servo/README.md
author Nicholas Nethercote <nnethercote@mozilla.com>
Fri, 16 Feb 2018 17:54:16 +1100
changeset 407868 32d6774930e55be5c03e8d631fc067a995623c1e
parent 407256 9b7eeade1db717671d2dbb4a0f30e70137bc76f0
child 410199 befe8c748a4b4dad323ac9333a50c7fa0e870cfa
permissions -rw-r--r--
Bug 1438678 - Pass early prefs via shared memory instead of the command line. r=bobowen,jld,glandium. This patch replaces the large -intPrefs/-boolPrefs/-stringPrefs flags with a short-lived, anonymous, shared memory segment that is used to pass the early prefs. Removing the bloat from the command line is nice, but more important is the fact that this will let us pass more prefs at content process start-up, which will allow us to remove the early/late prefs split (bug 1436911). Although this mechanism is only used for prefs, it's conceivable that it could be used for other data that must be received very early by children, and for which the command line isn't ideal. Notable details: - Much of the patch deals with the various platform-specific ways of passing handles/fds to children. - Linux and Mac: we use a fixed fd (8) in combination with the new GeckoChildProcessHost::AddFdToRemap() function (which ensures the child won't close the fd). - Android: like Linux and Mac, but the handles get passed via "parcels" and we use the new SetPrefsFd() function instead of the fixed fd. - Windows: there is no need to duplicate the handle because Windows handles are system-wide. But we do use the new GeckoChildProcessHost::AddHandleToShare() function to add it to the list of inheritable handles. We also ensure that list is processed on all paths (MOZ_SANDBOX with sandbox, MOZ_SANDBOX without sandbox, non-MOZ_SANDBOX) so that the handles are marked as inheritable. The handle is passed via the -prefsHandle flag. The -prefsLen flag is used on all platforms to indicate the size of the shared memory segment. - The patch also moves the serialization/deserialization of the prefs in/out of the shared memory into libpref, which is a better spot for it. (This means Preferences::MustSendToContentProcesses() can be removed.) MozReview-Commit-ID: 8fREEBiYFvc

# The Servo Parallel Browser Engine Project

[![Linux Build Status](https://img.shields.io/travis/servo/servo/master.svg?label=Linux%20build)](https://travis-ci.org/servo/servo)  [![Windows Build Status](https://img.shields.io/appveyor/ci/servo/servo/master.svg?label=Windows%20build)](https://ci.appveyor.com/project/servo/servo/branch/master)  [![Changelog #228](https://img.shields.io/badge/changelog-%23228-9E978E.svg)](https://changelog.com/podcast/228)

Servo is a prototype web browser engine written in the
[Rust](https://github.com/rust-lang/rust) language. It is currently developed on
64-bit OS X, 64-bit Linux, 64-bit Windows, and Android.

Servo welcomes contribution from everyone.  See
[`CONTRIBUTING.md`](CONTRIBUTING.md) and [`HACKING_QUICKSTART.md`](docs/HACKING_QUICKSTART.md)
for help getting started.

Visit the [Servo Project page](https://servo.org/) for news and guides.

## Setting up your environment

### Rustup.rs

Building servo requires [rustup](https://rustup.rs/), version 1.8.0 or more recent.
If you have an older version, run `rustup self update`.

To install on Windows, download and run [`rustup-init.exe`](https://win.rustup.rs/)
then follow the onscreen instructions.

To install on other systems, run:

```sh
curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh
```

This will also download the current stable version of Rust, which Servo won’t use.
To skip that step, run instead:

```
curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh -s -- --default-toolchain none
```

See also [Other installation methods](
https://github.com/rust-lang-nursery/rustup.rs/#other-installation-methods)

### Other dependencies

Please select your operating system:
* [OS X](#os-x)
* [Debian-based Linuxes](#on-debian-based-linuxes)
* [Fedora](#on-fedora)
* [Arch Linux](#on-arch-linux)
* [openSUSE](#on-opensuse-linux)
* [Gentoo Linux](#on-gentoo-linux)
* [Microsoft Windows](#on-windows-msvc)
* [Android](#cross-compilation-for-android)

