author pekka.vanhoja
Sat, 19 Apr 2008 19:04:37 +0300
changeset 16868 d20ffc75a75efb886f6e6f1555b1cc2744bfbb7f
parent 14350 0681c39e0c6b60f6e5e6c0d5e5aa5d19b50a7376
child 14427 93a03ade08e74fa6ef05cfa60993f307b9daac4d
permissions -rw-r--r--
Updated nsLookAndFeel implementation

** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
** version  By combining all the individual C code files into this 
** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a one translation
** unit.  This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
** possible if the files were compiled separately.  Performance improvements
** of 5% are more are commonly seen when SQLite is compiled as a single
** translation unit.
** This file is all you need to compile SQLite.  To use SQLite in other
** programs, you need this file and the "sqlite3.h" header file that defines
** the programming interface to the SQLite library.  (If you do not have 
** the "sqlite3.h" header file at hand, you will find a copy in the first
** 3840 lines past this header comment.)  Additional code files may be
** needed if you want a wrapper to interface SQLite with your choice of
** programming language.  The code for the "sqlite3" command-line shell
** is also in a separate file.  This file contains only code for the core
** SQLite library.
** This amalgamation was generated on 2008-04-11 06:58:05 UTC.
# define SQLITE_PRIVATE static
#ifndef SQLITE_API
# define SQLITE_API
/************** Begin file sqliteInt.h ***************************************/
** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
** @(#) $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

** The macro unlikely() is a hint that surrounds a boolean
** expression that is usually false.  Macro likely() surrounds
** a boolean expression that is usually true.  GCC is able to
** use these hints to generate better code, sometimes.
#if defined(__GNUC__)
# define likely(X)    __builtin_expect((X),1)
# define unlikely(X)  __builtin_expect((X),0)
# define likely(X)    !!(X)
# define unlikely(X)  !!(X)

** These #defines should enable >2GB file support on Posix if the
** underlying operating system supports it.  If the OS lacks
** large file support, or if the OS is windows, these should be no-ops.
** Ticket #2739:  The _LARGEFILE_SOURCE macro must appear before any
** system #includes.  Hence, this block of code must be the very first
** code in all source files.
** Large file support can be disabled using the -DSQLITE_DISABLE_LFS switch
** on the compiler command line.  This is necessary if you are compiling
** on a recent machine (ex: RedHat 7.2) but you want your code to work
** on an older machine (ex: RedHat 6.0).  If you compile on RedHat 7.2
** without this option, LFS is enable.  But LFS does not exist in the kernel
** in RedHat 6.0, so the code won't work.  Hence, for maximum binary
** portability you should omit LFS.
** Similar is true for MacOS.  LFS is only supported on MacOS 9 and later.
# define _LARGE_FILE       1
#   define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
# endif

/************** Include sqliteLimit.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***********/
/************** Begin file sqliteLimit.h *************************************/
** 2007 May 7
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This file defines various limits of what SQLite can process.
** @(#) $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $

** The maximum length of a TEXT or BLOB in bytes.   This also
** limits the size of a row in a table or index.
** The hard limit is the ability of a 32-bit signed integer
** to count the size: 2^31-1 or 2147483647.
# define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH 1000000000

** This is the maximum number of
**    * Columns in a table
**    * Columns in an index
**    * Columns in a view
**    * Terms in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement
**    * Terms in the result set of a SELECT statement
**    * Terms in the GROUP BY or ORDER BY clauses of a SELECT statement.
**    * Terms in the VALUES clause of an INSERT statement
** The hard upper limit here is 32676.  Most database people will
** tell you that in a well-normalized database, you usually should
** not have more than a dozen or so columns in any table.  And if
** that is the case, there is no point in having more than a few
** dozen values in any of the other situations described above.
# define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN 2000

** The maximum length of a single SQL statement in bytes.
** A value of zero means there is no limit.

** The maximum depth of an expression tree. This is limited to 
** some extent by SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH. But sometime you might 
** want to place more severe limits on the complexity of an 
** expression. A value of 0 (the default) means do not enforce
** any limitation on expression tree depth.

** The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.
** The code generator for compound SELECT statements does one
** level of recursion for each term.  A stack overflow can result
** if the number of terms is too large.  In practice, most SQL
** never has more than 3 or 4 terms.  Use a value of 0 to disable
** any limit on the number of terms in a compount SELECT.

** The maximum number of opcodes in a VDBE program.
** Not currently enforced.
# define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP 25000

** The maximum number of arguments to an SQL function.

** The maximum number of in-memory pages to use for the main database
** table and for temporary tables.  The SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE

** The maximum number of attached databases.  This must be at least 2
** in order to support the main database file (0) and the file used to
** hold temporary tables (1).  And it must be less than 32 because
** we use a bitmask of databases with a u32 in places (for example
** the Parse.cookieMask field).

** The maximum value of a ?nnn wildcard that the parser will accept.

/* Maximum page size.  The upper bound on this value is 32768.  This a limit
** imposed by the necessity of storing the value in a 2-byte unsigned integer
** and the fact that the page size must be a power of 2.
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE 32768

** The default size of a database page.

** Ordinarily, if no value is explicitly provided, SQLite creates databases
** with page size SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE. However, based on certain
** device characteristics (sector-size and atomic write() support),
** SQLite may choose a larger value. This constant is the maximum value
** SQLite will choose on its own.

** Maximum number of pages in one database file.
** This is really just the default value for the max_page_count pragma.
** This value can be lowered (or raised) at run-time using that the
** max_page_count macro.
# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT 1073741823

** Maximum length (in bytes) of the pattern in a LIKE or GLOB
** operator.

/************** End of sqliteLimit.h *****************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

** For testing purposes, the various size limit constants are really
** variables that we can modify in the testfixture.

  #define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH              sqlite3MAX_LENGTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN              sqlite3MAX_COLUMN
  #define SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH          sqlite3MAX_SQL_LENGTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH          sqlite3MAX_EXPR_DEPTH
  #define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP             sqlite3MAX_VDBE_OP
  #define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE           sqlite3MAX_PAGE_SIZE
  #define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT          sqlite3MAX_PAGE_COUNT

  extern int sqlite3MAX_LENGTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_COLUMN;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_SQL_LENGTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_EXPR_DEPTH;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_COMPOUND_SELECT;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_VDBE_OP;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_FUNCTION_ARG;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_PAGE_SIZE;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_PAGE_COUNT;
  extern int sqlite3MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH;

** The SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro must be defined as either 0 or 1.
** Older versions of SQLite used an optional THREADSAFE macro.
** We support that for legacy
#if defined(THREADSAFE)

** We need to define _XOPEN_SOURCE as follows in order to enable
** recursive mutexes on most unix systems.  But Mac OS X is different.
** The _XOPEN_SOURCE define causes problems for Mac OS X we are told,
** so it is omitted there.  See ticket #2673.
** Later we learn that _XOPEN_SOURCE is poorly or incorrectly
** implemented on some systems.  So we avoid defining it at all
** if it is already defined or if it is unneeded because we are
** not doing a threadsafe build.  Ticket #2681.
** See also ticket #2741.
#if !defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE) && !defined(__DARWIN__) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE
#  define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500  /* Needed to enable pthread recursive mutexes */

#if defined(SQLITE_TCL) || defined(TCLSH)
# include <tcl.h>

** Many people are failing to set -DNDEBUG=1 when compiling SQLite.
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and run faster.  So the following
** lines are added to automatically set NDEBUG unless the -DSQLITE_DEBUG=1
** option is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1

/************** Include sqlite3.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***************/
/************** Begin file sqlite3.h *****************************************/
** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
** presents to client programs.  If a C-function, structure, datatype,
** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
** "experimental".  Experimental interfaces are normally new
** features recently added to SQLite.  We do not anticipate changes 
** to experimental interfaces but reserve to make minor changes if
** experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
** from comments in this file.  This file is the authoritative source
** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
** part of the build process.
** @(#) $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $
#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
#define _SQLITE3_H_
#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */

** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
#if 0
extern "C" {

** Add the ability to override 'extern'
# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern

** Make sure these symbols where not defined by some previous header
** file.

** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers {F10010}
** {F10011} The #define in the sqlite3.h header file named
** SQLITE_VERSION resolves to a string literal that identifies
** the version of the SQLite library in the format "X.Y.Z", where
** X is the major version number, Y is the minor version number and Z
** is the release number.  The X.Y.Z might be followed by "alpha" or "beta".
** {END} For example "3.1.1beta".
** The X value is always 3 in SQLite.  The X value only changes when
** backwards compatibility is broken and we intend to never break
** backwards compatibility.  The Y value only changes when
** there are major feature enhancements that are forwards compatible
** but not backwards compatible.  The Z value is incremented with
** each release but resets back to 0 when Y is incremented.
** {F10014} The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER #define resolves to an integer
** with the value  (X*1000000 + Y*1000 + Z) where X, Y, and Z are as
** with SQLITE_VERSION. {END} For example, for version "3.1.1beta", 
** SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER is set to 3001001. To detect if they are using 
** version 3.1.1 or greater at compile time, programs may use the test 
** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()] and [sqlite3_libversion_number()].
#define SQLITE_VERSION         ""

** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers {F10020}
** {F10021} The sqlite3_libversion_number() interface returns an integer
** equal to [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER].  {END} The value returned
** by this routine should only be different from the header values
** if the application is compiled using an sqlite3.h header from a
** different version of SQLite than library.  Cautious programmers might
** include a check in their application to verify that 
** sqlite3_libversion_number() always returns the value 
** {F10022} The sqlite3_version[] string constant contains the text of the
** [SQLITE_VERSION] string. {F10023} The sqlite3_libversion() function returns
** a pointer to the sqlite3_version[] string constant. {END} The 
** sqlite3_libversion() function
** is provided for DLL users who can only access functions and not
** constants within the DLL.
SQLITE_EXTERN const char sqlite3_version[];
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_libversion(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_libversion_number(void);

** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe {F10100}
** {F10101} The sqlite3_threadsafe() routine returns nonzero
** if SQLite was compiled with its mutexes enabled or zero if
** SQLite was compiled with mutexes disabled. {END}  If this
** routine returns false, then it is not safe for simultaneously
** running threads to both invoke SQLite interfaces.
** Really all this routine does is return true if SQLite was
** compiled with the -DSQLITE_THREADSAFE=1 option and false if
** compiled with -DSQLITE_THREADSAFE=0.  If SQLite uses an
** application-defined mutex subsystem, malloc subsystem, collating
** sequence, VFS, SQL function, progress callback, commit hook,
** extension, or other accessories and these add-ons are not
** threadsafe, then clearly the combination will not be threadsafe
** either.  Hence, this routine never reports that the library
** is guaranteed to be threadsafe, only when it is guaranteed not
** to be.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_threadsafe(void);

** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle {F12000}
** Each open SQLite database is represented by pointer to an instance of the
** opaque structure named "sqlite3".  It is useful to think of an sqlite3
** pointer as an object.  The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors
** and [sqlite3_close()] is its destructor.  There are many other interfaces
** (such as [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on this
** object.
typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;

** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types {F10200}
** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify such types
** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
** {F10201} The sqlite_int64 and sqlite3_int64 types specify a
** 64-bit signed integer. {F10202} The sqlite_uint64 and
** sqlite3_uint64 types specify a 64-bit unsigned integer. {END}
** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type
** definitions.  The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are
** supported for backwards compatibility only.
  typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
  typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
  typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
  typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;

** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
# define double sqlite3_int64

** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection {F12010}
** {F12011} The sqlite3_close() interfaces destroys an [sqlite3] object
** allocated by a prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or
** [sqlite3_open_v2()]. {F12012} Sqlite3_close() releases all
** memory used by the connection and closes all open files. {END}.
** {F12013} If the database connection contains
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statements] that have not been finalized
** by [sqlite3_finalize()], then sqlite3_close() returns SQLITE_BUSY
** and leaves the connection open.  {F12014} Giving sqlite3_close()
** a NULL pointer is a harmless no-op. {END}
** {U12015} Passing this routine a database connection that has already been
** closed results in undefined behavior. {U12016} If other interfaces that
** reference the same database connection are pending (either in the
** same thread or in different threads) when this routine is called,
** then the behavior is undefined and is almost certainly undesirable.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_close(sqlite3 *);

** The type for a callback function.
** This is legacy and deprecated.  It is included for historical
** compatibility and is not documented.
typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);

** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface {F12100}
** {F12101} The sqlite3_exec() interface evaluates zero or more 
** UTF-8 encoded, semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated
** string of its second argument.  {F12102} The SQL
** statements are evaluated in the context of the database connection
** specified by in the first argument.
** {F12103} SQL statements are prepared one by one using
** [sqlite3_prepare()] or the equivalent, evaluated
** using one or more calls to [sqlite3_step()], then destroyed
** using [sqlite3_finalize()]. {F12104} The return value of
** sqlite3_exec() is SQLITE_OK if all SQL statement run
** successfully.
** {F12105} If one or more of the SQL statements handed to
** sqlite3_exec() are queries, then
** the callback function specified by the 3rd parameter is
** invoked once for each row of the query result. {F12106}
** If the callback returns a non-zero value then the query
** is aborted, all subsequent SQL statements
** are skipped and the sqlite3_exec() function returns the [SQLITE_ABORT].
** {F12107} The 4th parameter to sqlite3_exec() is an arbitrary pointer
** that is passed through to the callback function as its first parameter.
** {F12108} The 2nd parameter to the callback function is the number of
** columns in the query result.  {F12109} The 3rd parameter to the callback
** is an array of pointers to strings holding the values for each column
** as extracted using [sqlite3_column_text()].  NULL values in the result
** set result in a NULL pointer.  All other value are in their UTF-8
** string representation. {F12117}
** The 4th parameter to the callback is an array of strings
** obtained using [sqlite3_column_name()] and holding
** the names of each column, also in UTF-8.
** {F12110} The callback function may be NULL, even for queries.  A NULL
** callback is not an error.  It just means that no callback
** will be invoked. 
** {F12112} If an error occurs while parsing or evaluating the SQL
** then an appropriate error message is written into memory obtained
** from [sqlite3_malloc()] and *errmsg is made to point to that message
** assuming errmsg is not NULL.  
** {U12113} The calling function is responsible for freeing the memory
** using [sqlite3_free()].
** {F12116} If [sqlite3_malloc()] fails while attempting to generate
** the error message, *errmsg is set to NULL.
** {F12114} If errmsg is NULL then no attempt is made to generate an
** error message. <todo>Is the return code SQLITE_NOMEM or the original
** error code?</todo> <todo>What happens if there are multiple errors?
** Do we get code for the first error, or is the choice of reported
** error arbitrary?</todo>
** {F12115} The return value is is SQLITE_OK if there are no errors and
** some other [SQLITE_OK | return code] if there is an error.  
** The particular return value depends on the type of error.  {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_exec(
  sqlite3*,                                  /* An open database */
  const char *sql,                           /* SQL to be evaluted */
  int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**),  /* Callback function */
  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */

** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {F10210}
** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
** above in order to indicates success or failure.
** {F10211} The result codes shown here are the only ones returned 
** by SQLite in its default configuration. {F10212} However, the
** [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()] API can be used to set a database
** connectoin to return more detailed result codes. {END}
** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
/* beginning-of-error-codes */
#define SQLITE_ERROR        1   /* SQL error or missing database */
#define SQLITE_INTERNAL     2   /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
#define SQLITE_PERM         3   /* Access permission denied */
#define SQLITE_ABORT        4   /* Callback routine requested an abort */
#define SQLITE_BUSY         5   /* The database file is locked */
#define SQLITE_LOCKED       6   /* A table in the database is locked */
#define SQLITE_NOMEM        7   /* A malloc() failed */
#define SQLITE_READONLY     8   /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT    9   /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
#define SQLITE_IOERR       10   /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
#define SQLITE_CORRUPT     11   /* The database disk image is malformed */
#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND    12   /* NOT USED. Table or record not found */
#define SQLITE_FULL        13   /* Insertion failed because database is full */
#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN    14   /* Unable to open the database file */
#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL    15   /* NOT USED. Database lock protocol error */
#define SQLITE_EMPTY       16   /* Database is empty */
#define SQLITE_SCHEMA      17   /* The database schema changed */
#define SQLITE_TOOBIG      18   /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT  19   /* Abort due to constraint violation */
#define SQLITE_MISMATCH    20   /* Data type mismatch */
#define SQLITE_MISUSE      21   /* Library used incorrectly */
#define SQLITE_NOLFS       22   /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
#define SQLITE_AUTH        23   /* Authorization denied */
#define SQLITE_FORMAT      24   /* Auxiliary database format error */
#define SQLITE_RANGE       25   /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
#define SQLITE_NOTADB      26   /* File opened that is not a database file */
#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
/* end-of-error-codes */

** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {F10220}
** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that
** many of these result codes are too course-grained.  They do not provide as
** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
** about errors. {F10221} The extended result codes are enabled or disabled
** for each database connection using the [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()]
** API. {END}
** Some of the available extended result codes are listed above.
** We expect the number of extended result codes will be expand
** over time.  {U10422} Software that uses extended result codes should expect
** to see new result codes in future releases of SQLite. {END}
** {F10223} The symbolic name for an extended result code always contains
** a related primary result code as a prefix. {F10224} Primary result
** codes contain a single "_" character.  {F10225} Extended result codes
** contain two or more "_" characters. {F10226} The numeric value of an
** extended result code can be converted to its
** corresponding primary result code by masking off the lower 8 bytes. {END}
** The SQLITE_OK result code will never be extended.  It will always
** be exactly zero.
#define SQLITE_IOERR_READ          (SQLITE_IOERR | (1<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_WRITE         (SQLITE_IOERR | (3<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSYNC         (SQLITE_IOERR | (4<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT         (SQLITE_IOERR | (7<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK        (SQLITE_IOERR | (8<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK        (SQLITE_IOERR | (9<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE        (SQLITE_IOERR | (10<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED       (SQLITE_IOERR | (11<<8))
#define SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM         (SQLITE_IOERR | (12<<8))

** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations {F10230}
** {F10231} Some combination of the these bit values are used as the
** third argument to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
** as fourth argument to the xOpen method of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object.
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY         0x00000001
#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE        0x00000002
#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE           0x00000004
#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE    0x00000008
#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB          0x00000100
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB          0x00000200
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB     0x00000400
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL     0x00000800
#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL     0x00001000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL       0x00002000
#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL   0x00004000

** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics {F10240}
** {F10241} The xDeviceCapabilities method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** object returns an integer which is a vector of the these
** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
** refers to. {END}
** {F10242} The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  {F10243} The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  {F10244} The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  {F10245} The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC          0x00000001
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512       0x00000002
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K        0x00000004
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K        0x00000008
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K        0x00000010
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K        0x00000020
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K       0x00000040
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K       0x00000080
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K       0x00000100
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND     0x00000200
#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL      0x00000400

** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels {F10250}
** {F10251} SQLite uses one of the following integer values as the second
** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object. {END}
#define SQLITE_LOCK_NONE          0
#define SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED        1
#define SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING       3

** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags {F10260}
** {F10261} When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of the
** these integer values as the second argument.
** {F10262} When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage.  Inode
** information need not be flushed. {F10263} The SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL means 
** to use normal fsync() semantics. {F10264} The SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flag means 
** to use Mac OS-X style fullsync instead of fsync().
#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL        0x00002
#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL          0x00003
#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY      0x00010

** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle {F11110}
** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the OS
** interface layer.  Individual OS interface implementations will
** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
** for their own use.  The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
** I/O operations on the open file.
typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
struct sqlite3_file {
  const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods;  /* Methods for an open file */

** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object {F11120}
** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs] xOpen method contains a pointer to
** an instance of the this object.  This object defines the
** methods used to perform various operations against the open file.
** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL].  The first choice is the normal fsync().
*  The second choice is an
** OS-X style fullsync.  The SQLITE_SYNC_DATA flag may be ORed in to
** indicate that only the data of the file and not its inode needs to be
** synced.
** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
** <ul>
** </ul>
** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.  
** The xCheckReservedLock() method looks
** to see if any database connection, either in this
** process or in some other process, is holding an RESERVED,
** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file.  It returns true
** if such a lock exists and false if not.
** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface.  The second "op" argument
** is an integer opcode.   The third
** argument is a generic pointer which is intended to be a pointer
** to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
** write return values.  Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks.  The SQLite
** core reserves opcodes less than 100 for its own use. 
** A [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes 
** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts.
** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
** device that underlies the file.  The sector size is the
** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
** other bytes in the file.  The xDeviceCharacteristics()
** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
** underlying device:
** <ul>
** </ul>
** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
** any size are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
** nnn are atomic.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
** way around.  The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
** to xWrite().
typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
struct sqlite3_io_methods {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
  int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
  int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
  int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
  int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
  int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
  int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
  /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */

** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes {F11310}
** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and to the [sqlite3_file_control()]
** interface.
** {F11311} The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging.  This
** opcode cases the xFileControl method to write the current state of
** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. {F11312} This capability
** is used during testing and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST
** is defined.

** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle {F17110}
** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
** abstract type for a mutex object.  {F17111} The SQLite core never looks
** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex]. {END} It only
** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;

** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object {F11140}
** An instance of this object defines the interface between the
** SQLite core and the underlying operating system.  The "vfs"
** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system".
** The iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger for future
** versions of SQLite.  Additional fields may be appended to this
** object when the iVersion value is increased.
** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
** structure used by this VFS.  mxPathname is the maximum length of
** a pathname in this VFS.
** Registered vfs modules are kept on a linked list formed by
** the pNext pointer.  The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
** in a thread-safe way.  The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
** searches the list.
** The pNext field is the only fields in the sqlite3_vfs 
** structure that SQLite will ever modify.  SQLite will only access
** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
** object once the object has been registered.
** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module.  The name must
** be unique across all VFS modules.
** {F11141} SQLite will guarantee that the zFilename string passed to
** xOpen() is a full pathname as generated by xFullPathname() and
** that the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
** called.  {END} So the [sqlite3_file] can store a pointer to the
** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
** {F11142} The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()].  Or if [sqlite3_open()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY].  Other bits in *pOutFlags may be
** set.
** {F11143} SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
** call, depending on the object being opened:
** <ul>
** </ul> {END}
** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
** changes the way it deals with files.  For example, an application
** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback, might make
** the open of a journal file a no-op.  Writes to this journal are
** also a no-op.  Any attempt to read the journal return SQLITE_IOERR.
** Or the implementation might recognize the a database file will
** be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random order
** and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
** {F11144} SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen
** method:
** <ul>
** </ul>
** {F11145} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
** deleted when it is closed.  {F11146} The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
** will be set for TEMP  databases, journals and for subjournals. 
** {F11147} The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag means the file should be opened
** for exclusive access.  This flag is set for all files except
** for the main database file. {END}
** {F11148} At least szOsFile bytes of memory is allocated by SQLite 
** to hold the  [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third 
** argument to xOpen.  {END}  The xOpen method does not have to
** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in.
** {F11149} The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS] 
** to test for the existance of a file,
** or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to test to see
** if a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
** to test to see if a file is at least readable.  {END} The file can be a 
** directory.
** {F11150} SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 byte for
** the output buffers for xGetTempname and xFullPathname. {F11151} The exact
** size of the output buffer is also passed as a parameter to both 
** methods. {END} If the output buffer is not large enough, SQLITE_CANTOPEN
** should be returned. As this is handled as a fatal error by SQLite,
** vfs implementations should endeavor to prevent this by setting 
** mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), and xCurrentTime() interfaces
** are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
** of good-quality randomness into zOut.  The return value is
** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.  The
** xSleep() method cause the calling thread to sleep for at
** least the number of microseconds given.  The xCurrentTime()
** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and
** time.
typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
struct sqlite3_vfs {
  int iVersion;            /* Structure version number */
  int szOsFile;            /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
  int mxPathname;          /* Maximum file pathname length */
  sqlite3_vfs *pNext;      /* Next registered VFS */
  const char *zName;       /* Name of this virtual file system */
  void *pAppData;          /* Pointer to application-specific data */
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
               int flags, int *pOutFlags);
  int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
  int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags);
  int (*xGetTempname)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nOut, char *zOut);
  int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
  void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
  void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
  void *(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol);
  void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
  int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
  int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
  int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
  /* New fields may be appended in figure versions.  The iVersion
  ** value will increment whenever this happens. */

** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method {F11190}
** {F11191} These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}  They determine
** the kind of what kind of permissions the xAccess method is
** looking for.  {F11192} With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
** simply checks to see if the file exists. {F11193} With
** SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method checks to see
** if the file is both readable and writable.  {F11194} With
** SQLITE_ACCESS_READ the xAccess method
** checks to see if the file is readable.
#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ      2

** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {F12200}
** {F12201} The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes] feature on a database
** connection if its 2nd parameter is
** non-zero or zero, respectively. {F12202}
** By default, SQLite API routines return one of only 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  {F12203} When extended result codes
** are enabled by this routine, the repetoire of result codes can be
** much larger and can (hopefully) provide more detailed information
** about the cause of an error.
** {F12204} The second argument is a boolean value that turns extended result
** codes on and off. {F12205} Extended result codes are off by default for
** backwards compatibility with older versions of SQLite.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);

** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid {F12220}
** {F12221} Each entry in an SQLite table has a unique 64-bit signed
** integer key called the "rowid".  {F12222} The rowid is always available
** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. {F12223} If
** the table has a column of type INTEGER PRIMARY KEY then that column
** is another an alias for the rowid.
** {F12224} This routine returns the rowid of the most recent
** successful INSERT into the database from the database connection
** shown in the first argument.  {F12225} If no successful inserts
** have ever occurred on this database connection, zero is returned.
** {F12226} If an INSERT occurs within a trigger, then the rowid of the
** inserted row is returned by this routine as long as the trigger
** is running.  {F12227} But once the trigger terminates, the value returned
** by this routine reverts to the last value inserted before the
** trigger fired.
** {F12228} An INSERT that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
** successful insert and does not change the value returned by this
** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
** routine when their insertion fails.  {F12231} When INSERT OR REPLACE 
** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail.  The
** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
** the return value of this interface. 
** {UF12232} If another thread does a new insert on the same database connection
** while this routine is running and thus changes the last insert rowid,
** then the return value of this routine is undefined.
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified {F12240}
** {F12241} This function returns the number of database rows that were changed
** or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed SQL statement
** on the connection specified by the first parameter. {F12242} Only
** changes that are directly specified by the INSERT, UPDATE, or
** DELETE statement are counted.  Auxiliary changes caused by
** triggers are not counted. {F12243} Use the [sqlite3_total_changes()] function
** to find the total number of changes including changes caused by triggers.
** {F12244} Within the body of a trigger, the sqlite3_changes() interface
** can be called to find the number of
** changes in the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
** statement within the body of the same trigger.
** {F12245} All changes are counted, even if they are later undone by a
** ROLLBACK or ABORT.  {F12246} Except, changes associated with creating and
** dropping tables are not counted.
** {F12247} If a callback invokes [sqlite3_exec()] or [sqlite3_step()]
** recursively, then the changes in the inner, recursive call are
** counted together with the changes in the outer call.
** {F12248} SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without
** a WHERE clause by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much
** faster than going through and deleting individual elements from the
** table.)  Because of this optimization, the change count for 
** "DELETE FROM table" will be zero regardless of the number of elements
** that were originally in the table. {F12251} To get an accurate count
** of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
** {UF12252} If another thread makes changes on the same database connection
** while this routine is running then the return value of this routine
** is undefined.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified {F12260}
** {F12261} This function returns the number of database rows that have been
** modified by INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statements since the database handle
** was opened. {F12262} The count includes UPDATE, INSERT and DELETE 
** statements executed as part of trigger programs.  {F12263} All changes
** are counted as soon as the statement that makes them is completed 
** (when the statement handle is passed to [sqlite3_reset()] or 
** [sqlite3_finalize()]). {END}
** See also the [sqlite3_change()] interface.
** {F12265} SQLite implements the command "DELETE FROM table" without
** a WHERE clause by dropping and recreating the table.  (This is much
** faster than going
** through and deleting individual elements form the table.)  Because of
** this optimization, the change count for "DELETE FROM table" will be
** zero regardless of the number of elements that were originally in the
** table. To get an accurate count of the number of rows deleted, use
** "DELETE FROM table WHERE 1" instead.
** {U12264} If another thread makes changes on the same database connection
** while this routine is running then the return value of this routine
** is undefined. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query {F12270}
** {F12271} This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
** return at its earliest opportunity. {END} This routine is typically
** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
** immediately.
** {F12272} It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
** thread that is currently running the database operation. {U12273} But it
** is not safe to call this routine with a database connection that
** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
** If an SQL is very nearly finished at the time when sqlite3_interrupt()
** is called, then it might not have an opportunity to be interrupted.
** It might continue to completion.
** {F12274} The SQL operation that is interrupted will return
** [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].  {F12275} If the interrupted SQL operation is an
** INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE that is inside an explicit transaction, 
** then the entire transaction will be rolled back automatically.
** {F12276} A call to sqlite3_interrupt() has no effect on SQL statements
** that are started after sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete {F10510}
** These routines are useful for command-line input to determine if the
** currently entered text seems to form complete a SQL statement or
** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
** SQLite for parsing.  These routines return true if the input string
** appears to be a complete SQL statement.  A statement is judged to be
** complete if it ends with a semicolon and is not a fragment of a
** CREATE TRIGGER statement.  These routines do not parse the SQL and
** so will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
** {F10511} These functions return true if the given input string 
** ends with a semicolon optionally followed by whitespace or
** comments. {F10512} For sqlite3_complete(),
** the parameter must be a zero-terminated UTF-8 string. {F10513} For
** sqlite3_complete16(), a zero-terminated machine byte order UTF-16 string
** is required.  {F10514} These routines return false if the terminal
** semicolon is within a comment, a string literal or a quoted identifier
** (in other words if the final semicolon is not really a separate token
** but part of a larger token) or if the final semicolon is
** in between the BEGIN and END keywords of a CREATE TRIGGER statement.
** {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);

** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors {F12310}
** {F12311} This routine identifies a callback function that might be
** invoked whenever an attempt is made to open a database table 
** that another thread or process has locked.
** {F12312} If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY]
** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock.
** {F12313} If the busy callback is not NULL, then the
** callback will be invoked with two arguments.  {F12314} The
** first argument to the handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
** is the third argument to this routine.  {F12315} The second argument to
** the handler is the number of times that the busy handler has
** been invoked for this locking event.  {F12316} If the
** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] is returned.
** {F12317} If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
** is made to open the database for reading and the cycle repeats.
** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that
** it will be invoked when there is lock contention. {F12319}
** If SQLite determines that invoking the busy handler could result in
** a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED] instead of invoking the
** busy handler. {END}
** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
** to promote to an exclusive lock.  The first process cannot proceed
** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
** proceed because it is blocked by the first.  If both processes
** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress.  Therefore,
** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
** the second process to proceed.
** {F12321} The default busy callback is NULL. {END}
** {F12322} The [SQLITE_BUSY] error is converted to [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED]
** when SQLite is in the middle of a large transaction where all the
** changes will not fit into the in-memory cache.  {F12323} SQLite will
** already hold a RESERVED lock on the database file, but it needs
** to promote this lock to EXCLUSIVE so that it can spill cache
** pages into the database file without harm to concurrent
** readers.  {F12324} If it is unable to promote the lock, then the in-memory
** cache will be left in an inconsistent state and so the error
** code is promoted from the relatively benign [SQLITE_BUSY] to
** the more severe [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].  {F12325} This error code promotion
** forces an automatic rollback of the changes. {END} See the
** <a href="http://www.sqlite.org/cvstrac/wiki?p=CorruptionFollowingBusyError">
** CorruptionFollowingBusyError</a> wiki page for a discussion of why
** this is important.
** {F12326} Sqlite is re-entrant, so the busy handler may start a new
** query. {END} (It is not clear why anyone would every want to do this,
** but it is allowed, in theory.) {U12327} But the busy handler may not
** close the database.  Closing the database from a busy handler will delete 
** data structures out from under the executing query and will 
** probably result in a segmentation fault or other runtime error. {END}
** {F12328} There can only be a single busy handler defined for each database
** connection.  Setting a new busy handler clears any previous one. 
** {F12329} Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] will also set or clear
** the busy handler.
** {F12331} When operating in [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache | shared cache mode],
** only a single busy handler can be defined for each database file.
** So if two database connections share a single cache, then changing
** the busy handler on one connection will also change the busy
** handler in the other connection.  {F12332} The busy handler is invoked
** in the thread that was running when the lock contention occurs.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);

** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout {F12340}
** {F12341} This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler]
** that sleeps for a while when a
** table is locked.  {F12342} The handler will sleep multiple times until 
** at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping have been done. {F12343} After
** "ms" milliseconds of sleeping, the handler returns 0 which
** causes [sqlite3_step()] to return [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_IOERR_BLOCKED].
** {F12344} Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
** turns off all busy handlers.
** {F12345} There can only be a single busy handler for a particular database
** connection.  If another busy handler was defined  
** (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);

** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries {F12370}
** This next routine is a convenience wrapper around [sqlite3_exec()].
** {F12371} Instead of invoking a user-supplied callback for each row of the
** result, this routine remembers each row of the result in memory
** obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()], then returns all of the result after the
** query has finished. {F12372}
** As an example, suppose the query result where this table:
** <blockquote><pre>
**        Name        | Age
**        -----------------------
**        Alice       | 43
**        Bob         | 28
**        Cindy       | 21
** </pre></blockquote>
** If the 3rd argument were &azResult then after the function returns
** azResult will contain the following data:
** <blockquote><pre>
**        azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
**        azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
**        azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
**        azResult&#91;3] = "43";
**        azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
**        azResult&#91;5] = "28";
**        azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
**        azResult&#91;7] = "21";
** </pre></blockquote>
** Notice that there is an extra row of data containing the column
** headers.  But the *nrow return value is still 3.  *ncolumn is
** set to 2.  In general, the number of values inserted into azResult
** will be ((*nrow) + 1)*(*ncolumn).
** {U12374} After the calling function has finished using the result, it should 
** pass the result data pointer to sqlite3_free_table() in order to 
** release the memory that was malloc-ed.  Because of the way the 
** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens, the calling function must not try to call 
** [sqlite3_free()] directly.  Only [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release 
** the memory properly and safely. {END}
** {F12373} The return value of this routine is the same as
** from [sqlite3_exec()].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_table(
  sqlite3*,              /* An open database */
  const char *sql,       /* SQL to be executed */
  char ***resultp,       /* Result written to a char *[]  that this points to */
  int *nrow,             /* Number of result rows written here */
  int *ncolumn,          /* Number of result columns written here */
  char **errmsg          /* Error msg written here */
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free_table(char **result);

** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions {F17400}
** These routines are workalikes of the "printf()" family of functions
** from the standard C library.
** {F17401} The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
** {U17402} The strings returned by these two routines should be
** released by [sqlite3_free()]. {F17403}  Both routines return a
** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
** memory to hold the resulting string.
** {F17404} In sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
** the standard C library.  The result is written into the
** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
** the first parameter. {END} Note that the order of the
** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().  This is an
** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
** backwards compatibility.  {F17405} Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
** characters actually written into the buffer. {END} We admit that
** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
** now without breaking compatibility.
** {F17406} As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated. {F17407} The first
** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
** the zero terminator.  {END} So the longest string that can be completely
** written will be n-1 characters.
** These routines all implement some additional formatting
** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
** All of the usual printf formatting options apply.  In addition, there
** is are "%q", "%Q", and "%z" options.
** {F17410} The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a null-terminated
** string from the argument list.  But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
** %q is designed for use inside a string literal. {END} By doubling each '\''
** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
** the string.
** For example, so some string variable contains text as follows:
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
** </pre></blockquote>
** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
** </pre></blockquote>
** This is correct.  Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
** would have looked like this:
** <blockquote><pre>
**  INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
** </pre></blockquote>
** This second example is an SQL syntax error.  As a general rule you
** should always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string 
** literal.
** {F17411} The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
** the outside of the total string.  Or if the parameter in the argument
** list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without single
** quotes) in place of the %Q option. {END}  So, for example, one could say:
** <blockquote><pre>
**  char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
**  sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
**  sqlite3_free(zSQL);
** </pre></blockquote>
** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
** {F17412} The "%z" formatting option works exactly like "%s" with the
** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string. {END}
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);

** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem {F17300}
** {F17301} The SQLite core  uses these three routines for all of its own
** internal memory allocation needs. {END}  "Core" in the previous sentence
** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation.  The
** windows VFS uses native malloc and free for some operations.
** {F17302} The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
** {F17303} If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
** memory, it returns a NULL pointer.  {F17304} If the parameter N to
** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
** a NULL pointer.
** {F17305} Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
** that it might be reused.  {F17306} The sqlite3_free() routine is
** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer.  Passing a NULL pointer
** to sqlite3_free() is harmless.  {U17307} After being freed, memory
** should neither be read nor written.  Even reading previously freed
** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
** {U17309} Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_free().
** {F17310} The sqlite3_realloc() interface attempts to resize a
** prior memory allocation to be at least N bytes, where N is the
** second parameter.  The memory allocation to be resized is the first
** parameter.  {F17311} If the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc()
** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
** sqlite3_malloc(N) where N is the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** {F17312} If the second parameter to sqlite3_realloc() is zero or
** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
** sqlite3_free(P) where P is the first parameter to sqlite3_realloc().
** {F17313} Sqlite3_realloc() returns a pointer to a memory allocation
** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if sufficient memory is unavailable.
** {F17314} If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
** by sqlite3_realloc() and the prior allocation is freed.
** {F17315} If sqlite3_realloc() returns NULL, then the prior allocation
** is not freed.
** {F17316} The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc() and sqlite3_realloc()
** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary. {END}
** {F17381} The default implementation
** of the memory allocation subsystem uses the malloc(), realloc()
** and free() provided by the standard C library. {F17382} However, if 
** SQLite is compiled with the following C preprocessor macro
** <blockquote> SQLITE_MEMORY_SIZE=<i>NNN</i> </blockquote>
** where <i>NNN</i> is an integer, then SQLite create a static
** array of at least <i>NNN</i> bytes in size and use that array
** for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs. {END}  Additional
** memory allocator options may be added in future releases.
** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
** implementation of these routines to be omitted.  That capability
** is no longer provided.  Only built-in memory allocators can be
** used.
** The windows OS interface layer calls
** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular windows
** installation.  Memory allocation errors are detected, but
** they are reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_malloc(int);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_free(void*);

** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics {F17370}
** In addition to the basic three allocation routines 
** [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()],
** the memory allocation subsystem included with the SQLite
** sources provides the interfaces shown here.
** {F17371} The sqlite3_memory_used() routine returns the
** number of bytes of memory currently outstanding (malloced but not freed).
** {F17372} The value returned by sqlite3_memory_used() includes
** any overhead added by SQLite, but not overhead added by the
** library malloc() that backs the sqlite3_malloc() implementation.
** {F17373} The sqlite3_memory_highwater() routines returns the
** maximum number of bytes that have been outstanding at any time
** since the highwater mark was last reset.
** {F17374} The byte count returned by sqlite3_memory_highwater()
** uses the same byte counting rules as sqlite3_memory_used(). {END}
** In other words, overhead added internally by SQLite is counted,
** but overhead from the underlying system malloc is not.
** {F17375} If the parameter to sqlite3_memory_highwater() is true,
** then the highwater mark is reset to the current value of
** sqlite3_memory_used() and the prior highwater mark (before the
** reset) is returned.  {F17376}  If the parameter to 
** sqlite3_memory_highwater() is zero, then the highwater mark is
** unchanged.
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_used(void);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);

** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks {F12500}
** {F12501} This routine registers a authorizer callback with a particular
** database connection, supplied in the first argument. {F12502}
** The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].  {F12503} At various
** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
** see if those actions are allowed.  The authorizer callback should
** return SQLITE_OK to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
** rejected with an error.  {F12504} If the authorizer callback returns
** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
** then [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered
** the authorizer shall
** fail with an SQLITE_ERROR error code and an appropriate error message. {END}
** When the callback returns [SQLITE_OK], that means the operation
** requested is ok.  {F12505} When the callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered the
** authorizer shall fail
** with an SQLITE_ERROR error code and an error message explaining that
** access is denied. {F12506} If the authorizer code (the 2nd parameter
** to the authorizer callback is anything other than [SQLITE_READ], then
** a return of [SQLITE_IGNORE] has the same effect as [SQLITE_DENY]. 
** If the authorizer code is [SQLITE_READ] and the callback returns
** [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the prepared statement is constructed to
** insert a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
** been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned. {END}
** {F12510} The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of
** the third parameter to the sqlite3_set_authorizer() interface.
** {F12511} The second parameter to the callback is an integer 
** [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies the particular action
** to be authorized. {END} The available action codes are
** [SQLITE_COPY | documented separately].  {F12512} The third through sixth
** parameters to the callback are zero-terminated strings that contain 
** additional details about the action to be authorized. {END}
** An authorizer is used when preparing SQL statements from an untrusted
** source, to ensure that the SQL statements do not try to access data
** that they are not allowed to see, or that they do not try to
** execute malicious statements that damage the database.  For
** example, an application may allow a user to enter arbitrary
** SQL queries for evaluation by a database.  But the application does
** not want the user to be able to make arbitrary changes to the
** database.  An authorizer could then be put in place while the
** user-entered SQL is being prepared that disallows everything
** except SELECT statements.  
** {F12520} Only a single authorizer can be in place on a database connection
** at a time.  Each call to sqlite3_set_authorizer overrides the
** previous call. {F12521}  A NULL authorizer means that no authorization
** callback is invoked.  {F12522} The default authorizer is NULL. {END}
** Note that the authorizer callback is invoked only during 
** [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants.  {F12523} Authorization is not
** performed during statement evaluation in [sqlite3_step()]. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_set_authorizer(
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*),
  void *pUserData

** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Return Codes {F12590}
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback function] must
** return either [SQLITE_OK] or one of these two constants in order
** to signal SQLite whether or not the action is permitted.  See the
** [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer documentation] for additional
** information.
#define SQLITE_DENY   1   /* Abort the SQL statement with an error */
#define SQLITE_IGNORE 2   /* Don't allow access, but don't generate an error */

** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Action Codes {F12550}
** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface registers a callback function
** that is invoked to authorizer certain SQL statement actions.  {F12551} The
** second parameter to the callback is an integer code that specifies
** what action is being authorized.  These are the integer action codes that
** the authorizer callback may be passed. {END}
** These action code values signify what kind of operation is to be 
** authorized.  {F12552} The 3rd and 4th parameters to the authorization
** callback function will be parameters or NULL depending on which of these
** codes is used as the second parameter. {F12553} The 5th parameter to the
** authorizer callback is the name of the database ("main", "temp", 
** etc.) if applicable. {F12554} The 6th parameter to the authorizer callback
** is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
** the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from 
** top-level SQL code.
/******************************************* 3rd ************ 4th ***********/
#define SQLITE_CREATE_INDEX          1   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TABLE          2   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_INDEX     3   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TABLE     4   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER   5   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_VIEW      6   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_TRIGGER        7   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VIEW           8   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DELETE                9   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_INDEX           10   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TABLE           11   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_INDEX      12   /* Index Name      Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TABLE      13   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER    14   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_VIEW       15   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DROP_TRIGGER         16   /* Trigger Name    Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VIEW            17   /* View Name       NULL            */
#define SQLITE_INSERT               18   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_PRAGMA               19   /* Pragma Name     1st arg or NULL */
#define SQLITE_READ                 20   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_SELECT               21   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_TRANSACTION          22   /* NULL            NULL            */
#define SQLITE_UPDATE               23   /* Table Name      Column Name     */
#define SQLITE_ATTACH               24   /* Filename        NULL            */
#define SQLITE_DETACH               25   /* Database Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ALTER_TABLE          26   /* Database Name   Table Name      */
#define SQLITE_REINDEX              27   /* Index Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_ANALYZE              28   /* Table Name      NULL            */
#define SQLITE_CREATE_VTABLE        29   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_DROP_VTABLE          30   /* Table Name      Module Name     */
#define SQLITE_FUNCTION             31   /* Function Name   NULL            */
#define SQLITE_COPY                  0   /* No longer used */

** CAPI3REF: Tracing And Profiling Functions {F12280}
** These routines register callback functions that can be used for
** tracing and profiling the execution of SQL statements.
** {F12281} The callback function registered by sqlite3_trace() is invoked
** at the first [sqlite3_step()] for the evaluation of an SQL statement.
** {F12282} Only a single trace callback can be registered at a time.
** Each call to sqlite3_trace() overrides the previous.  {F12283} A
** NULL callback for sqlite3_trace() disables tracing.  {F12284} The
** first argument to the trace callback is a copy of the pointer which
** was the 3rd argument to sqlite3_trace.  {F12285} The second argument
** to the trace callback is a zero-terminated UTF8 string containing
** the original text of the SQL statement as it was passed into
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or the equivalent. {END}  Note that the
** host parameter are not expanded in the SQL statement text.
** {F12287} The callback function registered by sqlite3_profile() is invoked
** as each SQL statement finishes.  {F12288} The first parameter to the
** profile callback is a copy of the 3rd parameter to sqlite3_profile().
** {F12289} The second parameter to the profile callback is a
** zero-terminated UTF-8 string that contains the complete text of
** the SQL statement as it was processed by [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or
** the equivalent.  {F12290} The third parameter to the profile 
** callback is an estimate of the number of nanoseconds of
** wall-clock time required to run the SQL statement from start
** to finish. {END}  
** The sqlite3_profile() API is currently considered experimental and
** is subject to change.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_trace(sqlite3*, void(*xTrace)(void*,const char*), void*);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_profile(sqlite3*,
   void(*xProfile)(void*,const char*,sqlite3_uint64), void*);

** CAPI3REF: Query Progress Callbacks {F12910}
** {F12911} This routine configures a callback function - the
** progress callback - that is invoked periodically during long
** running calls to [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()] and
** [sqlite3_get_table()]. {END}  An example use for this 
** interface is to keep a GUI updated during a large query.
** {F12912} The progress callback is invoked once for every N virtual
** machine opcodes, where N is the second argument to this function.
** {F12913} The progress callback itself is identified by the third
** argument to this function. {F12914} The fourth argument to this
** function is a void pointer passed to the progress callback
** function each time it is invoked. {END}
** {F12915} If a call to [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()], or
** [sqlite3_get_table()] results in fewer than N opcodes being executed,
** then the progress callback is never invoked. {END}
** {F12916} Only a single progress callback function may be registered for each
** open database connection.  Every call to sqlite3_progress_handler()
** overwrites the results of the previous call. {F12917}
** To remove the progress callback altogether, pass NULL as the third
** argument to this function. {END}
** {F12918} If the progress callback returns a result other than 0, then
** the current query is immediately terminated and any database changes
** rolled back. {F12919}
** The containing [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()], or
** [sqlite3_get_table()] call returns SQLITE_INTERRUPT. {END}  This feature
** can be used, for example, to implement the "Cancel" button on a
** progress dialog box in a GUI.
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_progress_handler(sqlite3*, int, int(*)(void*), void*);

** CAPI3REF: Opening A New Database Connection {F12700}
** {F12701} These routines open an SQLite database file whose name
** is given by the filename argument.
** {F12702} The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8
** for [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] and as UTF-16
** in the native byte order for [sqlite3_open16()].
** {F12703} An [sqlite3*] handle is returned in *ppDb, even
** if an error occurs.  {F12723} (Exception: if SQLite is unable
** to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object, a NULL will
** be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3] object.)
** {F12704} If the database is opened (and/or created)
** successfully, then [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  {F12705} Otherwise an
** error code is returned.  {F12706} The
** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()]  routines can be used to obtain
** an English language description of the error.
** {F12707} The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
** [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()] is called and
** UTF-16 in the native byte order if [sqlite3_open16()] is used.
** {F12708} Whether or not an error occurs when it is opened, resources
** associated with the [sqlite3*] handle should be released by passing it
** to [sqlite3_close()] when it is no longer required.
** {F12709} The [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface works like [sqlite3_open()] 
** except that it acccepts two additional parameters for additional control
** over the new database connection.  {F12710} The flags parameter can be
** one of:
** <ol>
** </ol>
** {F12711} The first value opens the database read-only. 
** {F12712} If the database does not previously exist, an error is returned.
** {F12713} The second option opens
** the database for reading and writing if possible, or reading only if
** if the file is write protected.  {F12714} In either case the database
** must already exist or an error is returned.  {F12715} The third option
** opens the database for reading and writing and creates it if it does
** not already exist. {F12716}
** The third options is behavior that is always used for [sqlite3_open()]
** and [sqlite3_open16()].
** {F12717} If the filename is ":memory:", then an private
** in-memory database is created for the connection. {F12718} This in-memory
** database will vanish when the database connection is closed. {END}  Future
** version of SQLite might make use of additional special filenames
** that begin with the ":" character.  It is recommended that 
** when a database filename really does begin with
** ":" that you prefix the filename with a pathname like "./" to
** avoid ambiguity.
** {F12719} If the filename is an empty string, then a private temporary
** on-disk database will be created.  {F12720} This private database will be
** automatically deleted as soon as the database connection is closed.
** {F12721} The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system 
** interface that the new database connection should use.  {F12722} If the
** fourth parameter is a NULL pointer then the default [sqlite3_vfs]
** object is used. {END}
** <b>Note to windows users:</b>  The encoding used for the filename argument
** of [sqlite3_open()] and [sqlite3_open_v2()] must be UTF-8, not whatever
** codepage is currently defined.  Filenames containing international
** characters must be converted to UTF-8 prior to passing them into
** [sqlite3_open()] or [sqlite3_open_v2()].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open16(
  const void *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-16) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_open_v2(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb,         /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
  int flags,              /* Flags */
  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */

** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages {F12800}
** {F12801} The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric
** [SQLITE_OK | result code] or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code]
** for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call associated
** with [sqlite3] handle 'db'. {U12802} If a prior API call failed but the
** most recent API call succeeded, the return value from sqlite3_errcode()
** is undefined. {END}
** {F12803} The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
** text that describes the error, as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
** {F12804} Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
** {U12805} The 
** string may be overwritten or deallocated by subsequent calls to SQLite
** interface functions. {END}
** {F12806} Calls to many sqlite3_* functions set the error code and
** string returned by [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], and
** [sqlite3_errmsg16()] overwriting the previous values.  {F12807}
** Except, calls to [sqlite3_errcode()],
** [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()] themselves do not affect the
** results of future invocations.  {F12808} Calls to API routines that
** do not return an error code (example: [sqlite3_data_count()]) do not
** change the error code returned by this routine.  {F12809} Interfaces that
** are not associated with a specific database connection (examples:
** [sqlite3_mprintf()] or [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()] do not change
** the return code. {END}
** {F12810} Assuming no other intervening sqlite3_* API calls are made,
** the error code returned by this function is associated with the same
** error as the strings returned by [sqlite3_errmsg()] and [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object {F13000}
** An instance of this object represent single SQL statements.  This
** object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a 
** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
** <ol>
** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
**      function.
** <li> Bind values to host parameters using
**      [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_* interfaces].
** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
** </ol>
** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
** information.
typedef struct sqlite3_stmt sqlite3_stmt;

** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement {F13010}
** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
** program using one of these routines. 
** {F13011} The first argument "db" is an [sqlite3 | SQLite database handle] 
** obtained from a prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()]. {F13012}
** The second argument "zSql" is the statement to be compiled, encoded
** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
** interfaces uses UTF-8 and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
** use UTF-16. {END}
** {F13013} If the nByte argument is less
** than zero, then zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
** {F13014} If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum number of 
** bytes read from zSql.  When nByte is non-negative, the
** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or 
** until the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. {END}
** {F13015} *pzTail is made to point to the first byte past the end of the
** first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only compiles the first
** statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to what remains
** uncompiled. {END}
** {F13016} *ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled 
** [sqlite3_stmt | SQL statement structure] that can be
** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  Or if there is an error, *ppStmt may be
** set to NULL.  {F13017} If the input text contains no SQL (if the input
** is and empty string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
** {U13018} The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the
** compiled SQL statement
** using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
** {F13019} On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | error code] is returned. {END}
** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
** {F13020} In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the 
** original SQL text. {END} This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
** behave a differently in two ways:
** <ol>
** <li>{F13022}
** If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
** statement and try to run it again. {F12023} If the schema has changed in
** a way that makes the statement no longer valid, [sqlite3_step()] will still
** return [SQLITE_SCHEMA].  {END} But unlike the legacy behavior, 
** [SQLITE_SCHEMA] is now a fatal error.  {F12024} Calling
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] again will not make the
** error go away.  {F12025} Note: use [sqlite3_errmsg()] to find the text
** of the parsing error that results in an [SQLITE_SCHEMA] return. {END}
** </li>
** <li>
** {F13030} When an error occurs, 
** [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | result codes] or
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes].  {F13031}
** The legacy behavior was that [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic
** [SQLITE_ERROR] result code and you would have to make a second call to
** [sqlite3_reset()] in order to find the underlying cause of the problem.
** {F13032}
** With the "v2" prepare interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is
** returned immediately. {END}
** </li>
** </ol>
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_prepare16_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const void *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */

** CAPIREF: Retrieving Statement SQL {F13100}
** {F13101} If the compiled SQL statement passed as an argument was
** compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()],
** then this function returns a pointer to a zero-terminated string
** containing a copy of the original SQL statement. {F13102} The
** pointer is valid until the statement
** is deleted using sqlite3_finalize().
** {F13103} The string returned by sqlite3_sql() is always UTF8 even
** if a UTF16 string was originally entered using [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()]
** or the equivalent.
** {F13104} If the statement was compiled using either of the legacy
** interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()], this
** function returns NULL.
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

** CAPI3REF:  Dynamically Typed Value Object  {F15000}
** {F15001} SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
** that are or can be stored in a database table. {END}
** SQLite uses dynamic typing for the values it stores.  
** {F15002} Values stored in sqlite3_value objects can be
** be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;

** CAPI3REF:  SQL Function Context Object {F16001}
** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
** sqlite3_context object.  {F16002} A pointer to an sqlite3_context
** object is always first parameter to application-defined SQL functions.
typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;

