python/mock-1.0.0/html/compare.html
author Carsten "Tomcat" Book <cbook@mozilla.com>
Tue, 30 Jun 2015 10:30:51 +0200
changeset 274663 79800010be78122db7c36d4b5833814fdbf28495
parent 112588 5981ff9d3f45de802d956b2f8e064f49b74cb7a6
permissions -rw-r--r--
Backed out changeset f41a2121425f (bug 1171931) for bustage


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  <div class="section" id="mock-library-comparison">
<h1>Mock Library Comparison<a class="headerlink" href="#mock-library-comparison" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
<p>A side-by-side comparison of how to accomplish some basic tasks with mock and
some other popular Python mocking libraries and frameworks.</p>
<p>These are:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://pypi.python.org/pypi/flexmock">flexmock</a></li>
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://pypi.python.org/pypi/mox">mox</a></li>
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://niemeyer.net/mocker">Mocker</a></li>
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://pypi.python.org/pypi/dingus">dingus</a></li>
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://pypi.python.org/pypi/fudge">fudge</a></li>
</ul>
<p>Popular python mocking frameworks not yet represented here include
<a class="reference external" href="http://pypi.python.org/pypi/MiniMock">MiniMock</a>.</p>
<p><a class="reference external" href="http://pmock.sourceforge.net/">pMock</a> (last release 2004 and doesn&#8217;t import
in recent versions of Python) and
<a class="reference external" href="http://python-mock.sourceforge.net/">python-mock</a> (last release 2005) are
intentionally omitted.</p>
<div class="admonition note">
<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
<p>A more up to date, and tested for all mock libraries (only the mock
examples on this page can be executed as doctests) version of this
comparison is maintained by Gary Bernhardt:</p>
<ul class="last simple">
<li><a class="reference external" href="http://garybernhardt.github.com/python-mock-comparison/">Python Mock Library Comparison</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p>This comparison is by no means complete, and also may not be fully idiomatic
for all the libraries represented. <em>Please</em> contribute corrections, missing
comparisons, or comparisons for additional libraries to the <a class="reference external" href="https://code.google.com/p/mock/issues/list">mock issue
tracker</a>.</p>
<p>This comparison page was originally created by the <a class="reference external" href="https://code.google.com/p/pymox/wiki/MoxComparison">Mox project</a> and then extended for
<a class="reference external" href="http://has207.github.com/flexmock/compare.html">flexmock and mock</a> by
Herman Sheremetyev. Dingus examples written by <a class="reference external" href="http://garybernhardt.github.com/python-mock-comparison/">Gary Bernhadt</a>. fudge examples
provided by <a class="reference external" href="http://farmdev.com/">Kumar McMillan</a>.</p>
<div class="admonition note">
<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
<p>The examples tasks here were originally created by Mox which is a mocking
<em>framework</em> rather than a library like mock. The tasks shown naturally
exemplify tasks that frameworks are good at and not the ones they make
harder. In particular you can take a <cite>Mock</cite> or <cite>MagicMock</cite> object and use
it in any way you want with no up-front configuration. The same is also
true for Dingus.</p>
<p class="last">The examples for mock here assume version 0.7.0.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="simple-fake-object">
<h2>Simple fake object<a class="headerlink" href="#simple-fake-object" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="k">lambda</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockAnything</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replay</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>                          <span class="n">some_method__returns</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>           <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">provides</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>           <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>           <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">has_attr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;calculated value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_attribute</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="simple-mock">
<h2>Simple mock<a class="headerlink" href="#simple-mock" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_once_with</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;some_method&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_return</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockAnything</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Verify</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replay</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">verify</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_method__returns</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@fudge.test</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">():</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">times_called</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">test</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gt">Traceback (most recent call last):</span>
<span class="c">...</span>
<span class="gr">AssertionError</span>: <span class="n">fake:my_fake.some_method() was not called</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="creating-partial-mocks">
<h2>Creating partial mocks<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-partial-mocks" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&#39;value&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;some_method&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_return</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;value&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockObject</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Verify</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Get</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replay</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">verify</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nb">object</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">SomeObject</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">is_callable</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;&lt;fudge-value&gt;&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patched_context</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">fake</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">s</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;&lt;fudge-value&gt;&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">s</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="ensure-calls-are-made-in-specific-order">
<h2>Ensure calls are made in specific order<a class="headerlink" href="#ensure-calls-are-made-in-specific-order" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">spec</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Mock name=&#39;mock.method1()&#39; id=&#39;...&#39;&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Mock name=&#39;mock.method2()&#39; id=&#39;...&#39;&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock_calls</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="n">call</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">call</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()])</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method1&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ordered</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_return</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;first thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method2&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ordered</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_return</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;second thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockObject</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeObject</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;first thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;second thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Verify</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">order</span><span class="p">():</span>
    <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span>
    <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;first thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
    <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span>
    <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;second thing&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
    <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replay</span><span class="p">()</span>
    <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">verify</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Dingus ...&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Dingus ...&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">([</span><span class="s">&#39;method1&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">&#39;method2&#39;</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="n">call</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">name</span> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">call</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">])</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@fudge.test</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">():</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">remember_order</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method1&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>               <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method2&#39;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">test</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gt">Traceback (most recent call last):</span>
<span class="c">...</span>