#### OS X
#### On OS X (homebrew)

``` sh
brew install automake pkg-config python cmake yasm
pip install virtualenv
```
#### On OS X (MacPorts)

``` sh
sudo port install python27 py27-virtualenv cmake yasm
```
#### On OS X >= 10.11 (El Capitan), you also have to install OpenSSL

``` sh
brew install openssl

export OPENSSL_INCLUDE_DIR="$(brew --prefix openssl)/include"
export OPENSSL_LIB_DIR="$(brew --prefix openssl)/lib"

./mach build ...
```

If you've already partially compiled servo but forgot to do this step, run `./mach clean`, set the shell variables, and recompile.

#### On Debian-based Linuxes

``` sh
sudo apt install git curl autoconf libx11-dev \
    libfreetype6-dev libgl1-mesa-dri libglib2.0-dev xorg-dev \
    gperf g++ build-essential cmake virtualenv python-pip \
    libssl1.0-dev libbz2-dev libosmesa6-dev libxmu6 libxmu-dev \
    libglu1-mesa-dev libgles2-mesa-dev libegl1-mesa-dev libdbus-1-dev \
    libharfbuzz-dev ccache
```

If you using a version prior to **Ubuntu 17.04** or **Debian Sid**, replace `libssl1.0-dev` with `libssl-dev`.

If you are on **Ubuntu 14.04** and encountered errors on installing these dependencies involving `libcheese`, see [#6158](https://github.com/servo/servo/issues/6158) for a workaround.

If `virtualenv` does not exist, try `python-virtualenv`.

#### On Fedora

``` sh
sudo dnf install curl libtool gcc-c++ libXi-devel \
    freetype-devel mesa-libGL-devel mesa-libEGL-devel glib2-devel libX11-devel libXrandr-devel gperf \
    fontconfig-devel cabextract ttmkfdir python python-virtualenv python-pip expat-devel \
    rpm-build openssl-devel cmake bzip2-devel libXcursor-devel libXmu-devel mesa-libOSMesa-devel \
    dbus-devel ncurses-devel harfbuzz-devel ccache mesa-libGLU-devel
```
#### On CentOS

``` sh
sudo yum install curl libtool gcc-c++ libXi-devel \
    freetype-devel mesa-libGL-devel mesa-libEGL-devel glib2-devel libX11-devel libXrandr-devel gperf \
    fontconfig-devel cabextract ttmkfdir python python-virtualenv python-pip expat-devel \
    rpm-build openssl-devel cmake3 bzip2-devel libXcursor-devel libXmu-devel mesa-libOSMesa-devel \
    dbus-devel ncurses-devel python34 harfbuzz-devel ccache
```
#### On openSUSE Linux
``` sh
sudo zypper install libX11-devel libexpat-devel libbz2-devel Mesa-libEGL-devel Mesa-libGL-devel cabextract cmake \
    dbus-1-devel fontconfig-devel freetype-devel gcc-c++ git glib2-devel gperf \
    harfbuzz-devel libOSMesa-devel libXcursor-devel libXi-devel libXmu-devel libXrandr-devel libopenssl-devel \
    python-pip python-virtualenv rpm-build glu-devel ccache
```
#### On Arch Linux

``` sh
sudo pacman -S --needed base-devel git python2 python2-virtualenv python2-pip mesa cmake bzip2 libxmu glu \
    pkg-config ttf-fira-sans harfbuzz ccache
```
#### On Gentoo Linux

```sh
sudo emerge net-misc/curl \
    media-libs/freetype media-libs/mesa dev-util/gperf \
    dev-python/virtualenv dev-python/pip dev-libs/openssl \
    x11-libs/libXmu media-libs/glu x11-base/xorg-server \
    media-libs/harfbuzz dev-util/ccache
```
#### On Windows (MSVC)

1. Install Python for Windows (https://www.python.org/downloads/release/python-2714/). The Windows x86-64 MSI installer is fine.
You should change the installation to install the "Add python.exe to Path" feature.

