author Daniel Brooks <db48x@db48x.net>
Fri, 29 Oct 2010 15:10:10 -0500
changeset 58868 5bc82216672f67f86b754a5a10fa0e5667e75b7f
parent 42998 7d5c3c3647c32618f8600e259948d292b1f93e6c
permissions -rw-r--r--
about:startup - present correctly localized dates in the tables (localizing the dates in the graph is tricker), Also, fix the calculation for the minimum value of the graph's x axis (forgot to take into account the funkiness of javascript's numbers)

Metadata-Version: 1.0
Name: virtualenv
Version: 1.4.8
Summary: Virtual Python Environment builder
Home-page: http://virtualenv.openplans.org
Author: Ian Bicking
Author-email: ianb@colorstudy.com
License: MIT
        Status and License
        ``virtualenv`` is a successor to `workingenv
        <http://cheeseshop.python.org/pypi/workingenv.py>`_, and an extension
        of `virtual-python
        It is written by Ian Bicking, and sponsored by the `Open Planning
        Project <http://openplans.org>`_.  It is licensed under an
        `MIT-style permissive license <license.html>`_.
        You can install it with ``easy_install virtualenv``, or from the `hg
        repository <http://bitbucket.org/ianb/virtualenv>`_ or from a `tarball
        ``easy_install virtualenv==tip``.
        What It Does
        ``virtualenv`` is a tool to create isolated Python environments.
        The basic problem being addressed is one of dependencies and versions,
        and indirectly permissions.  Imagine you have an application that
        needs version 1 of LibFoo, but another application requires version
        2.  How can you use both these applications?  If you install
        everything into ``/usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages`` (or whatever your
        platform's standard location is), it's easy to end up in a situation
        where you unintentionally upgrade an application that shouldn't be
        Or more generally, what if you want to install an application *and
        leave it be*?  If an application works, any change in its libraries or
        the versions of those libraries can break the application.
        Also, what if you can't install packages into the global
        ``site-packages`` directory?  For instance, on a shared host.
        In all these cases, ``virtualenv`` can help you.  It creates an
        environment that has its own installation directories, that doesn't
        share libraries with other virtualenv environments (and optionally
        doesn't use the globally installed libraries either).
        The basic usage is::
        $ python virtualenv.py ENV
        If you install it you can also just do ``virtualenv ENV``.
        This creates ``ENV/lib/python2.4/site-packages`` (or
        ``ENV/lib/python2.5/site-packages`` on Python 2.5, etc), where any
        libraries you install will go.  It also creates ``ENV/bin/python``,
        which is a Python interpreter that uses this environment.  Anytime you
        use that interpreter (including when a script has
        ``#!/path/to/ENV/bin/python`` in it) the libraries in that environment
        will be used.  (**Note for Windows:** scripts and executables on
        Windows go in ``ENV\Scripts\``; everywhere you see ``bin/`` replace it
        with ``Scripts\``)
        It also installs `Setuptools
        <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools>`_ for you, and if
        you use ``ENV/bin/easy_install`` the packages will be installed into
        the environment.
        If you use the ``--distribute`` option, it will install `distribute
        <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute>`_ for you, instead of setuptools,
        and if you use `ENV/bin/easy_install`` the packages will be installed into the
        To use Distribute just call virtualenv like this::
        $ python virtualenv.py --distribute ENV
        You can also set the environment variable VIRTUALENV_USE_DISTRIBUTE (since 1.4.4)
        and be a good Comrade
        Creating Your Own Bootstrap Scripts
        While this creates an environment, it doesn't put anything into the
        environment.  Developers may find it useful to distribute a script
        that sets up a particular environment, for example a script that
        installs a particular web application.
        To create a script like this, call
        ``virtualenv.create_bootstrap_script(extra_text)``, and write the
        result to your new bootstrapping script.  Here's the documentation
        from the docstring:
        Creates a bootstrap script, which is like this script but with
        extend_parser, adjust_options, and after_install hooks.
        This returns a string that (written to disk of course) can be used
        as a bootstrap script with your own customizations.  The script
        will be the standard virtualenv.py script, with your extra text
        added (your extra text should be Python code).
        If you include these functions, they will be called:
        You can add or remove options from the parser here.
        ``adjust_options(options, args)``:
        You can change options here, or change the args (if you accept
        different kinds of arguments, be sure you modify ``args`` so it is
        only ``[DEST_DIR]``).
        ``after_install(options, home_dir)``:
        After everything is installed, this function is called.  This
        is probably the function you are most likely to use.  An
        example would be::
        def after_install(options, home_dir):
        if sys.platform == 'win32':
        bin = 'Scripts'
        bin = 'bin'
        subprocess.call([join(home_dir, bin, 'easy_install'),
        subprocess.call([join(home_dir, bin, 'my-package-script'),
        'setup', home_dir])
        This example immediately installs a package, and runs a setup
        script from that package.
        Bootstrap Example
        Here's a more concrete example of how you could use this::
        import virtualenv, textwrap
        output = virtualenv.create_bootstrap_script(textwrap.dedent("""
        import os, subprocess
        def after_install(options, home_dir):
        etc = join(home_dir, 'etc')
        if not os.path.exists(etc):
        subprocess.call([join(home_dir, 'bin', 'easy_install'),
        subprocess.call([join(home_dir, 'bin', 'paster'),
        'make-config', 'BlogApplication',
        join(etc, 'blog.ini')])
        subprocess.call([join(home_dir, 'bin', 'paster'),
        'setup-app', join(etc, 'blog.ini')])
        f = open('blog-bootstrap.py', 'w').write(output)
        Another example is available `here
        activate script
        In a newly created virtualenv there will be a ``bin/activate`` shell
        script, or a ``Scripts/activate.bat`` batch file on Windows.