** CAPI3REF:  Binding Values To Prepared Statements {F13500}
** {F13501} In the SQL strings input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its
** variants, literals may be replace by a parameter in one
** of these forms:
** <ul>
** <li>  ?
** <li>  ?NNN
** <li>  :AAA
** <li>  @AAA
** <li>  $VVV
** </ul>
** In the parameter forms shown above NNN is an integer literal,
** AAA is an alphanumeric identifier and VVV is a variable name according
** to the syntax rules of the TCL programming language. {END}
** The values of these parameters (also called "host parameter names")
** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
** {F13502} The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines always
** is a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants.  {F13503} The second
** argument is the index of the parameter to be set.  {F13504} The
** first parameter has an index of 1.  {F13505} When the same named
** parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence. 
** {F13506} The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()] API if desired.  {F13507} The index
** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
** {F13508} The NNN value must be between 1 and the compile-time
** parameter SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER (default value: 999). {END}
** See <a href="limits.html">limits.html</a> for additional information.
** {F13509} The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter. {END}
** {F13510} In those
** routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the number of bytes
** in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the number of bytes in the
** string, not the number of characters. {F13511}  The number
** of bytes does not include the zero-terminator at the end of strings.
** {F13512}
** If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
** number of bytes up to the first zero terminator. {END}
** {F13513}
** The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
** text after SQLite has finished with it. {F13514} If the fifth argument is
** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then the library assumes that the
** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
** {F13515} If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns. {END}
** {F13520} The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
** is filled with zeros.  {F13521} A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
** (just an integer to hold it size) while it is being processed. {END}
** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as place-holders for BLOBs whose
** content is later written using 
** [sqlite3_blob_open | increment BLOB I/O] routines. {F13522} A negative
** value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB. {END}
** {F13530} The sqlite3_bind_*() routines must be called after
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] (and its variants) or [sqlite3_reset()] and
** before [sqlite3_step()]. {F13531}
** Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
** {F13532} Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL. {END}
** {F13540} These routines return [SQLITE_OK] on success or an error code if
** anything goes wrong.  {F13541} [SQLITE_RANGE] is returned if the parameter
** index is out of range.  {F13542} [SQLITE_NOMEM] is returned if malloc fails.
** {F13543} [SQLITE_MISUSE] is returned if these routines are called on a
** virtual machine that is the wrong state or which has already been finalized.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_null(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const char*, int n, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);

** CAPI3REF: Number Of Host Parameters {F13600}
** {F13601} Return the largest host parameter index in the precompiled
** statement given as the argument. {F13602} When the host parameters
** are of the forms like ":AAA", "$VVV", "@AAA", or "?",
** then they are assigned sequential increasing numbers beginning
** with one, so the value returned is the number of parameters.
** {F13603} However
** if the same host parameter name is used multiple times, each occurrance
** is given the same number, so the value returned in that case is the number
** of unique host parameter names. {F13604} If host parameters of the
** form "?NNN" are used (where NNN is an integer) then there might be
** gaps in the numbering and the value returned by this interface is
** the index of the host parameter with the largest index value. {END}
** {U13605} The prepared statement must not be [sqlite3_finalize | finalized]
** prior to this routine returning.  Otherwise the results are undefined
** and probably undesirable.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);

** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter {F13620}
** {F13621} This routine returns a pointer to the name of the n-th
** parameter in a [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement]. {F13622}
** Host parameters of the form ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$VVV" have a name
** which is the string ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$VVV". 
** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@"
** is included as part of the name.  {F13626}
** Parameters of the form "?" or "?NNN" have no name.
** {F13623} The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
** {F13624} If the value n is out of range or if the n-th parameter is
** nameless, then NULL is returned.  {F13625} The returned string is
** always in the UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);

** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name {F13640}
** {F13641} This routine returns the index of a host parameter with the
** given name.  {F13642} The name must match exactly.  {F13643}
** If no parameter with the given name is found, return 0.
** {F13644} Parameter names must be UTF8.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);

** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement {F13660}
** {F13661} Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not
** reset the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a 
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement]. {F13662} Use this routine to
** reset all host parameters to NULL.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);

** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set {F13710}
** {F13711} Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the 
** [sqlite3_stmt | compiled SQL statement]. {F13712} This routine returns 0
** if pStmt is an SQL statement that does not return data (for 
** example an UPDATE).
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set {F13720}
** {F13721} These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
** in the result set of a SELECT statement.  {F13722} The sqlite3_column_name()
** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF8 string
** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
** UTF16 string. {F13723}  The first parameter is the
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] that implements the SELECT statement.
** The second parameter is the column number.  The left-most column is
** number 0.
** {F13724} The returned string pointer is valid until either the 
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()]
** or until the next call sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16()
** on the same column.
** {F13725} If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
** NULL pointer is returned.
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_name16(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);

** CAPI3REF: Source Of Data In A Query Result {F13740}
** {F13741} These routines provide a means to determine what column of what
** table in which database a result of a SELECT statement comes from.
** {F13742} The name of the database or table or column can be returned as
** either a UTF8 or UTF16 string.  {F13743} The _database_ routines return
** the database name, the _table_ routines return the table name, and
** the origin_ routines return the column name. {F13744}
** The returned string is valid until
** the [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] is destroyed using
** [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the same information is requested
** again in a different encoding.
** {F13745} The names returned are the original un-aliased names of the
** database, table, and column.
** {F13746} The first argument to the following calls is a 
** [sqlite3_stmt | compiled SQL statement].
** {F13747} These functions return information about the Nth column returned by 
** the statement, where N is the second function argument.
** {F13748} If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression
** or subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions
** return NULL.  {F13749} Otherwise, they return the 
** name of the attached database, table and column that query result
** column was extracted from.
** {F13750} As with all other SQLite APIs, those postfixed with "16" return
** UTF-16 encoded strings, the other functions return UTF-8. {END}
** These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the 
** SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA preprocessor symbol defined.
** {U13751}
** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
** undefined.
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_database_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_database_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_table_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_table_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_origin_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_origin_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

** CAPI3REF: Declared Datatype Of A Query Result {F13760}
** The first parameter is a [sqlite3_stmt | compiled SQL statement]. 
** {F13761} If this statement is a SELECT statement and the Nth column of the 
** returned result set of that SELECT is a table column (not an
** expression or subquery) then the declared type of the table
** column is returned.  {F13762} If the Nth column of the result set is an
** expression or subquery, then a NULL pointer is returned.
** {F13763} The returned string is always UTF-8 encoded.  {END} 
** For example, in the database schema:
** And the following statement compiled:
** SELECT c1 + 1, c1 FROM t1;
** Then this routine would return the string "VARIANT" for the second
** result column (i==1), and a NULL pointer for the first result column
** (i==0).
** SQLite uses dynamic run-time typing.  So just because a column
** is declared to contain a particular type does not mean that the
** data stored in that column is of the declared type.  SQLite is
** strongly typed, but the typing is dynamic not static.  Type
** is associated with individual values, not with the containers
** used to hold those values.
SQLITE_API const char *sqlite3_column_decltype(sqlite3_stmt *, int i);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_decltype16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);

** CAPI3REF:  Evaluate An SQL Statement {F13200}
** After an [sqlite3_stmt | SQL statement] has been prepared with a call
** to either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or to one of
** the legacy interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()],
** then this function must be called one or more times to evaluate the 
** statement.
** The details of the behavior of this sqlite3_step() interface depend
** on whether the statement was prepared using the newer "v2" interface
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or the older legacy
** interface [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()].  The use of the
** new "v2" interface is recommended for new applications but the legacy
** interface will continue to be supported.
** In the lagacy interface, the return value will be either [SQLITE_BUSY], 
** With the "v2" interface, any of the other [SQLITE_OK | result code]
** or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code] might be returned as
** well.
** [SQLITE_BUSY] means that the database engine was unable to acquire the
** database locks it needs to do its job.  If the statement is a COMMIT
** or occurs outside of an explicit transaction, then you can retry the
** statement.  If the statement is not a COMMIT and occurs within a
** explicit transaction then you should rollback the transaction before
** continuing.
** [SQLITE_DONE] means that the statement has finished executing
** successfully.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on this virtual
** machine without first calling [sqlite3_reset()] to reset the virtual
** machine back to its initial state.
** If the SQL statement being executed returns any data, then 
** [SQLITE_ROW] is returned each time a new row of data is ready
** for processing by the caller. The values may be accessed using
** the [sqlite3_column_int | column access functions].
** sqlite3_step() is called again to retrieve the next row of data.
** [SQLITE_ERROR] means that a run-time error (such as a constraint
** violation) has occurred.  sqlite3_step() should not be called again on
** the VM. More information may be found by calling [sqlite3_errmsg()].
** With the legacy interface, a more specific error code (example:
** can be obtained by calling [sqlite3_reset()] on the
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement].  In the "v2" interface,
** the more specific error code is returned directly by sqlite3_step().
** [SQLITE_MISUSE] means that the this routine was called inappropriately.
** Perhaps it was called on a [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] that has
** already been [sqlite3_finalize | finalized] or on one that had 
** previously returned [SQLITE_ERROR] or [SQLITE_DONE].  Or it could
** be the case that the same database connection is being used by two or
** more threads at the same moment in time.
** <b>Goofy Interface Alert:</b>
** In the legacy interface, 
** the sqlite3_step() API always returns a generic error code,
** [SQLITE_ERROR], following any error other than [SQLITE_BUSY]
** and [SQLITE_MISUSE].  You must call [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] in order to find one of the specific
** [SQLITE_ERROR | result codes] that better describes the error.
** We admit that this is a goofy design.  The problem has been fixed
** with the "v2" interface.  If you prepare all of your SQL statements
** using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] instead
** of the legacy [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()], then the 
** more specific [SQLITE_ERROR | result codes] are returned directly
** by sqlite3_step().  The use of the "v2" interface is recommended.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_step(sqlite3_stmt*);

** CAPI3REF: Number of columns in a result set {F13770}
** Return the number of values in the current row of the result set.
** {F13771} After a call to [sqlite3_step()] that returns [SQLITE_ROW],
** this routine
** will return the same value as the [sqlite3_column_count()] function.
** {F13772}
** After [sqlite3_step()] has returned an [SQLITE_DONE], [SQLITE_BUSY], or
** a [SQLITE_ERROR | error code], or before [sqlite3_step()] has been 
** called on the [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] for the first time,
** this routine returns zero.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_data_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

** CAPI3REF: Fundamental Datatypes {F10265}
** {F10266}Every value in SQLite has one of five fundamental datatypes:
** <ul>
** <li> 64-bit signed integer
** <li> 64-bit IEEE floating point number
** <li> string
** <li> BLOB
** <li> NULL
** </ul> {END}
** These constants are codes for each of those types.
** Note that the SQLITE_TEXT constant was also used in SQLite version 2
** for a completely different meaning.  Software that links against both
** SQLite version 2 and SQLite version 3 should use SQLITE3_TEXT not
#define SQLITE_FLOAT    2
#define SQLITE_BLOB     4
#define SQLITE_NULL     5
# define SQLITE_TEXT     3
#define SQLITE3_TEXT     3

** CAPI3REF: Results Values From A Query {F13800}
** These routines return information about
** a single column of the current result row of a query.  In every
** case the first argument is a pointer to the 
** [sqlite3_stmt | SQL statement] that is being
** evaluated (the [sqlite3_stmt*] that was returned from 
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or one of its variants) and
** the second argument is the index of the column for which information 
** should be returned.  The left-most column of the result set
** has an index of 0.
** If the SQL statement is not currently point to a valid row, or if the
** the column index is out of range, the result is undefined. 
** These routines may only be called when the most recent call to
** [sqlite3_step()] has returned [SQLITE_ROW] and neither
** [sqlite3_reset()] nor [sqlite3_finalize()] has been call subsequently.
** If any of these routines are called after [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] or after [sqlite3_step()] has returned
** something other than [SQLITE_ROW], the results are undefined.
** If [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]
** are called from a different thread while any of these routines
** are pending, then the results are undefined.  
** The sqlite3_column_type() routine returns 
** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype code] for the initial data type
** of the result column.  The returned value is one of [SQLITE_INTEGER],
** returned by sqlite3_column_type() is only meaningful if no type
** conversions have occurred as described below.  After a type conversion,
** the value returned by sqlite3_column_type() is undefined.  Future
** versions of SQLite may change the behavior of sqlite3_column_type()
** following a type conversion.
** If the result is a BLOB or UTF-8 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes() 
** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
** If the result is a UTF-16 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes() converts
** the string to UTF-8 and then returns the number of bytes.
** If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes() uses
** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-8 string and returns
** the number of bytes in that string.
** The value returned does not include the zero terminator at the end
** of the string.  For clarity: the value returned is the number of
** bytes in the string, not the number of characters.
** Strings returned by sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_text16(),
** even zero-length strings, are always zero terminated.  The return
** value from sqlite3_column_blob() for a zero-length blob is an arbitrary
** pointer, possibly even a NULL pointer.
** The sqlite3_column_bytes16() routine is similar to sqlite3_column_bytes()
** but leaves the result in UTF-16 instead of UTF-8.  
** The zero terminator is not included in this count.
** These routines attempt to convert the value where appropriate.  For
** example, if the internal representation is FLOAT and a text result
** is requested, [sqlite3_snprintf()] is used internally to do the conversion
** automatically.  The following table details the conversions that
** are applied:
** <blockquote>
** <table border="1">
** <tr><th> Internal<br>Type <th> Requested<br>Type <th>  Conversion
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td> INTEGER   <td> Result is 0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Result is 0.0
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   TEXT    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td>  NULL    <td>   BLOB    <td> Result is NULL pointer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert from integer to float
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the integer
** <tr><td> INTEGER  <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as for INTEGER->TEXT
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert from float to integer
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   TEXT    <td> ASCII rendering of the float
** <tr><td>  FLOAT   <td>   BLOB    <td> Same as FLOAT->TEXT
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td> INTEGER   <td> Use atoi()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Use atof()
** <tr><td>  TEXT    <td>   BLOB    <td> No change
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td> INTEGER   <td> Convert to TEXT then use atoi()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>  FLOAT    <td> Convert to TEXT then use atof()
** <tr><td>  BLOB    <td>   TEXT    <td> Add a zero terminator if needed
** </table>
** </blockquote>
** The table above makes reference to standard C library functions atoi()
** and atof().  SQLite does not really use these functions.  It has its
** on equavalent internal routines.  The atoi() and atof() names are
** used in the table for brevity and because they are familiar to most
** C programmers.
** Note that when type conversions occur, pointers returned by prior
** calls to sqlite3_column_blob(), sqlite3_column_text(), and/or
** sqlite3_column_text16() may be invalidated. 
** Type conversions and pointer invalidations might occur
** in the following cases:
** <ul>
** <li><p>  The initial content is a BLOB and sqlite3_column_text() 
**          or sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  A zero-terminator might
**          need to be added to the string.</p></li>
** <li><p>  The initial content is UTF-8 text and sqlite3_column_bytes16() or
**          sqlite3_column_text16() is called.  The content must be converted
**          to UTF-16.</p></li>
** <li><p>  The initial content is UTF-16 text and sqlite3_column_bytes() or
**          sqlite3_column_text() is called.  The content must be converted
**          to UTF-8.</p></li>
** </ul>
** Conversions between UTF-16be and UTF-16le are always done in place and do
** not invalidate a prior pointer, though of course the content of the buffer
** that the prior pointer points to will have been modified.  Other kinds
** of conversion are done in place when it is possible, but sometime it is
** not possible and in those cases prior pointers are invalidated.  
** The safest and easiest to remember policy is to invoke these routines
** in one of the following ways:
**  <ul>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_blob() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
**  <li>sqlite3_column_text16() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes16()</li>
**  </ul>
** In other words, you should call sqlite3_column_text(), sqlite3_column_blob(),
** or sqlite3_column_text16() first to force the result into the desired
** format, then invoke sqlite3_column_bytes() or sqlite3_column_bytes16() to
** find the size of the result.  Do not mix call to sqlite3_column_text() or
** sqlite3_column_blob() with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes16().  And do not
** mix calls to sqlite3_column_text16() with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes().
** The pointers returned are valid until a type conversion occurs as
** described above, or until [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or
** [sqlite3_finalize()] is called.  The memory space used to hold strings
** and blobs is freed automatically.  Do <b>not</b> pass the pointers returned
** [sqlite3_column_blob()], [sqlite3_column_text()], etc. into 
** [sqlite3_free()].
** If a memory allocation error occurs during the evaluation of any
** of these routines, a default value is returned.  The default value
** is either the integer 0, the floating point number 0.0, or a NULL
** pointer.  Subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] will return
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_bytes16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_column_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_column_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_column_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_column_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_column_type(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *sqlite3_column_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);

** CAPI3REF: Destroy A Prepared Statement Object {F13300}
** The sqlite3_finalize() function is called to delete a 
** [sqlite3_stmt | compiled SQL statement]. If the statement was
** executed successfully, or not executed at all, then SQLITE_OK is returned.
** If execution of the statement failed then an 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | error code] or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended error code]
** is returned. 
** This routine can be called at any point during the execution of the
** [sqlite3_stmt | virtual machine].  If the virtual machine has not 
** completed execution when this routine is called, that is like
** encountering an error or an interrupt.  (See [sqlite3_interrupt()].) 
** Incomplete updates may be rolled back and transactions cancelled,  
** depending on the circumstances, and the 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | result code] returned will be [SQLITE_ABORT].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_finalize(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

