.
 */
template<typename T>
OutParamRef<T>
byRef(RefPtr<T>& ptr)
{
    return OutParamRef<T>(ptr);
}

} // namespace mozilla

#endif // mozilla_RefPtr_h_


#if 0

// Command line that builds these tests
//
//   cp RefPtr.h test.cc && g++ -g -Wall -pedantic -DDEBUG -o test test.cc && ./test

using namespace mozilla;

struct Foo : public RefCounted<Foo>
{
    Foo() : dead(false) { }
    ~Foo() {
        MOZ_ASSERT(!dead);
        dead = true;
        numDestroyed++;
    }

    bool dead;
    static int numDestroyed;
};
int Foo::numDestroyed;

struct Bar : public Foo { };

TemporaryRef<Foo>
NewFoo()
{
    return RefPtr<Foo>(new Foo());
}

TemporaryRef<Foo>
NewBar()
{
    return new Bar();
}

void
GetNewFoo(Foo** f)
{
    *f = new Bar();
    // Kids, don't try this at home
    (*f)->AddRef();
}

void
GetPassedFoo(Foo** f)
{
    // Kids, don't try this at home
    (*f)->AddRef();
}

void
GetNewFoo(RefPtr<Foo>* f)
{
    *f = new Bar();
}

void
GetPassedFoo(RefPtr<Foo>* f)
{}

TemporaryRef<Foo>
GetNullFoo()
{
    return 0;
}

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    // This should blow up
//    Foo* f = new Foo(); delete f;

    MOZ_ASSERT(0 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        MOZ_ASSERT(f->refCount() == 1);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(1 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f1 = NewFoo();
        RefPtr<Foo> f2(NewFoo());
        MOZ_ASSERT(1 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(3 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> b = NewBar();
        MOZ_ASSERT(3 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(4 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f1;
        {
            f1 = new Foo();
            RefPtr<Foo> f2(f1);
            RefPtr<Foo> f3 = f2;
            MOZ_ASSERT(4 == Foo::numDestroyed);
        }
        MOZ_ASSERT(4 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(5 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        f.forget();
        MOZ_ASSERT(6 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        GetNewFoo(byRef(f));
        MOZ_ASSERT(7 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(8 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        GetPassedFoo(byRef(f));
        MOZ_ASSERT(8 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(9 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        GetNewFoo(&f);
        MOZ_ASSERT(10 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(11 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = new Foo();
        GetPassedFoo(&f);
        MOZ_ASSERT(11 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(12 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f1 = new Bar();
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(13 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    {
        RefPtr<Foo> f = GetNullFoo();
        MOZ_ASSERT(13 == Foo::numDestroyed);
    }
    MOZ_ASSERT(13 == Foo::numDestroyed);

    return 0;
}

#endif