        On Posix systems you can do::
        $ source bin/activate
        This will change your ``$PATH`` to point to the virtualenv ``bin/``
        directory.  Unlike workingenv, this is all it
        does; it's a convenience.  But if you use the complete path like
        ``/path/to/env/bin/python script.py`` you do not need to activate the
        environment first.  You have to use ``source`` because it changes the
        environment in-place.  After activating an environment you can use the
        function ``deactivate`` to undo the changes.
        The ``activate`` script will also modify your shell prompt to indicate
        which environment is currently active.  You can disable this behavior,
        which can be useful if you have your own custom prompt that already
        displays the active environment name.  To do so, set the
        ``VIRTUAL_ENV_DISABLE_PROMPT`` environment variable to any non-empty
        value before running the ``activate`` script.
        On Windows you just do::
        > \path\to\env\bin\activate.bat
        And use ``deactivate.bat`` to undo the changes.
        The ``--no-site-packages`` Option
        If you build with ``virtualenv --no-site-packages ENV`` it will *not*
        inherit any packages from ``/usr/lib/python2.5/site-packages`` (or
        wherever your global site-packages directory is).  This can be used if
        you don't have control over site-packages and don't want to depend on
        the packages there, or you just want more isolation from the global
        Using Virtualenv without ``bin/python``
        Sometimes you can't or don't want to use the Python interpreter
        created by the virtualenv.  For instance, in a `mod_python
        <http://www.modpython.org/>`_ or `mod_wsgi <http://www.modwsgi.org/>`_
        environment, there is only one interpreter.
        Luckily, it's easy.  You must use the custom Python interpreter to
        *install* libraries.  But to *use* libraries, you just have to be sure
        the path is correct.  A script is available to correct the path.  You
        can setup the environment like::
        activate_this = '/path/to/env/bin/activate_this.py'
        execfile(activate_this, dict(__file__=activate_this))
        This will change ``sys.path`` and even change ``sys.prefix``, but also
        allow you to use an existing interpreter.  Items in your environment
        will show up first on ``sys.path``, before global items.  However,
        this cannot undo the activation of other environments, or modules that
        have been imported.  You shouldn't try to, for instance, activate an
        environment before a web request; you should activate *one*
        environment as early as possible, and not do it again in that process.
        Making Environments Relocatable
        Note: this option is somewhat experimental, and there are probably
        caveats that have not yet been identified.  Also this does not
        currently work on Windows.
        Normally environments are tied to a specific path.  That means that
        you cannot move an environment around or copy it to another computer.
        You can fix up an environment to make it relocatable with the
        $ virtualenv --relocatable ENV
        This will make some of the files created by setuptools or distribute
        use relative paths, and will change all the scripts to use ``activate_this.py``
        instead of using the location of the Python interpreter to select the
        **Note:** you must run this after you've installed *any* packages into
        the environment.  If you make an environment relocatable, then
        install a new package, you must run ``virtualenv --relocatable``
        Also, this **does not make your packages cross-platform**.  You can
        move the directory around, but it can only be used on other similar
        computers.  Some known environmental differences that can cause
        incompatibilities: a different version of Python, when one platform
        uses UCS2 for its internal unicode representation and another uses
        UCS4 (a compile-time option), obvious platform changes like Windows
        vs. Linux, or Intel vs. ARM, and if you have libraries that bind to C
        libraries on the system, if those C libraries are located somewhere
        different (either different versions, or a different filesystem
        Currently the ``--no-site-packages`` option will not be honored if you
        use this on an environment.
        Compare & Contrast with Alternatives
        There are several alternatives that create isolated environments:
        * ``workingenv`` (which I do not suggest you use anymore) is the
        predecessor to this library.  It used the main Python interpreter,
        but relied on setting ``$PYTHONPATH`` to activate the environment.
        This causes problems when running Python scripts that aren't part of
        the environment (e.g., a globally installed ``hg`` or ``bzr``).  It
        also conflicted a lot with Setuptools.
        * `virtual-python
        is also a predecessor to this library.  It uses only symlinks, so it
        couldn't work on Windows.  It also symlinks over the *entire*
        standard library and global ``site-packages``.  As a result, it
        won't see new additions to the global ``site-packages``.
        This script only symlinks a small portion of the standard library
        into the environment, and so on Windows it is feasible to simply
        copy these files over.  Also, it creates a new/empty
        ``site-packages`` and also adds the global ``site-packages`` to the
        path, so updates are tracked separately.  This script also installs
        Setuptools automatically, saving a step and avoiding the need for
        network access.
        * `zc.buildout <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zc.buildout>`_ doesn't
        create an isolated Python environment in the same style, but
        achieves similar results through a declarative config file that sets
        up scripts with very particular packages.  As a declarative system,
        it is somewhat easier to repeat and manage, but more difficult to
        experiment with.  ``zc.buildout`` includes the ability to setup
        non-Python systems (e.g., a database server or an Apache instance).
        I *strongly* recommend anyone doing application development or
        deployment use one of these tools.
        Other Documentation and Links
        * James Gardner has written a tutorial on using `virtualenv with
        * `Blog announcement
        * Doug Hellmann wrote a description of his `command-line work flow
        using virtualenv (virtualenvwrapper)
        including some handy scripts to make working with multiple
        environments easier.  He also wrote `an example of using virtualenv
        to try IPython
        * Chris Perkins created a `showmedo video including virtualenv
        * `Using virtualenv with mod_wsgi
        * `virtualenv commands
        <http://thisismedium.com/tech/extending-virtualenv/>`_ for some more
        workflow-related tools around virtualenv.
Keywords: setuptools deployment installation distutils
Platform: UNKNOWN
Classifier: Development Status :: 4 - Beta
Classifier: Intended Audience :: Developers
Classifier: License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License