<span class="gr">AssertionError: Call #1 was fake:my_fake.method2(); Expected</span>: <span class="n">#1 fake:my_fake.method1(), #2 fake:my_fake.method2(), end</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="raising-exceptions">
<h2>Raising exceptions<a class="headerlink" href="#raising-exceptions" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">side_effect</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;message&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertRaises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;some_method&quot;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_raise</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;message&quot;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="n">assertRaises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockAnything</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndRaise</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;message&quot;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertRaises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Verify</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">throw</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;message&quot;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replay</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">assertRaises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">verify</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">exception_raiser</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertRaises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>           <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">is_callable</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>           <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">raises</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeException</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;message&quot;</span><span class="p">)))</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gt">Traceback (most recent call last):</span>
<span class="c">...</span>
<span class="gr">SomeException</span>: <span class="n">message</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="override-new-instances-of-a-class">
<h2>Override new instances of a class<a class="headerlink" href="#override-new-instances-of-a-class" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;somemodule.Someclass&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">MockClass</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">MockClass</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">some_other_object</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">somemodule</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Someclass</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_module</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">new_instances</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">some_module</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">())</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="c"># (you will probably have mox.Mox() available as self.mox in a real test)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mox</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">StubOutWithMock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_module</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">&#39;SomeClass&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">use_mock_anything</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="bp">True</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">some_module</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ReplayAll</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">some_module</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">())</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="n">instance</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">klass</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">replace</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">spec</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">klass</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;expected&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">&#39;args&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mocker</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">instance</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">MockClass</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;somemodule.SomeClass&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">MockClass</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">somemodule</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@fudge.patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;somemodule.SomeClass&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">FakeClass</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">FakeClass</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">is_callable</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_other_object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">somemodule</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">SomeClass</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">test</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="call-the-same-method-multiple-times">
<h2>Call the same method multiple times<a class="headerlink" href="#call-the-same-method-multiple-times" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="admonition note">
<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
<p class="last">You don&#8217;t need to do <em>any</em> configuration to call <cite>mock.Mock()</cite> methods
multiple times. Attributes like <cite>call_count</cite>, <cite>call_args_list</cite> and
<cite>method_calls</cite> provide various different ways of making assertions about
how the mock was used.</p>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Mock name=&#39;mock.some_method()&#39; id=&#39;...&#39;&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Mock name=&#39;mock.some_method()&#39; id=&#39;...&#39;&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">call_count</span> <span class="o">&gt;=</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock # (verifies that the method gets called at least twice)</span>
<span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_object</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">at_least</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">twice</span>

<span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="c"># (does not support variable number of calls, so you need to create a new entry for each explicit call)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockObject</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">IgnoreArg</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">IgnoreArg</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">IgnoreArg</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">IgnoreArg</span><span class="p">())</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Replay</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Verify</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock</span><span class="p">)</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="c"># (TODO)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Dingus ...&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="go">&lt;Dingus ...&gt;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">))</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">2</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@fudge.test</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">():</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_method&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">times_called</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">some_method</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">test</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gt">Traceback (most recent call last):</span>
<span class="c">...</span>
<span class="gr">AssertionError</span>: <span class="n">fake:my_fake.some_method() was called 1 time(s). Expected 2.</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="mock-chained-methods">
<h2>Mock chained methods<a class="headerlink" href="#mock-chained-methods" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">method3</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_once_with</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Flexmock</span>
<span class="c"># (intermediate method calls are automatically assigned to temporary fake objects</span>
<span class="c"># and can be called with any arguments)</span>
<span class="n">flexmock</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_object</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">should_receive</span><span class="p">(</span>
    <span class="s">&#39;method1.method2.method3&#39;</span>
<span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">with_args</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arg1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">arg2</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">and_return</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_value&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">some_object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arg1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">arg2</span><span class="p">))</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="c"># Mox</span>
<span class="n">mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockObject</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">some_object</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock2</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockAnything</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock3</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MockAnything</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock1</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock2</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">mock2</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="n">mock3</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arg1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">arg2</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">AndReturn</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some_value&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="bp">self</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ReplayAll</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&quot;some_value&quot;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">some_object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">arg1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">arg2</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="bp">self</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mox</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">VerifyAll</span><span class="p">()</span>