** CAPI3REF: Reset A Prepared Statement Object {F13330}
** The sqlite3_reset() function is called to reset a 
** [sqlite3_stmt | compiled SQL statement] object.
** back to its initial state, ready to be re-executed.
** Any SQL statement variables that had values bound to them using
** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*() API] retain their values.
** Use [sqlite3_clear_bindings()] to reset the bindings.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions {F16100}
** The following two functions are used to add SQL functions or aggregates
** or to redefine the behavior of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The
** difference only between the two is that the second parameter, the
** name of the (scalar) function or aggregate, is encoded in UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_create_function() and UTF-16 for sqlite3_create_function16().
** The first argument is the [sqlite3 | database handle] that holds the
** SQL function or aggregate is to be added or redefined. If a single
** program uses more than one database handle internally, then SQL
** functions or aggregates must be added individually to each database
** handle with which they will be used.
** The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created
** or redefined.
** The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes, exclusive of the 
** zero-terminator.  Note that the name length limit is in bytes, not
** characters.  Any attempt to create a function with a longer name
** will result in an SQLITE_ERROR error.
** The third parameter is the number of arguments that the SQL function or
** aggregate takes. If this parameter is negative, then the SQL function or
** aggregate may take any number of arguments.
** The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what 
** [SQLITE_UTF8 | text encoding] this SQL function prefers for
** its parameters.  Any SQL function implementation should be able to work
** work with UTF-8, UTF-16le, or UTF-16be.  But some implementations may be
** more efficient with one encoding than another.  It is allowed to
** invoke sqlite3_create_function() or sqlite3_create_function16() multiple
** times with the same function but with different values of eTextRep.
** When multiple implementations of the same function are available, SQLite
** will pick the one that involves the least amount of data conversion.
** If there is only a single implementation which does not care what
** text encoding is used, then the fourth argument should be
** The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer.  The implementation
** of the function can gain access to this pointer using
** [sqlite3_user_data()].
** The seventh, eighth and ninth parameters, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
** pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL
** function or aggregate. A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of
** the xFunc callback only, NULL pointers should be passed as the xStep
** and xFinal parameters. An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation
** of xStep and xFinal and NULL should be passed for xFunc. To delete an
** existing SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL for all three function
** callback.
** It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
** functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
** arguments or differing perferred text encodings.  SQLite will use
** the implementation most closely matches the way in which the
** SQL function is used.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function(
  sqlite3 *,
  const char *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_function16(
  const void *zFunctionName,
  int nArg,
  int eTextRep,
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
  void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)

** CAPI3REF: Text Encodings {F10267}
** These constant define integer codes that represent the various
** text encodings supported by SQLite.
#define SQLITE_UTF8           1
#define SQLITE_UTF16LE        2
#define SQLITE_UTF16BE        3
#define SQLITE_UTF16          4    /* Use native byte order */
#define SQLITE_ANY            5    /* sqlite3_create_function only */
#define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED  8    /* sqlite3_create_collation only */

** CAPI3REF: Obsolete Functions
** These functions are all now obsolete.  In order to maintain
** backwards compatibility with older code, we continue to support
** these functions.  However, new development projects should avoid
** the use of these functions.  To help encourage people to avoid
** using these functions, we are not going to tell you want they do.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_aggregate_count(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_expired(sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_transfer_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*, sqlite3_stmt*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_global_recover(void);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_thread_cleanup(void);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_memory_alarm(void(*)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int),void*,sqlite3_int64);

** CAPI3REF: Obtaining SQL Function Parameter Values {F15100}
** The C-language implementation of SQL functions and aggregates uses
** this set of interface routines to access the parameter values on
** the function or aggregate.
** The xFunc (for scalar functions) or xStep (for aggregates) parameters
** to [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** define callbacks that implement the SQL functions and aggregates.
** The 4th parameter to these callbacks is an array of pointers to
** [sqlite3_value] objects.  There is one [sqlite3_value] object for
** each parameter to the SQL function.  These routines are used to
** extract values from the [sqlite3_value] objects.
** These routines work just like the corresponding 
** [sqlite3_column_blob | sqlite3_column_* routines] except that 
** these routines take a single [sqlite3_value*] pointer instead
** of an [sqlite3_stmt*] pointer and an integer column number.
** The sqlite3_value_text16() interface extracts a UTF16 string
** in the native byte-order of the host machine.  The
** sqlite3_value_text16be() and sqlite3_value_text16le() interfaces
** extract UTF16 strings as big-endian and little-endian respectively.
** The sqlite3_value_numeric_type() interface attempts to apply
** numeric affinity to the value.  This means that an attempt is
** made to convert the value to an integer or floating point.  If
** such a conversion is possible without loss of information (in other
** words if the value is a string that looks like a number)
** then the conversion is done.  Otherwise no conversion occurs.  The 
** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype] after conversion is returned.
** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer that
** is returned from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
** [sqlite3_value_text16()] can be invalidated by a subsequent call to
** [sqlite3_value_bytes()], [sqlite3_value_bytes16()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
** or [sqlite3_value_text16()].  
** These routines must be called from the same thread as
** the SQL function that supplied the sqlite3_value* parameters.
** Or, if the sqlite3_value* argument comes from the [sqlite3_column_value()]
** interface, then these routines should be called from the same thread
** that ran [sqlite3_column_value()].
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_blob(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_bytes16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API double sqlite3_value_double(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_int(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_value_int64(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const unsigned char *sqlite3_value_text(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16le(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API const void *sqlite3_value_text16be(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_type(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_value_numeric_type(sqlite3_value*);

** CAPI3REF: Obtain Aggregate Function Context {F16210}
** The implementation of aggregate SQL functions use this routine to allocate
** a structure for storing their state.  
** {F16211} The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context() routine is
** is called for a particular aggregate, SQLite allocates nBytes of memory
** zeros that memory, and returns a pointer to it.
** {F16212} On second and subsequent calls to sqlite3_aggregate_context()
** for the same aggregate function index, the same buffer is returned. {END}
** The implementation
** of the aggregate can use the returned buffer to accumulate data.
** {F16213} SQLite automatically frees the allocated buffer when the aggregate
** query concludes. {END}
** The first parameter should be a copy of the 
** [sqlite3_context | SQL function context] that is the first
** parameter to the callback routine that implements the aggregate
** function.
** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the aggregate SQL function is running.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_aggregate_context(sqlite3_context*, int nBytes);

** CAPI3REF: User Data For Functions {F16240}
** {F16241} The sqlite3_user_data() interface returns a copy of
** the pointer that was the pUserData parameter (the 5th parameter)
** of the the [sqlite3_create_function()]
** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
** registered the application defined function. {END}
** {U16243} This routine must be called from the same thread in which
** the application-defined function is running.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_user_data(sqlite3_context*);

** CAPI3REF: Function Auxiliary Data {F16270}
** The following two functions may be used by scalar SQL functions to
** associate meta-data with argument values. If the same value is passed to
** multiple invocations of the same SQL function during query execution, under
** some circumstances the associated meta-data may be preserved. This may
** be used, for example, to add a regular-expression matching scalar
** function. The compiled version of the regular expression is stored as
** meta-data associated with the SQL value passed as the regular expression
** pattern.  The compiled regular expression can be reused on multiple
** invocations of the same function so that the original pattern string
** does not need to be recompiled on each invocation.
** {F16271}
** The sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface returns a pointer to the meta-data
** associated by the sqlite3_set_auxdata() function with the Nth argument
** value to the application-defined function.
** {F16272} If no meta-data has been ever been set for the Nth
** argument of the function, or if the cooresponding function parameter
** has changed since the meta-data was set, then sqlite3_get_auxdata()
** returns a NULL pointer.
** {F16275} The sqlite3_set_auxdata() interface saves the meta-data
** pointed to by its 3rd parameter as the meta-data for the N-th
** argument of the application-defined function. {END} Subsequent
** calls to sqlite3_get_auxdata() might return this data, if it has
** not been destroyed. 
** {F16277} If it is not NULL, SQLite will invoke the destructor 
** function given by the 4th parameter to sqlite3_set_auxdata() on
** the meta-data when the corresponding function parameter changes
** or when the SQL statement completes, whichever comes first. {END}
** In practice, meta-data is preserved between function calls for
** expressions that are constant at compile time. This includes literal
** values and SQL variables.
** These routines must be called from the same thread in which
** the SQL function is running.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_get_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_set_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N, void*, void (*)(void*));

** CAPI3REF: Constants Defining Special Destructor Behavior {F10280}
** These are special value for the destructor that is passed in as the
** final argument to routines like [sqlite3_result_blob()].  If the destructor
** argument is SQLITE_STATIC, it means that the content pointer is constant
** and will never change.  It does not need to be destroyed.  The 
** SQLITE_TRANSIENT value means that the content will likely change in
** the near future and that SQLite should make its own private copy of
** the content before returning.
** The typedef is necessary to work around problems in certain
** C++ compilers.  See ticket #2191.
typedef void (*sqlite3_destructor_type)(void*);
#define SQLITE_STATIC      ((sqlite3_destructor_type)0)
#define SQLITE_TRANSIENT   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)-1)

** CAPI3REF: Setting The Result Of An SQL Function {F16400}
** These routines are used by the xFunc or xFinal callbacks that
** implement SQL functions and aggregates.  See
** [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
** for additional information.
** These functions work very much like the 
** [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*] family of functions used
** to bind values to host parameters in prepared statements.
** Refer to the
** [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_* documentation] for
** additional information.
** {F16402} The sqlite3_result_blob() interface sets the result from
** an application defined function to be the BLOB whose content is pointed
** to by the second parameter and which is N bytes long where N is the
** third parameter. 
** {F16403} The sqlite3_result_zeroblob() inerfaces set the result of
** the application defined function to be a BLOB containing all zero
** bytes and N bytes in size, where N is the value of the 2nd parameter.
** {F16407} The sqlite3_result_double() interface sets the result from
** an application defined function to be a floating point value specified
** by its 2nd argument.
** {F16409} The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16() functions
** cause the implemented SQL function to throw an exception.
** {F16411} SQLite uses the string pointed to by the
** 2nd parameter of sqlite3_result_error() or sqlite3_result_error16()
** as the text of an error message. {F16412} SQLite interprets the error
** message string from sqlite3_result_error() as UTF8.  {F16413} SQLite
** interprets the string from sqlite3_result_error16() as UTF16 in native
** byte order.  {F16414} If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error()
** or sqlite3_result_error16() is negative then SQLite takes as the error
** message all text up through the first zero character.
** {F16415} If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error() or
** sqlite3_result_error16() is non-negative then SQLite takes that many
** bytes (not characters) from the 2nd parameter as the error message.
** {F16417} The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16()
** routines make a copy private copy of the error message text before
** they return.  {END} Hence, the calling function can deallocate or
** modify the text after they return without harm.
** {F16421} The sqlite3_result_toobig() interface causes SQLite
** to throw an error indicating that a string or BLOB is to long
** to represent.  {F16422} The sqlite3_result_nomem() interface
** causes SQLite to throw an exception indicating that the a
** memory allocation failed.
** {F16431} The sqlite3_result_int() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 32-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
** {F16432} The sqlite3_result_int64() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be the 64-bit signed integer
** value given in the 2nd argument.
** {F16437} The sqlite3_result_null() interface sets the return value
** of the application-defined function to be NULL.
** {F16441} The sqlite3_result_text(), sqlite3_result_text16(), 
** sqlite3_result_text16le(), and sqlite3_result_text16be() interfaces
** set the return value of the application-defined function to be
** a text string which is represented as UTF-8, UTF-16 native byte order,
** UTF-16 little endian, or UTF-16 big endian, respectively.
** {F16442} SQLite takes the text result from the application from
** the 2nd parameter of the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces.
** {F16444} If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is negative, then SQLite takes result text from the 2nd parameter 
** through the first zero character.
** {F16447} If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** is non-negative, then as many bytes (not characters) of the text
** pointed to by the 2nd parameter are taken as the application-defined
** function result.
** {F16451} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is a non-NULL pointer, then SQLite calls that
** function as the destructor on the text or blob result when it has
** finished using that result.
** {F16453} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_STATIC, then
** SQLite assumes that the text or blob result is constant space and
** does not copy the space or call a destructor when it has
** finished using that result.
** {F16454} If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_TRANSIENT
** then SQLite makes a copy of the result into space obtained from
** from [sqlite3_malloc()] before it returns.
** {F16461} The sqlite3_result_value() interface sets the result of
** the application-defined function to be a copy the [sqlite3_value]
** object specified by the 2nd parameter.  {F16463} The
** sqlite3_result_value() interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
** so that [sqlite3_value] specified in the parameter may change or
** be deallocated after sqlite3_result_value() returns without harm.
** {U16491} These routines are called from within the different thread 
** than the one containing the application-defined function that recieved
** the [sqlite3_context] pointer, the results are undefined.
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_blob(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_double(sqlite3_context*, double);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_toobig(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_error_nomem(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int(sqlite3_context*, int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_int64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_int64);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_null(sqlite3_context*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16le(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_text16be(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_value(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_result_zeroblob(sqlite3_context*, int n);

** CAPI3REF: Define New Collating Sequences {F16600}
** {F16601}
** These functions are used to add new collation sequences to the
** [sqlite3*] handle specified as the first argument. 
** {F16602}
** The name of the new collation sequence is specified as a UTF-8 string
** for sqlite3_create_collation() and sqlite3_create_collation_v2()
** and a UTF-16 string for sqlite3_create_collation16(). {F16603} In all cases
** the name is passed as the second function argument.
** {F16604}
** The third argument may be one of the constants [SQLITE_UTF8],
** [SQLITE_UTF16LE] or [SQLITE_UTF16BE], indicating that the user-supplied
** routine expects to be passed pointers to strings encoded using UTF-8,
** UTF-16 little-endian or UTF-16 big-endian respectively. {F16605} The
** third argument might also be [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] to indicate that
** the routine expects pointers to 16-bit word aligned strings
** of UTF16 in the native byte order of the host computer.
** {F16607}
** A pointer to the user supplied routine must be passed as the fifth
** argument. {F16609} If it is NULL, this is the same as deleting the collation
** sequence (so that SQLite cannot call it anymore).
** {F16611} Each time the application
** supplied function is invoked, it is passed a copy of the void* passed as
** the fourth argument to sqlite3_create_collation() or
** sqlite3_create_collation16() as its first parameter.
** {F16612}
** The remaining arguments to the application-supplied routine are two strings,
** each represented by a [length, data] pair and encoded in the encoding
** that was passed as the third argument when the collation sequence was
** registered. {END} The application defined collation routine should
** return negative, zero or positive if
** the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second
** string. i.e. (STRING1 - STRING2).
** {F16615}
** The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
** excapt that it takes an extra argument which is a destructor for
** the collation.  {F16617} The destructor is called when the collation is
** destroyed and is passed a copy of the fourth parameter void* pointer
** of the sqlite3_create_collation_v2().
** {F16618}  Collations are destroyed when
** they are overridden by later calls to the collation creation functions
** or when the [sqlite3*] database handle is closed using [sqlite3_close()].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation(
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation_v2(
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_collation16(
  const char *zName, 
  int eTextRep, 
  int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)

** CAPI3REF: Collation Needed Callbacks {F16700}
** {F16701}
** To avoid having to register all collation sequences before a database
** can be used, a single callback function may be registered with the
** database handle to be called whenever an undefined collation sequence is
** required.
** {F16702}
** If the function is registered using the sqlite3_collation_needed() API,
** then it is passed the names of undefined collation sequences as strings
** encoded in UTF-8. {F16703} If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used, the names
** are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order. {F16704} A call to either
** function replaces any existing callback.
** {F16705} When the callback is invoked, the first argument passed is a copy
** of the second argument to sqlite3_collation_needed() or
** sqlite3_collation_needed16(). {F16706} The second argument is the database
** handle.  {F16707} The third argument is one of [SQLITE_UTF8],
** [SQLITE_UTF16BE], or [SQLITE_UTF16LE], indicating the most
** desirable form of the collation sequence function required.
** {F16708} The fourth parameter is the name of the
** required collation sequence. {END}
** The callback function should register the desired collation using
** [sqlite3_create_collation()], [sqlite3_create_collation16()], or
** [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()].
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed(
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*)
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_collation_needed16(
  void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*)

** Specify the key for an encrypted database.  This routine should be
** called right after sqlite3_open().
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_key(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The key */

** Change the key on an open database.  If the current database is not
** encrypted, this routine will encrypt it.  If pNew==0 or nNew==0, the
** database is decrypted.
** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
** of SQLite.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_rekey(
  sqlite3 *db,                   /* Database to be rekeyed */
  const void *pKey, int nKey     /* The new key */

** CAPI3REF:  Suspend Execution For A Short Time {F10530}
** {F10531} The sqlite3_sleep() function
** causes the current thread to suspend execution
** for at least a number of milliseconds specified in its parameter.
** {F10532} If the operating system does not support sleep requests with 
** millisecond time resolution, then the time will be rounded up to 
** the nearest second. {F10533} The number of milliseconds of sleep actually 
** requested from the operating system is returned.
** {F10534} SQLite implements this interface by calling the xSleep()
** method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_sleep(int);

** CAPI3REF:  Name Of The Folder Holding Temporary Files {F10310}
** If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
** the name of a folder (a.ka. directory), then all temporary files
** created by SQLite will be placed in that directory.  If this variable
** is NULL pointer, then SQLite does a search for an appropriate temporary
** file directory.
** It is not safe to modify this variable once a database connection
** has been opened.  It is intended that this variable be set once
** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
** routines have been call and remain unchanged thereafter.
SQLITE_EXTERN char *sqlite3_temp_directory;

** CAPI3REF:  Test To See If The Database Is In Auto-Commit Mode {F12930}
** {F12931} The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interfaces returns non-zero or
** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
** respectively. {F12932}  Autocommit mode is on
** by default.  {F12933} Autocommit mode is disabled by a BEGIN statement.
** {F12934} Autocommit mode is reenabled by a COMMIT or ROLLBACK. {END}
** If certain kinds of errors occur on a statement within a multi-statement
** transactions (errors including [SQLITE_FULL], [SQLITE_IOERR], 
** transaction might be rolled back automatically.  {F12935} The only way to
** find out if SQLite automatically rolled back the transaction after
** an error is to use this function. {END}
** {U12936} If another thread changes the autocommit status of the database
** connection while this routine is running, then the return value
** is undefined. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_get_autocommit(sqlite3*);

** CAPI3REF:  Find The Database Handle Of A Prepared Statement {F13120}
** {F13121} The sqlite3_db_handle interface
** returns the [sqlite3*] database handle to which a
** [sqlite3_stmt | prepared statement] belongs.
** {F13122} the database handle returned by sqlite3_db_handle
** is the same database handle that was
** the first argument to the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants
** that was used to create the statement in the first place.
SQLITE_API sqlite3 *sqlite3_db_handle(sqlite3_stmt*);