2. Install virtualenv.

 In a normal Windows Shell (cmd.exe or "Command Prompt" from the start menu), do:
 ```
pip install virtualenv
```
 If this does not work, you may need to reboot for the changed PATH settings (by the python installer) to take effect.

3. Install Git for Windows (https://git-scm.com/download/win). DO allow it to add git.exe to the PATH (default
settings for the installer are fine).

4. Install Visual Studio Community 2017 (https://www.visualstudio.com/vs/community/). You MUST add "Visual C++" to the
list of installed components. It is not on by default. Visual Studio 2017 MUST installed to the default location or mach.bat will not find it.
> If you encountered errors with the environment above, do the following for a workaround:
> 1.  Download and install [Build Tools for Visual Studio 2017](https://www.visualstudio.com/thank-you-downloading-visual-studio/?sku=BuildTools&rel=15)
> 2.  Install `python2.7 x86-x64` and `virtualenv`
> 3.  Run `mach.bat build -d`.

>If you have troubles with `x64 type` prompt as `mach.bat` set by default:
> 1. you may need to choose and launch the type manually, such as `x86_x64 Cross Tools Command Prompt for VS 2017` in the Windows menu.)
> 2. `cd to/the/path/servo`
> 3. `python mach build -d`

#### Cross-compilation for Android

Pre-installed Android tools are needed. See wiki for
[details](https://github.com/servo/servo/wiki/Building-for-Android)

## The Rust compiler

Servo's build system uses rustup.rs to automatically download a Rust compiler.
This is a specific version of Rust Nightly determined by the
[`rust-toolchain`](https://github.com/servo/servo/blob/master/rust-toolchain) file.

## Building

Servo is built with [Cargo](https://crates.io/), the Rust package manager. We also use Mozilla's
Mach tools to orchestrate the build and other tasks.

### Normal build

To build Servo in development mode.  This is useful for development, but
the resulting binary is very slow.

``` sh
git clone https://github.com/servo/servo
cd servo
./mach build --dev
./mach run tests/html/about-mozilla.html
```

Or on Windows MSVC, in a normal Command Prompt (cmd.exe):
``` cmd
git clone https://github.com/servo/servo
cd servo
mach.bat build --dev
```

For benchmarking, performance testing, or
real-world use, add the `--release` flag to create an optimized build:

``` sh
./mach build --release
./mach run --release tests/html/about-mozilla.html
```

### Checking for build errors, without building

If you’re making changes to one crate that cause build errors in another crate,
consider this instead of a full build:

```sh
./mach check
```

It will run `cargo check`, which runs the analysis phase of the compiler
(and so shows build errors if any) but skips the code generation phase.
This can be a lot faster than a full build,
though of course it doesn’t produce a binary you can run.

### Building for Android target

``` sh
git clone https://github.com/servo/servo
cd servo

export ANDROID_SDK="/path/to/sdk"
export ANDROID_NDK="/path/to/ndk"
export ANDROID_TOOLCHAIN="/path/to/toolchain"
export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/toolchain/bin"

./mach build --release --android
./mach package --release --android
```

Rather than setting the `ANDROID_*` environment variables every time, you can
also create a `.servobuild` file and then edit it to contain the correct paths
to the Android SDK/NDK tools:

```
cp servobuild.example .servobuild
# edit .servobuild
```

## Running

Run Servo with the command:

```sh
./servo [url] [arguments] # if you run with nightly build
./mach run [url] [arguments] # if you run with mach

# For example
./mach run https://www.google.com
```

### Commandline Arguments

- `-p INTERVAL` turns on the profiler and dumps info to the console every
  `INTERVAL` seconds
- `-s SIZE` sets the tile size for painting; defaults to 512
- `-z` disables all graphical output; useful for running JS / layout tests
- `-Z help` displays useful output to debug servo

### Keyboard Shortcuts

- `Ctrl`+`-` zooms out
- `Ctrl`+`=` zooms in
- `Alt`+`left arrow` goes backwards in the history
- `Alt`+`right arrow` goes forwards in the history
- `Esc` exits servo

## Developing

There are lots of mach commands you can use. You can list them with `./mach
--help`.


The generated documentation can be found on http://doc.servo.org/servo/index.html