<span class="c"># Mocker</span>
<span class="c"># (TODO)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">method3</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">method3</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;()&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@fudge.test</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">test</span><span class="p">():</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">my_fake</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method1&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns_fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method2&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns_fake</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expects</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;method3&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">with_args</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>     <span class="o">.</span><span class="n">returns</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">assertEqual</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;some value&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method1</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method2</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">method3</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">test</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="mocking-a-context-manager">
<h2>Mocking a context manager<a class="headerlink" href="#mocking-a-context-manager" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>Examples for mock, Dingus and fudge only (so far):</p>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MagicMock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">pass</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__enter__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_with</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__exit__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_with</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus (nothing special here; all dinguses are &quot;magic mocks&quot;)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">pass</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__enter__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__exit__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;()&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_fake</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Fake</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">provides</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__enter__&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">provides</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__exit__&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">my_fake</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">pass</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="mocking-the-builtin-open-used-as-a-context-manager">
<h2>Mocking the builtin open used as a context manager<a class="headerlink" href="#mocking-the-builtin-open-used-as-a-context-manager" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>Example for mock only (so far):</p>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MagicMock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__builtin__.open&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">manager</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__enter__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">manager</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nb">open</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">h</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>        <span class="n">data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">h</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">data</span>
<span class="go">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_once_with</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<p><em>or</em>:</p>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># mock</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__builtin__.open&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__enter__</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">lambda</span> <span class="n">s</span><span class="p">:</span> <span class="n">s</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__exit__</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Mock</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nb">open</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">h</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>        <span class="n">data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">h</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">data</span>
<span class="go">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_mock</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">assert_called_once_with</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># Dingus</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">my_dingus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">Dingus</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__builtin__.open&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">file_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">open</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__enter__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">file_</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">return_value</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nb">open</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">h</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>        <span class="n">data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">data</span>
<span class="go">&#39;some data&#39;</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">assert</span> <span class="n">my_dingus</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;()&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s">&#39;foo&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">once</span><span class="p">()</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
<div class="highlight-python"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="c"># fudge</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="kn">from</span> <span class="nn">contextlib</span> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="n">contextmanager</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="kn">from</span> <span class="nn">StringIO</span> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="n">StringIO</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="nd">@contextmanager</span>
<span class="gp">... </span><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">fake_file</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">):</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">yield</span> <span class="n">StringIO</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;sekrets&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="k">with</span> <span class="n">fudge</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">patch</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;__builtin__.open&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">fake_open</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="n">fake_open</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">is_callable</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">calls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fake_file</span><span class="p">)</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>    <span class="k">with</span> <span class="nb">open</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s">&#39;/etc/password&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="p">:</span>
<span class="gp">... </span>        <span class="n">data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">f</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read</span><span class="p">()</span>
<span class="gp">...</span>
<span class="go">fake:__builtin__.open</span>
<span class="gp">&gt;&gt;&gt; </span><span class="n">data</span>
<span class="go">&#39;sekrets&#39;</span>
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
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  <h3><a href="index.html">Table Of Contents</a></h3>
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<li><a class="reference internal" href="#">Mock Library Comparison</a><ul>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#simple-fake-object">Simple fake object</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#simple-mock">Simple mock</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#creating-partial-mocks">Creating partial mocks</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#ensure-calls-are-made-in-specific-order">Ensure calls are made in specific order</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#raising-exceptions">Raising exceptions</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#override-new-instances-of-a-class">Override new instances of a class</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#call-the-same-method-multiple-times">Call the same method multiple times</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#mock-chained-methods">Mock chained methods</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#mocking-a-context-manager">Mocking a context manager</a></li>
<li><a class="reference internal" href="#mocking-the-builtin-open-used-as-a-context-manager">Mocking the builtin open used as a context manager</a></li>
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