** CAPI3REF: Commit And Rollback Notification Callbacks {F12950}
** {F12951} The sqlite3_commit_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** {F12952} Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** {F12953} The sqlite3_rollback_hook() interface registers a callback
** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is committed.
** {F12954} Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
** for the same database connection is overridden.
** {F12956} The pArg argument is passed through
** to the callback.  {F12957} If the callback on a commit hook function 
** returns non-zero, then the commit is converted into a rollback.
** {F12958} If another function was previously registered, its
** pArg value is returned.  Otherwise NULL is returned.
** {F12959} Registering a NULL function disables the callback.
** {F12961} For the purposes of this API, a transaction is said to have been 
** rolled back if an explicit "ROLLBACK" statement is executed, or
** an error or constraint causes an implicit rollback to occur.
** {F12962} The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** automatically rolled back because the database connection is closed.
** {F12964} The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
** rolled back because a commit callback returned non-zero.
** <todo> Check on this </todo> {END}
** These are experimental interfaces and are subject to change.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_commit_hook(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*), void*);
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_rollback_hook(sqlite3*, void(*)(void *), void*);

** CAPI3REF: Data Change Notification Callbacks {F12970}
** {F12971} The sqlite3_update_hook() interface
** registers a callback function with the database connection identified by the 
** first argument to be invoked whenever a row is updated, inserted or deleted.
** {F12972} Any callback set by a previous call to this function for the same 
** database connection is overridden.
** {F12974} The second argument is a pointer to the function to invoke when a 
** row is updated, inserted or deleted. 
** {F12976} The first argument to the callback is
** a copy of the third argument to sqlite3_update_hook().
** {F12977} The second callback 
** argument is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE] or [SQLITE_UPDATE],
** depending on the operation that caused the callback to be invoked.
** {F12978} The third and 
** fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers to the database and 
** table name containing the affected row.
** {F12979} The final callback parameter is 
** the rowid of the row.
** {F12981} In the case of an update, this is the rowid after 
** the update takes place.
** {F12983} The update hook is not invoked when internal system tables are
** modified (i.e. sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence).
** {F12984} If another function was previously registered, its pArg value
** is returned.  {F12985} Otherwise NULL is returned.
SQLITE_API void *sqlite3_update_hook(
  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),

** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache {F10330}
** {F10331}
** This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
** and schema data structures between connections to the same database.
** {F10332}
** Sharing is enabled if the argument is true and disabled if the argument
** is false.
** {F10333} Cache sharing is enabled and disabled
** for an entire process. {END} This is a change as of SQLite version 3.5.0.
** In prior versions of SQLite, sharing was
** enabled or disabled for each thread separately.
** {F10334}
** The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
** {F10335} Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
** that was in effect at the time they were opened. {END}
** Virtual tables cannot be used with a shared cache.  {F10336} When shared
** cache is enabled, the [sqlite3_create_module()] API used to register
** virtual tables will always return an error. {END}
** {F10337} This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was
** enabled or disabled successfully.  {F10338} An [SQLITE_ERROR | error code]
** is returned otherwise. {END}
** {F10339} Shared cache is disabled by default. {END} But this might change in
** future releases of SQLite.  Applications that care about shared
** cache setting should set it explicitly.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);

** CAPI3REF:  Attempt To Free Heap Memory {F17340}
** {F17341} The sqlite3_release_memory() interface attempts to
** free N bytes of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory
** allocations held by the database labrary. {END}  Memory used
** to cache database pages to improve performance is an example of
** non-essential memory.  {F16342} sqlite3_release_memory() returns
** the number of bytes actually freed, which might be more or less
** than the amount requested.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_release_memory(int);

** CAPI3REF:  Impose A Limit On Heap Size {F17350}
** {F16351} The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit() interface
** places a "soft" limit on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated
** by SQLite. {F16352} If an internal allocation is requested 
** that would exceed the soft heap limit, [sqlite3_release_memory()] is
** invoked one or more times to free up some space before the allocation
** is made. {END}
** {F16353} The limit is called "soft", because if
** [sqlite3_release_memory()] cannot
** free sufficient memory to prevent the limit from being exceeded,
** the memory is allocated anyway and the current operation proceeds.
** {F16354}
** A negative or zero value for N means that there is no soft heap limit and
** [sqlite3_release_memory()] will only be called when memory is exhausted.
** {F16355} The default value for the soft heap limit is zero.
** SQLite makes a best effort to honor the soft heap limit.  
** {F16356} But if the soft heap limit cannot honored, execution will
** continue without error or notification. {END}  This is why the limit is 
** called a "soft" limit.  It is advisory only.
** Prior to SQLite version 3.5.0, this routine only constrained the memory
** allocated by a single thread - the same thread in which this routine
** runs.  Beginning with SQLite version 3.5.0, the soft heap limit is
** applied to all threads. {F16357} The value specified for the soft heap limit
** is an upper bound on the total memory allocation for all threads. {END}  In
** version 3.5.0 there is no mechanism for limiting the heap usage for
** individual threads.
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int);

** CAPI3REF:  Extract Metadata About A Column Of A Table {F12850}
** This routine
** returns meta-data about a specific column of a specific database
** table accessible using the connection handle passed as the first function 
** argument.
** The column is identified by the second, third and fourth parameters to 
** this function. The second parameter is either the name of the database
** (i.e. "main", "temp" or an attached database) containing the specified
** table or NULL. If it is NULL, then all attached databases are searched
** for the table using the same algorithm as the database engine uses to 
** resolve unqualified table references.
** The third and fourth parameters to this function are the table and column 
** name of the desired column, respectively. Neither of these parameters 
** may be NULL.
** Meta information is returned by writing to the memory locations passed as
** the 5th and subsequent parameters to this function. Any of these 
** arguments may be NULL, in which case the corresponding element of meta 
** information is ommitted.
** <pre>
** Parameter     Output Type      Description
** -----------------------------------
**   5th         const char*      Data type
**   6th         const char*      Name of the default collation sequence 
**   7th         int              True if the column has a NOT NULL constraint
**   8th         int              True if the column is part of the PRIMARY KEY
**   9th         int              True if the column is AUTOINCREMENT
** </pre>
** The memory pointed to by the character pointers returned for the 
** declaration type and collation sequence is valid only until the next 
** call to any sqlite API function.
** If the specified table is actually a view, then an error is returned.
** If the specified column is "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_" and an 
** INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column has been explicitly declared, then the output 
** parameters are set for the explicitly declared column. If there is no
** explicitly declared IPK column, then the output parameters are set as 
** follows:
** <pre>
**     data type: "INTEGER"
**     collation sequence: "BINARY"
**     not null: 0
**     primary key: 1
**     auto increment: 0
** </pre>
** This function may load one or more schemas from database files. If an
** error occurs during this process, or if the requested table or column
** cannot be found, an SQLITE error code is returned and an error message
** left in the database handle (to be retrieved using sqlite3_errmsg()).
** This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
** SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA preprocessor symbol defined.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Connection handle */
  const char *zDbName,        /* Database name or NULL */
  const char *zTableName,     /* Table name */
  const char *zColumnName,    /* Column name */
  char const **pzDataType,    /* OUTPUT: Declared data type */
  char const **pzCollSeq,     /* OUTPUT: Collation sequence name */
  int *pNotNull,              /* OUTPUT: True if NOT NULL constraint exists */
  int *pPrimaryKey,           /* OUTPUT: True if column part of PK */
  int *pAutoinc               /* OUTPUT: True if column is auto-increment */

** CAPI3REF: Load An Extension {F12600}
** {F12601} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface
** attempts to load an SQLite extension library contained in the file
** zFile. {F12602} The entry point is zProc. {F12603} zProc may be 0
** in which case the name of the entry point defaults
** to "sqlite3_extension_init".
** {F12604} The sqlite3_load_extension() interface shall
** return [SQLITE_OK] on success and [SQLITE_ERROR] if something goes wrong.
** {F12605}
** If an error occurs and pzErrMsg is not 0, then the
** sqlite3_load_extension() interface shall attempt to fill *pzErrMsg with 
** error message text stored in memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
** {END}  The calling function should free this memory
** by calling [sqlite3_free()].
** {F12606}
** Extension loading must be enabled using [sqlite3_enable_load_extension()]
** prior to calling this API or an error will be returned.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_load_extension(
  sqlite3 *db,          /* Load the extension into this database connection */
  const char *zFile,    /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
  const char *zProc,    /* Entry point.  Derived from zFile if 0 */
  char **pzErrMsg       /* Put error message here if not 0 */

** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Extension Loading {F12620}
** So as not to open security holes in older applications that are
** unprepared to deal with extension loading, and as a means of disabling
** extension loading while evaluating user-entered SQL, the following
** API is provided to turn the [sqlite3_load_extension()] mechanism on and
** off.  {F12622} It is off by default. {END} See ticket #1863.
** {F12621} Call the sqlite3_enable_load_extension() routine
** with onoff==1 to turn extension loading on
** and call it with onoff==0 to turn it back off again. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_enable_load_extension(sqlite3 *db, int onoff);

** CAPI3REF: Make Arrangements To Automatically Load An Extension {F12640}
** {F12641} This function
** registers an extension entry point that is automatically invoked
** whenever a new database connection is opened using
** [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or [sqlite3_open_v2()]. {END}
** This API can be invoked at program startup in order to register
** one or more statically linked extensions that will be available
** to all new database connections.
** {F12642} Duplicate extensions are detected so calling this routine multiple
** times with the same extension is harmless.
** {F12643} This routine stores a pointer to the extension in an array
** that is obtained from sqlite_malloc(). {END} If you run a memory leak
** checker on your program and it reports a leak because of this
** array, then invoke [sqlite3_reset_auto_extension()] prior
** to shutdown to free the memory.
** {F12644} Automatic extensions apply across all threads. {END}
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_auto_extension(void *xEntryPoint);

** CAPI3REF: Reset Automatic Extension Loading {F12660}
** {F12661} This function disables all previously registered
** automatic extensions. {END}  This
** routine undoes the effect of all prior [sqlite3_automatic_extension()]
** calls.
** {F12662} This call disabled automatic extensions in all threads. {END}
** This interface is experimental and is subject to change or
** removal in future releases of SQLite.
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_reset_auto_extension(void);

****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
** When the virtual-table mechanism stablizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.

** Structures used by the virtual table interface
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab sqlite3_vtab;
typedef struct sqlite3_index_info sqlite3_index_info;
typedef struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor sqlite3_vtab_cursor;
typedef struct sqlite3_module sqlite3_module;

** A module is a class of virtual tables.  Each module is defined
** by an instance of the following structure.  This structure consists
** mostly of methods for the module.
struct sqlite3_module {
  int iVersion;
  int (*xCreate)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xConnect)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
               int argc, const char *const*argv,
               sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
  int (*xBestIndex)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info*);
  int (*xDisconnect)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCursor);
  int (*xClose)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xFilter)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, int idxNum, const char *idxStr,
                int argc, sqlite3_value **argv);
  int (*xNext)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xEof)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
  int (*xColumn)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_context*, int);
  int (*xRowid)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_int64 *pRowid);
  int (*xUpdate)(sqlite3_vtab *, int, sqlite3_value **, sqlite3_int64 *);
  int (*xBegin)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xSync)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xCommit)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xRollback)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
  int (*xFindFunction)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int nArg, const char *zName,
                       void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
                       void **ppArg);

  int (*xRename)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, const char *zNew);

** The sqlite3_index_info structure and its substructures is used to
** pass information into and receive the reply from the xBestIndex
** method of an sqlite3_module.  The fields under **Inputs** are the
** inputs to xBestIndex and are read-only.  xBestIndex inserts its
** results into the **Outputs** fields.
** The aConstraint[] array records WHERE clause constraints of the
** form:
**         column OP expr
** Where OP is =, &lt;, &lt;=, &gt;, or &gt;=.  
** The particular operator is stored
** in aConstraint[].op.  The index of the column is stored in 
** aConstraint[].iColumn.  aConstraint[].usable is TRUE if the
** expr on the right-hand side can be evaluated (and thus the constraint
** is usable) and false if it cannot.
** The optimizer automatically inverts terms of the form "expr OP column"
** and makes other simplifications to the WHERE clause in an attempt to
** get as many WHERE clause terms into the form shown above as possible.
** The aConstraint[] array only reports WHERE clause terms in the correct
** form that refer to the particular virtual table being queried.
** Information about the ORDER BY clause is stored in aOrderBy[].
** Each term of aOrderBy records a column of the ORDER BY clause.
** The xBestIndex method must fill aConstraintUsage[] with information
** about what parameters to pass to xFilter.  If argvIndex>0 then
** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv.  If aConstraintUsage[].omit
** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.
** The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into xFilter.
** sqlite3_free() is used to free idxPtr if needToFreeIdxPtr is true.
** The orderByConsumed means that output from xFilter will occur in
** the correct order to satisfy the ORDER BY clause so that no separate
** sorting step is required.
** The estimatedCost value is an estimate of the cost of doing the
** particular lookup.  A full scan of a table with N entries should have
** a cost of N.  A binary search of a table of N entries should have a
** cost of approximately log(N).
struct sqlite3_index_info {
  /* Inputs */
  int nConstraint;           /* Number of entries in aConstraint */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint {
     int iColumn;              /* Column on left-hand side of constraint */
     unsigned char op;         /* Constraint operator */
     unsigned char usable;     /* True if this constraint is usable */
     int iTermOffset;          /* Used internally - xBestIndex should ignore */
  } *aConstraint;            /* Table of WHERE clause constraints */
  int nOrderBy;              /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
  struct sqlite3_index_orderby {
     int iColumn;              /* Column number */
     unsigned char desc;       /* True for DESC.  False for ASC. */
  } *aOrderBy;               /* The ORDER BY clause */

  /* Outputs */
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage {
    int argvIndex;           /* if >0, constraint is part of argv to xFilter */
    unsigned char omit;      /* Do not code a test for this constraint */
  } *aConstraintUsage;
  int idxNum;                /* Number used to identify the index */
  char *idxStr;              /* String, possibly obtained from sqlite3_malloc */
  int needToFreeIdxStr;      /* Free idxStr using sqlite3_free() if true */
  int orderByConsumed;       /* True if output is already ordered */
  double estimatedCost;      /* Estimated cost of using this index */

** This routine is used to register a new module name with an SQLite
** connection.  Module names must be registered before creating new
** virtual tables on the module, or before using preexisting virtual
** tables of the module.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *                     /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */

** This routine is identical to the sqlite3_create_module() method above,
** except that it allows a destructor function to be specified. It is
** even more experimental than the rest of the virtual tables API.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_create_module_v2(
  sqlite3 *db,               /* SQLite connection to register module with */
  const char *zName,         /* Name of the module */
  const sqlite3_module *,    /* Methods for the module */
  void *,                    /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
  void(*xDestroy)(void*)     /* Module destructor function */

** Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe a particular instance of the module.  Each subclass will
** be tailored to the specific needs of the module implementation.   The
** purpose of this superclass is to define certain fields that are common
** to all module implementations.
** Virtual tables methods can set an error message by assigning a
** string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() to zErrMsg.  The method should
** take care that any prior string is freed by a call to sqlite3_free()
** prior to assigning a new string to zErrMsg.  After the error message
** is delivered up to the client application, the string will be automatically
** freed by sqlite3_free() and the zErrMsg field will be zeroed.  Note
** that sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_free() are used on the zErrMsg field
** since virtual tables are commonly implemented in loadable extensions which
** do not have access to sqlite3MPrintf() or sqlite3Free().
struct sqlite3_vtab {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;  /* The module for this virtual table */
  int nRef;                       /* Used internally */
  char *zErrMsg;                  /* Error message from sqlite3_mprintf() */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */

/* Every module implementation uses a subclass of the following structure
** to describe cursors that point into the virtual table and are used
** to loop through the virtual table.  Cursors are created using the
** xOpen method of the module.  Each module implementation will define
** the content of a cursor structure to suit its own needs.
** This superclass exists in order to define fields of the cursor that
** are common to all implementations.
struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor {
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Virtual table of this cursor */
  /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */

** The xCreate and xConnect methods of a module use the following API
** to declare the format (the names and datatypes of the columns) of
** the virtual tables they implement.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_declare_vtab(sqlite3*, const char *zCreateTable);

** Virtual tables can provide alternative implementations of functions
** using the xFindFunction method.  But global versions of those functions
** must exist in order to be overloaded.
** This API makes sure a global version of a function with a particular
** name and number of parameters exists.  If no such function exists
** before this API is called, a new function is created.  The implementation
** of the new function always causes an exception to be thrown.  So
** the new function is not good for anything by itself.  Its only
** purpose is to be a place-holder function that can be overloaded
** by virtual tables.
** This API should be considered part of the virtual table interface,
** which is experimental and subject to change.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_overload_function(sqlite3*, const char *zFuncName, int nArg);

** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism defined above (back up
** to a comment remarkably similar to this one) is currently considered
** to be experimental.  The interface might change in incompatible ways.
** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************

** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB {F17800}
** An instance of the following opaque structure is used to 
** represent an blob-handle.  A blob-handle is created by
** [sqlite3_blob_open()] and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
** The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
** can be used to read or write small subsections of the blob.
** The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the
** blob in bytes.
typedef struct sqlite3_blob sqlite3_blob;

** CAPI3REF: Open A BLOB For Incremental I/O {F17810}
** {F17811} This interfaces opens a handle to the blob located
** in row iRow,, column zColumn, table zTable in database zDb;
** in other words,  the same blob that would be selected by:
** <pre>
**     SELECT zColumn FROM zDb.zTable WHERE rowid = iRow;
** </pre> {END}
** {F17812} If the flags parameter is non-zero, the blob is opened for 
** read and write access. If it is zero, the blob is opened for read 
** access. {END}
** {F17813} On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned and the new 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob handle] is written to *ppBlob. 
** {F17814} Otherwise an error code is returned and 
** any value written to *ppBlob should not be used by the caller.
** {F17815} This function sets the database-handle error code and message
** accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()].
** <todo>We should go through and mark all interfaces that behave this
** way with a similar statement</todo>
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_open(
  const char *zDb,
  const char *zTable,
  const char *zColumn,
  sqlite3_int64 iRow,
  int flags,
  sqlite3_blob **ppBlob

** CAPI3REF:  Close A BLOB Handle {F17830}
** Close an open [sqlite3_blob | blob handle].
** {F17831} Closing a BLOB shall cause the current transaction to commit
** if there are no other BLOBs, no pending prepared statements, and the
** database connection is in autocommit mode.
** {F17832} If any writes were made to the BLOB, they might be held in cache
** until the close operation if they will fit. {END}
** Closing the BLOB often forces the changes
** out to disk and so if any I/O errors occur, they will likely occur
** at the time when the BLOB is closed.  {F17833} Any errors that occur during
** closing are reported as a non-zero return value.
** {F17839} The BLOB is closed unconditionally.  Even if this routine returns
** an error code, the BLOB is still closed.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_close(sqlite3_blob *);

** CAPI3REF:  Return The Size Of An Open BLOB {F17805}
** {F16806} Return the size in bytes of the blob accessible via the open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] passed as an argument.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_bytes(sqlite3_blob *);

** CAPI3REF:  Read Data From A BLOB Incrementally {F17850}
** This function is used to read data from an open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] into a caller supplied buffer.
** {F17851} n bytes of data are copied into buffer
** z from the open blob, starting at offset iOffset.
** {F17852} If offset iOffset is less than n bytes from the end of the blob, 
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.  {F17853} If n is
** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.
** {F17854} On success, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | SQLite error code] or an
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended error code] is returned.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_read(sqlite3_blob *, void *z, int n, int iOffset);

** CAPI3REF:  Write Data Into A BLOB Incrementally {F17870}
** This function is used to write data into an open 
** [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] from a user supplied buffer.
** {F17871} n bytes of data are copied from the buffer
** pointed to by z into the open blob, starting at offset iOffset.
** {F17872} If the [sqlite3_blob | blob-handle] passed as the first argument
** was not opened for writing (the flags parameter to [sqlite3_blob_open()]
*** was zero), this function returns [SQLITE_READONLY].
** {F17873} This function may only modify the contents of the blob; it is
** not possible to increase the size of a blob using this API.
** {F17874} If offset iOffset is less than n bytes from the end of the blob, 
** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.  {F17875} If n is
** less than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.
** {F17876} On success, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an 
** [SQLITE_ERROR | SQLite error code] or an
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended error code] is returned.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_blob_write(sqlite3_blob *, const void *z, int n, int iOffset);

** CAPI3REF:  Virtual File System Objects {F11200}
** A virtual filesystem (VFS) is an [sqlite3_vfs] object
** that SQLite uses to interact
** with the underlying operating system.  Most builds come with a
** single default VFS that is appropriate for the host computer.
** New VFSes can be registered and existing VFSes can be unregistered.
** The following interfaces are provided.
** {F11201} The sqlite3_vfs_find() interface returns a pointer to 
** a VFS given its name.  {F11202} Names are case sensitive.
** {F11203} Names are zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
** {F11204} If there is no match, a NULL
** pointer is returned. {F11205} If zVfsName is NULL then the default 
** VFS is returned. {END}
** {F11210} New VFSes are registered with sqlite3_vfs_register().
** {F11211} Each new VFS becomes the default VFS if the makeDflt flag is set.
** {F11212} The same VFS can be registered multiple times without injury.
** {F11213} To make an existing VFS into the default VFS, register it again
** with the makeDflt flag set. {U11214} If two different VFSes with the
** same name are registered, the behavior is undefined.  {U11215} If a
** VFS is registered with a name that is NULL or an empty string,
** then the behavior is undefined.
** {F11220} Unregister a VFS with the sqlite3_vfs_unregister() interface.
** {F11221} If the default VFS is unregistered, another VFS is chosen as
** the default.  The choice for the new VFS is arbitrary.
SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfsName);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs*, int makeDflt);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs*);

** CAPI3REF: Mutexes {F17000}
** The SQLite core uses these routines for thread
** synchronization.  Though they are intended for internal
** use by SQLite, code that links against SQLite is
** permitted to use any of these routines.
** The SQLite source code contains multiple implementations 
** of these mutex routines.  An appropriate implementation
** is selected automatically at compile-time.  The following
** implementations are available in the SQLite core:
** <ul>
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2
** <li>   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
** </ul>
** The SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP implementation is a set of routines 
** that does no real locking and is appropriate for use in 
** a single-threaded application.  The SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2,
** SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREAD, and SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 implementations
** are appropriate for use on os/2, unix, and windows.
** If SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF preprocessor
** macro defined (with "-DSQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF=1"), then no mutex
** implementation is included with the library.  The
** mutex interface routines defined here become external
** references in the SQLite library for which implementations
** must be provided by the application.  This facility allows an
** application that links against SQLite to provide its own mutex
** implementation without having to modify the SQLite core.
** {F17011} The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
** mutex and returns a pointer to it. {F17012} If it returns NULL
** that means that a mutex could not be allocated. {F17013} SQLite
** will unwind its stack and return an error. {F17014} The argument
** to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() is one of these integer constants:
** <ul>
** </ul> {END}
** {F17015} The first two constants cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
** a new mutex.  The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used. {END}
** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
** not want to.  {F17016} But SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
** cases where it really needs one.  {END} If a faster non-recursive mutex
** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
** {F17017} The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() each return
** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex. {END}  Four static mutexes are
** used by the current version of SQLite.  Future versions of SQLite
** may add additional static mutexes.  Static mutexes are for internal
** use by SQLite only.  Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
** {F17018} Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
** returns a different mutex on every call.  {F17034} But for the static 
** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
** the same type number. {END}
** {F17019} The sqlite3_mutex_free() routine deallocates a previously
** allocated dynamic mutex. {F17020} SQLite is careful to deallocate every
** dynamic mutex that it allocates. {U17021} The dynamic mutexes must not be in 
** use when they are deallocated. {U17022} Attempting to deallocate a static
** mutex results in undefined behavior. {F17023} SQLite never deallocates
** a static mutex. {END}
** The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
** to enter a mutex. {F17024} If another thread is already within the mutex,
** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
** SQLITE_BUSY. {F17025}  The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns SQLITE_OK
** upon successful entry.  {F17026} Mutexes created using
** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can be entered multiple times by the same thread.
** {F17027} In such cases the,
** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
** can enter.  {U17028} If the same thread tries to enter any other
** kind of mutex more than once, the behavior is undefined.
** {F17029} SQLite will never exhibit
** such behavior in its own use of mutexes. {END}
** Some systems (ex: windows95) do not the operation implemented by
** sqlite3_mutex_try().  On those systems, sqlite3_mutex_try() will
** always return SQLITE_BUSY.  {F17030} The SQLite core only ever uses
** sqlite3_mutex_try() as an optimization so this is acceptable behavior. {END}
** {F17031} The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
** previously entered by the same thread.  {U17032} The behavior
** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered by the
** calling thread or is not currently allocated.  {F17033} SQLite will
** never do either. {END}
** See also: [sqlite3_mutex_held()] and [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()].
SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API void sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex*);

** CAPI3REF: Mutex Verifcation Routines {F17080}
** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routines
** are intended for use inside assert() statements. {F17081} The SQLite core
** never uses these routines except inside an assert() and applications
** are advised to follow the lead of the core.  {F17082} The core only
** provides implementations for these routines when it is compiled
** with the SQLITE_DEBUG flag.  {U17087} External mutex implementations
** are only required to provide these routines if SQLITE_DEBUG is
** defined and if NDEBUG is not defined.
** {F17083} These routines should return true if the mutex in their argument
** is held or not held, respectively, by the calling thread. {END}
** {X17084} The implementation is not required to provided versions of these
** routines that actually work.
** If the implementation does not provide working
** versions of these routines, it should at least provide stubs
** that always return true so that one does not get spurious
** assertion failures. {END}
** {F17085} If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_held() is a NULL pointer then
** the routine should return 1.  {END} This seems counter-intuitive since
** clearly the mutex cannot be held if it does not exist.  But the
** the reason the mutex does not exist is because the build is not
** using mutexes.  And we do not want the assert() containing the
** call to sqlite3_mutex_held() to fail, so a non-zero return is
** the appropriate thing to do.  {F17086} The sqlite3_mutex_notheld() 
** interface should also return 1 when given a NULL pointer.
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex*);

** CAPI3REF: Mutex Types {F17001}
** {F17002} The [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] interface takes a single argument
** which is one of these integer constants. {END}
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST             0
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM       3  /* sqlite3_malloc() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM2      4  /* sqlite3_release_memory() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG      5  /* sqlite3_random() */
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU       6  /* lru page list */

** CAPI3REF: Low-Level Control Of Database Files {F11300}
** {F11301} The [sqlite3_file_control()] interface makes a direct call to the
** xFileControl method for the [sqlite3_io_methods] object associated
** with a particular database identified by the second argument. {F11302} The
** name of the database is the name assigned to the database by the
** <a href="lang_attach.html">ATTACH</a> SQL command that opened the
** database. {F11303} To control the main database file, use the name "main"
** or a NULL pointer. {F11304} The third and fourth parameters to this routine
** are passed directly through to the second and third parameters of
** the xFileControl method.  {F11305} The return value of the xFileControl
** method becomes the return value of this routine.
** {F11306} If the second parameter (zDbName) does not match the name of any
** open database file, then SQLITE_ERROR is returned. {F11307} This error
** code is not remembered and will not be recalled by [sqlite3_errcode()]
** or [sqlite3_errmsg()]. {U11308} The underlying xFileControl method might
** also return SQLITE_ERROR.  {U11309} There is no way to distinguish between
** an incorrect zDbName and an SQLITE_ERROR return from the underlying
** xFileControl method. {END}
SQLITE_API int sqlite3_file_control(sqlite3*, const char *zDbName, int op, void*);

** Undo the hack that converts floating point types to integer for
** builds on processors without floating point support.
# undef double

#if 0
}  /* End of the 'extern "C"' block */

/************** End of sqlite3.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include hash.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file hash.h ********************************************/
** 2001 September 22
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This is the header file for the generic hash-table implemenation
** used in SQLite.
** $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $
#ifndef _SQLITE_HASH_H_
#define _SQLITE_HASH_H_

/* Forward declarations of structures. */
typedef struct Hash Hash;
typedef struct HashElem HashElem;

/* A complete hash table is an instance of the following structure.
** The internals of this structure are intended to be opaque -- client
** code should not attempt to access or modify the fields of this structure
** directly.  Change this structure only by using the routines below.
** However, many of the "procedures" and "functions" for modifying and
** accessing this structure are really macros, so we can't really make
** this structure opaque.
struct Hash {
  char keyClass;          /* SQLITE_HASH_INT, _POINTER, _STRING, _BINARY */
  char copyKey;           /* True if copy of key made on insert */
  int count;              /* Number of entries in this table */
  int htsize;             /* Number of buckets in the hash table */
  HashElem *first;        /* The first element of the array */
  struct _ht {            /* the hash table */
    int count;               /* Number of entries with this hash */
    HashElem *chain;         /* Pointer to first entry with this hash */
  } *ht;

/* Each element in the hash table is an instance of the following 
** structure.  All elements are stored on a single doubly-linked list.
** Again, this structure is intended to be opaque, but it can't really
** be opaque because it is used by macros.
struct HashElem {
  HashElem *next, *prev;   /* Next and previous elements in the table */
  void *data;              /* Data associated with this element */
  void *pKey; int nKey;    /* Key associated with this element */

** There are 4 different modes of operation for a hash table:
**   SQLITE_HASH_INT         nKey is used as the key and pKey is ignored.
**   SQLITE_HASH_POINTER     pKey is used as the key and nKey is ignored.
**   SQLITE_HASH_STRING      pKey points to a string that is nKey bytes long
**                           (including the null-terminator, if any).  Case
**                           is ignored in comparisons.
**   SQLITE_HASH_BINARY      pKey points to binary data nKey bytes long. 
**                           memcmp() is used to compare keys.
** A copy of the key is made for SQLITE_HASH_STRING and SQLITE_HASH_BINARY
** if the copyKey parameter to HashInit is 1.  
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_INT       1 // NOT USED */
/* #define SQLITE_HASH_POINTER   2 // NOT USED */

** Access routines.  To delete, insert a NULL pointer.
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashInit(Hash*, int keytype, int copyKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashInsert(Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey, void *pData);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashFind(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE HashElem *sqlite3HashFindElem(const Hash*, const void *pKey, int nKey);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Hash*);

** Macros for looping over all elements of a hash table.  The idiom is
** like this:
**   Hash h;
**   HashElem *p;
**   ...
**   for(p=sqliteHashFirst(&h); p; p=sqliteHashNext(p)){
**     SomeStructure *pData = sqliteHashData(p);
**     // do something with pData
**   }
#define sqliteHashFirst(H)  ((H)->first)
#define sqliteHashNext(E)   ((E)->next)
#define sqliteHashData(E)   ((E)->data)
#define sqliteHashKey(E)    ((E)->pKey)
#define sqliteHashKeysize(E) ((E)->nKey)

** Number of entries in a hash table
#define sqliteHashCount(H)  ((H)->count)

#endif /* _SQLITE_HASH_H_ */

/************** End of hash.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include parse.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file parse.h *******************************************/
#define TK_SEMI                            1
#define TK_EXPLAIN                         2
#define TK_QUERY                           3
#define TK_PLAN                            4
#define TK_BEGIN                           5
#define TK_TRANSACTION                     6
#define TK_DEFERRED                        7
#define TK_IMMEDIATE                       8
#define TK_EXCLUSIVE                       9
#define TK_COMMIT                         10
#define TK_END                            11
#define TK_ROLLBACK                       12
#define TK_CREATE                         13
#define TK_TABLE                          14
#define TK_IF                             15
#define TK_NOT                            16
#define TK_EXISTS                         17
#define TK_TEMP                           18
#define TK_LP                             19
#define TK_RP                             20
#define TK_AS                             21
#define TK_COMMA                          22
#define TK_ID                             23
#define TK_ABORT                          24
#define TK_AFTER                          25
#define TK_ANALYZE                        26
#define TK_ASC                            27
#define TK_ATTACH                         28
#define TK_BEFORE                         29
#define TK_CASCADE                        30
#define TK_CAST                           31
#define TK_CONFLICT                       32
#define TK_DATABASE                       33
#define TK_DESC                           34
#define TK_DETACH                         35
#define TK_EACH                           36
#define TK_FAIL                           37
#define TK_FOR                            38
#define TK_IGNORE                         39
#define TK_INITIALLY                      40
#define TK_INSTEAD                        41
#define TK_LIKE_KW                        42
#define TK_MATCH                          43
#define TK_KEY                            44
#define TK_OF                             45
#define TK_OFFSET                         46
#define TK_PRAGMA                         47
#define TK_RAISE                          48
#define TK_REPLACE                        49
#define TK_RESTRICT                       50
#define TK_ROW                            51
#define TK_TRIGGER                        52
#define TK_VACUUM                         53
#define TK_VIEW                           54
#define TK_VIRTUAL                        55
#define TK_REINDEX                        56
#define TK_RENAME                         57
#define TK_CTIME_KW                       58
#define TK_ANY                            59
#define TK_OR                             60
#define TK_AND                            61
#define TK_IS                             62
#define TK_BETWEEN                        63
#define TK_IN                             64
#define TK_ISNULL                         65
#define TK_NOTNULL                        66
#define TK_NE                             67
#define TK_EQ                             68
#define TK_GT                             69
#define TK_LE                             70
#define TK_LT                             71
#define TK_GE                             72
#define TK_ESCAPE                         73
#define TK_BITAND                         74
#define TK_BITOR                          75
#define TK_LSHIFT                         76
#define TK_RSHIFT                         77
#define TK_PLUS                           78
#define TK_MINUS                          79
#define TK_STAR                           80
#define TK_SLASH                          81
#define TK_REM                            82
#define TK_CONCAT                         83
#define TK_COLLATE                        84
#define TK_UMINUS                         85
#define TK_UPLUS                          86
#define TK_BITNOT                         87
#define TK_STRING                         88
#define TK_JOIN_KW                        89
#define TK_CONSTRAINT                     90
#define TK_DEFAULT                        91
#define TK_NULL                           92
#define TK_PRIMARY                        93
#define TK_UNIQUE                         94
#define TK_CHECK                          95
#define TK_REFERENCES                     96
#define TK_AUTOINCR                       97
#define TK_ON                             98
#define TK_DELETE                         99
#define TK_UPDATE                         100
#define TK_INSERT                         101
#define TK_SET                            102
#define TK_DEFERRABLE                     103
#define TK_FOREIGN                        104
#define TK_DROP                           105
#define TK_UNION                          106
#define TK_ALL                            107
#define TK_EXCEPT                         108
#define TK_INTERSECT                      109
#define TK_SELECT                         110
#define TK_DISTINCT                       111
#define TK_DOT                            112
#define TK_FROM                           113
#define TK_JOIN                           114
#define TK_USING                          115
#define TK_ORDER                          116
#define TK_BY                             117
#define TK_GROUP                          118
#define TK_HAVING                         119
#define TK_LIMIT                          120
#define TK_WHERE                          121
#define TK_INTO                           122
#define TK_VALUES                         123
#define TK_INTEGER                        124
#define TK_FLOAT                          125
#define TK_BLOB                           126
#define TK_REGISTER                       127
#define TK_VARIABLE                       128
#define TK_CASE                           129
#define TK_WHEN                           130
#define TK_THEN                           131
#define TK_ELSE                           132
#define TK_INDEX                          133
#define TK_ALTER                          134
#define TK_TO                             135
#define TK_ADD                            136
#define TK_COLUMNKW                       137
#define TK_TO_TEXT                        138
#define TK_TO_BLOB                        139
#define TK_TO_NUMERIC                     140
#define TK_TO_INT                         141
#define TK_TO_REAL                        142
#define TK_END_OF_FILE                    143
#define TK_ILLEGAL                        144
#define TK_SPACE                          145
#define TK_UNCLOSED_STRING                146
#define TK_COMMENT                        147
#define TK_FUNCTION                       148
#define TK_COLUMN                         149
#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION                   150
#define TK_AGG_COLUMN                     151
#define TK_CONST_FUNC                     152

/************** End of parse.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>

#define sqlite3_isnan(X)  ((X)!=(X))

** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
# define double sqlite_int64
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE sqlite_int64
#   define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (0x7fffffffffffffff)
# endif
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)

** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler 
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0

** If the following macro is set to 1, then NULL values are considered
** distinct when determining whether or not two entries are the same
** in a UNIQUE index.  This is the way PostgreSQL, Oracle, DB2, MySQL,
** OCELOT, and Firebird all work.  The SQL92 spec explicitly says this
** is the way things are suppose to work.
** If the following macro is set to 0, the NULLs are indistinct for
** a UNIQUE index.  In this mode, you can only have a single NULL entry
** for a column declared UNIQUE.  This is the way Informix and SQL Server
** work.

** The "file format" number is an integer that is incremented whenever
** the VDBE-level file format changes.  The following macros define the
** the default file format for new databases and the maximum file format
** that the library can read.

** Provide a default value for TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
#ifndef TEMP_STORE
# define TEMP_STORE 1

** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))

** Check to see if this machine uses EBCDIC.  (Yes, believe it or
** not, there are still machines out there that use EBCDIC.)
#if 'A' == '\301'
# define SQLITE_EBCDIC 1
# define SQLITE_ASCII 1

** Integers of known sizes.  These typedefs might change for architectures
** where the sizes very.  Preprocessor macros are available so that the
** types can be conveniently redefined at compile-type.  Like this:
**         cc '-DUINTPTR_TYPE=long long int' ...
#ifndef UINT32_TYPE
# define UINT32_TYPE unsigned int
#ifndef UINT16_TYPE
# define UINT16_TYPE unsigned short int
#ifndef INT16_TYPE
# define INT16_TYPE short int
#ifndef UINT8_TYPE
# define UINT8_TYPE unsigned char
#ifndef INT8_TYPE
# define INT8_TYPE signed char
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE long double
typedef sqlite_int64 i64;          /* 8-byte signed integer */
typedef sqlite_uint64 u64;         /* 8-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT32_TYPE u32;           /* 4-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT16_TYPE u16;           /* 2-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT16_TYPE i16;            /* 2-byte signed integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE u8;             /* 1-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE i8;             /* 1-byte signed integer */

** Macros to determine whether the machine is big or little endian,
** evaluated at runtime.
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3One;
SQLITE_PRIVATE const int sqlite3one;
#if defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86)
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    0
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==0)
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==1)

** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle. 
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
struct BusyHandler {
  int (*xFunc)(void *,int);  /* The busy callback */
  void *pArg;                /* First arg to busy callback */
  int nBusy;                 /* Incremented with each busy call */

** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and 
** "BusyHandler typedefs.
/************** Include btree.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file btree.h *******************************************/
** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite B-Tree file
** subsystem.  See comments in the source code for a detailed description
** of what each interface routine does.
** @(#) $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $
#ifndef _BTREE_H_
#define _BTREE_H_

/* TODO: This definition is just included so other modules compile. It
** needs to be revisited.

** If defined as non-zero, auto-vacuum is enabled by default. Otherwise
** it must be turned on for each database using "PRAGMA auto_vacuum = 1".

#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_NONE 0        /* Do not do auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_FULL 1        /* Do full auto-vacuum */
#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_INCR 2        /* Incremental vacuum */

** Forward declarations of structure
typedef struct Btree Btree;
typedef struct BtCursor BtCursor;
typedef struct BtShared BtShared;
typedef struct BtreeMutexArray BtreeMutexArray;

** This structure records all of the Btrees that need to hold
** a mutex before we enter sqlite3VdbeExec().  The Btrees are
** are placed in aBtree[] in order of aBtree[]->pBt.  That way,
** we can always lock and unlock them all quickly.
struct BtreeMutexArray {
  int nMutex;
  Btree *aBtree[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+1];

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeOpen(
  const char *zFilename,   /* Name of database file to open */
  sqlite3 *db,             /* Associated database connection */
  Btree **,                /* Return open Btree* here */
  int flags,               /* Flags */
  int vfsFlags             /* Flags passed through to VFS open */

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeOpen can be the bitwise or of the
** following values.
** NOTE:  These values must match the corresponding PAGER_ values in
** pager.h.
#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL  1  /* Do not use journal.  No argument */
#define BTREE_NO_READLOCK   2  /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */
#define BTREE_MEMORY        4  /* In-memory DB.  No argument */
#define BTREE_READONLY      8  /* Open the database in read-only mode */
#define BTREE_READWRITE    16  /* Open for both reading and writing */
#define BTREE_CREATE       32  /* Create the database if it does not exist */

/* Additional values for the 4th argument of sqlite3BtreeOpen that
** are not associated with PAGER_ values.
#define BTREE_PRIVATE      64  /* Never share with other connections */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetSafetyLevel(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetReserve(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetAutoVacuum(Btree *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetAutoVacuum(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(Btree*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseOne(Btree*, const char *zMaster);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseTwo(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommit(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollback(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollbackStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(Btree*, int*, int flags);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInStmt(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInReadTrans(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3BtreeSchema(Btree *, int, void(*)(void *));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSchemaLocked(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLockTable(Btree *, int, u8);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetFilename(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetDirname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetJournalname(Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCopyFile(Btree *, Btree *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIncrVacuum(Btree *);

/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeCreateTable can be the bitwise OR
** of the following flags:
#define BTREE_INTKEY     1    /* Table has only 64-bit signed integer keys */
#define BTREE_ZERODATA   2    /* Table has keys only - no data */
#define BTREE_LEAFDATA   4    /* Data stored in leaves only.  Implies INTKEY */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree*, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClearTable(Btree*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 *pValue);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 value);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeTripAllCursors(Btree*, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
  Btree*,                              /* BTree containing table to open */
  int iTable,                          /* Index of root page */
  int wrFlag,                          /* 1 for writing.  0 for read-only */
  int(*)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),  /* Key comparison function */
  void*,                               /* First argument to compare function */
  BtCursor **ppCursor                  /* Returned cursor */

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMoveto(BtCursor*,const void *pKey,i64 nKey,int bias,int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDelete(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(BtCursor*, const void *pKey, i64 nKey,
                                  const void *pData, int nData,
                                  int nZero, int bias);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFirst(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLast(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeNext(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeEof(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFlags(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePrevious(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKeySize(BtCursor*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKey(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3BtreeCursorDb(const BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(BtCursor*, int *pAmt);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDataSize(BtCursor*, u32 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCacheOverflow(BtCursor *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorInfo(BtCursor*, int*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorList(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePageDump(Btree*, int, int recursive);

** If we are not using shared cache, then there is no need to
** use mutexes to access the BtShared structures.  So make the
** Enter and Leave procedures no-ops.
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnter(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeave(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(Btree*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(BtCursor*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(BtreeMutexArray*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(BtreeMutexArray*, Btree*);
# define sqlite3BtreeEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeave(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(X) 1
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(X) 1
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayEnter(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayLeave(X)
# define sqlite3BtreeMutexArrayInsert(X,Y)

#endif /* _BTREE_H_ */

/************** End of btree.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include vdbe.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Begin file vdbe.h ********************************************/
** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** Header file for the Virtual DataBase Engine (VDBE)
** This header defines the interface to the virtual database engine
** or VDBE.  The VDBE implements an abstract machine that runs a
** simple program to access and modify the underlying database.
** $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $
#ifndef _SQLITE_VDBE_H_
#define _SQLITE_VDBE_H_

** A single VDBE is an opaque structure named "Vdbe".  Only routines
** in the source file sqliteVdbe.c are allowed to see the insides
** of this structure.
typedef struct Vdbe Vdbe;

** A single instruction of the virtual machine has an opcode
** and as many as three operands.  The instruction is recorded
** as an instance of the following structure:
struct VdbeOp {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  int p1;             /* First operand */
  int p2;             /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  char *p3;           /* Third parameter */
  int p3type;         /* One of the P3_xxx constants defined below */
  int cnt;            /* Number of times this instruction was executed */
  long long cycles;   /* Total time spend executing this instruction */
typedef struct VdbeOp VdbeOp;

** A smaller version of VdbeOp used for the VdbeAddOpList() function because
** it takes up less space.
struct VdbeOpList {
  u8 opcode;          /* What operation to perform */
  signed char p1;     /* First operand */
  short int p2;       /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
  char *p3;           /* Third parameter */
typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;

** Allowed values of VdbeOp.p3type
#define P3_NOTUSED    0   /* The P3 parameter is not used */
#define P3_DYNAMIC  (-1)  /* Pointer to a string obtained from sqliteMalloc() */
#define P3_STATIC   (-2)  /* Pointer to a static string */
#define P3_COLLSEQ  (-4)  /* P3 is a pointer to a CollSeq structure */
#define P3_FUNCDEF  (-5)  /* P3 is a pointer to a FuncDef structure */
#define P3_KEYINFO  (-6)  /* P3 is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure */
#define P3_VDBEFUNC (-7)  /* P3 is a pointer to a VdbeFunc structure */
#define P3_MEM      (-8)  /* P3 is a pointer to a Mem*    structure */
#define P3_TRANSIENT (-9) /* P3 is a pointer to a transient string */
#define P3_VTAB     (-10) /* P3 is a pointer to an sqlite3_vtab structure */
#define P3_MPRINTF  (-11) /* P3 is a string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() */
#define P3_REAL     (-12) /* P3 is a 64-bit floating point value */
#define P3_INT64    (-13) /* P3 is a 64-bit signed integer */

/* When adding a P3 argument using P3_KEYINFO, a copy of the KeyInfo structure
** is made.  That copy is freed when the Vdbe is finalized.  But if the
** argument is P3_KEYINFO_HANDOFF, the passed in pointer is used.  It still
** gets freed when the Vdbe is finalized so it still should be obtained
** from a single sqliteMalloc().  But no copy is made and the calling
** function should *not* try to free the KeyInfo.
#define P3_KEYINFO_HANDOFF (-9)

** The Vdbe.aColName array contains 5n Mem structures, where n is the 
** number of columns of data returned by the statement.
#define COLNAME_NAME     0
#define COLNAME_TABLE    3
#define COLNAME_COLUMN   4
#define COLNAME_N        5      /* Number of COLNAME_xxx symbols */

** The following macro converts a relative address in the p2 field
** of a VdbeOp structure into a negative number so that 
** sqlite3VdbeAddOpList() knows that the address is relative.  Calling
** the macro again restores the address.
#define ADDR(X)  (-1-(X))

** The makefile scans the vdbe.c source file and creates the "opcodes.h"
** header file that defines a number for each opcode used by the VDBE.
/************** Include opcodes.h in the middle of vdbe.h ********************/
/************** Begin file opcodes.h *****************************************/
/* Automatically generated.  Do not edit */
/* See the mkopcodeh.awk script for details */
#define OP_ReadCookie                           1
#define OP_AutoCommit                           2
#define OP_Found                                3
#define OP_NullRow                              4
#define OP_Lt                                  71   /* same as TK_LT       */
#define OP_MoveLe                               5
#define OP_Variable                             6
#define OP_Pull                                 7
#define OP_RealAffinity                         8
#define OP_Sort                                 9
#define OP_IfNot                               10
#define OP_Gosub                               11
#define OP_Add                                 78   /* same as TK_PLUS     */
#define OP_NotFound                            12
#define OP_IsNull                              65   /* same as TK_ISNULL   */
#define OP_MoveLt                              13
#define OP_Rowid                               14
#define OP_CreateIndex                         15
#define OP_Push                                17
#define OP_Explain                             18
#define OP_Statement                           19
#define OP_Callback                            20
#define OP_MemLoad                             21
#define OP_DropIndex                           22
#define OP_Null                                23
#define OP_ToInt                              141   /* same as TK_TO_INT   */
#define OP_Int64                               24
#define OP_LoadAnalysis                        25
#define OP_IdxInsert                           26
#define OP_VUpdate                             27
#define OP_Next                                28
#define OP_SetNumColumns                       29
#define OP_ToNumeric                          140   /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC*/
#define OP_Ge                                  72   /* same as TK_GE       */
#define OP_BitNot                              87   /* same as TK_BITNOT   */
#define OP_MemInt                              30
#define OP_Dup                                 31
#define OP_Rewind                              32
#define OP_Multiply                            80   /* same as TK_STAR     */
#define OP_ToReal                             142   /* same as TK_TO_REAL  */
#define OP_Gt                                  69   /* same as TK_GT       */
#define OP_Last                                33
#define OP_MustBeInt                           34
#define OP_Ne                                  67   /* same as TK_NE       */
#define OP_MoveGe                              35
#define OP_IncrVacuum                          36
#define OP_String                              37
#define OP_VFilter                             38
#define OP_ForceInt                            39
#define OP_Close                               40
#define OP_AggFinal                            41
#define OP_AbsValue                            42
#define OP_RowData                             43
#define OP_IdxRowid                            44
#define OP_BitOr                               75   /* same as TK_BITOR    */
#define OP_NotNull                             66   /* same as TK_NOTNULL  */
#define OP_MoveGt                              45
#define OP_Not                                 16   /* same as TK_NOT      */
#define OP_OpenPseudo                          46
#define OP_Halt                                47
#define OP_MemMove                             48
#define OP_NewRowid                            49
#define OP_Real                               125   /* same as TK_FLOAT    */
#define OP_IdxLT                               50
#define OP_Distinct                            51
#define OP_MemMax                              52
#define OP_Function                            53
#define OP_IntegrityCk                         54
#define OP_Remainder                           82   /* same as TK_REM      */
#define OP_HexBlob                            126   /* same as TK_BLOB     */
#define OP_ShiftLeft                           76   /* same as TK_LSHIFT   */
#define OP_FifoWrite                           55
#define OP_BitAnd                              74   /* same as TK_BITAND   */
#define OP_Or                                  60   /* same as TK_OR       */
#define OP_NotExists                           56
#define OP_VDestroy                            57
#define OP_MemStore                            58
#define OP_IdxDelete                           59
#define OP_Vacuum                              62
#define OP_If                                  63
#define OP_Destroy                             64
#define OP_AggStep                             73
#define OP_Clear                               84
#define OP_Insert                              86
#define OP_VBegin                              89
#define OP_IdxGE                               90
#define OP_OpenEphemeral                       91
#define OP_Divide                              81   /* same as TK_SLASH    */
#define OP_String8                             88   /* same as TK_STRING   */
#define OP_IfMemZero                           92
#define OP_Concat                              83   /* same as TK_CONCAT   */
#define OP_VRowid                              93
#define OP_MakeRecord                          94
#define OP_SetCookie                           95
#define OP_StackDepth                          96
#define OP_Prev                                97
#define OP_ContextPush                         98
#define OP_DropTrigger                         99
#define OP_IdxGT                              100
#define OP_MemNull                            101
#define OP_IfMemNeg                           102
#define OP_And                                 61   /* same as TK_AND      */
#define OP_VColumn                            103
#define OP_Return                             104
#define OP_OpenWrite                          105
#define OP_Integer                            106
#define OP_Transaction                        107
#define OP_CollSeq                            108
#define OP_VRename                            109
#define OP_ToBlob                             139   /* same as TK_TO_BLOB  */
#define OP_Sequence                           110
#define OP_ContextPop                         111
#define OP_ShiftRight                          77   /* same as TK_RSHIFT   */
#define OP_VCreate                            112
#define OP_CreateTable                        113
#define OP_AddImm                             114
#define OP_ToText                             138   /* same as TK_TO_TEXT  */
#define OP_DropTable                          115
#define OP_IsUnique                           116
#define OP_VOpen                              117
#define OP_Noop                               118
#define OP_RowKey                             119
#define OP_Expire                             120
#define OP_FifoRead                           121
#define OP_Delete                             122
#define OP_IfMemPos                           123
#define OP_Subtract                            79   /* same as TK_MINUS    */
#define OP_MemIncr                            124
#define OP_Blob                               127
#define OP_MakeIdxRec                         128
#define OP_Goto                               129
#define OP_Negative                            85   /* same as TK_UMINUS   */
#define OP_ParseSchema                        130
#define OP_Eq                                  68   /* same as TK_EQ       */
#define OP_VNext                              131
#define OP_Pop                                132
#define OP_Le                                  70   /* same as TK_LE       */
#define OP_TableLock                          133
#define OP_VerifyCookie                       134
#define OP_Column                             135
#define OP_OpenRead                           136
#define OP_ResetCount                         137

/* Opcodes that are guaranteed to never push a value onto the stack
** contain a 1 their corresponding position of the following mask
** set.  See the opcodeNoPush() function in vdbeaux.c  */
#define NOPUSH_MASK_0 0x3fbc
#define NOPUSH_MASK_1 0x3e5b
#define NOPUSH_MASK_2 0xe3df
#define NOPUSH_MASK_3 0xff9c
#define NOPUSH_MASK_4 0xfffe
#define NOPUSH_MASK_5 0x9ef7
#define NOPUSH_MASK_6 0xbb5f
#define NOPUSH_MASK_7 0x1d7d
#define NOPUSH_MASK_8 0x7f7e
#define NOPUSH_MASK_9 0x0000

/************** End of opcodes.h *********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in vdbe.h ***********************/

** Prototypes for the VDBE interface.  See comments on the implementation
** for a description of what each of these routines does.
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3VdbeCreate(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp(Vdbe*,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeOp3(Vdbe*,int,int,int,const char *zP3,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, int addr, int P1);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, int addr, int P2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, int addr, const char *zP1, int N);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeUsesBtree(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeGetOp(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDelete(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMakeReady(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFinalize(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeTrace(Vdbe*,FILE*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResetStepResult(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(Vdbe*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSetColName(Vdbe*, int, int, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3VdbeDb(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetSql(Vdbe*, const char *z, int n);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);

#ifndef NDEBUG
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3VdbeComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
# define VdbeComment(X)  sqlite3VdbeComment X
# define VdbeComment(X)


/************** End of vdbe.h ************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include pager.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file pager.h *******************************************/
** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem.  The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
** @(#) $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $

#ifndef _PAGER_H_
#define _PAGER_H_

** The type used to represent a page number.  The first page in a file
** is called page 1.  0 is used to represent "not a page".
typedef unsigned int Pgno;

** Each open file is managed by a separate instance of the "Pager" structure.
typedef struct Pager Pager;

** Handle type for pages.
typedef struct PgHdr DbPage;

** Allowed values for the flags parameter to sqlite3PagerOpen().
** NOTE: This values must match the corresponding BTREE_ values in btree.h.
#define PAGER_OMIT_JOURNAL  0x0001    /* Do not use a rollback journal */
#define PAGER_NO_READLOCK   0x0002    /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */

** Valid values for the second argument to sqlite3PagerLockingMode().

** See source code comments for a detailed description of the following
** routines:
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, Pager **ppPager, const char*, int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetBusyhandler(Pager*, BusyHandler *pBusyHandler);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetDestructor(Pager*, void(*)(DbPage*,int));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetReiniter(Pager*, void(*)(DbPage*,int));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetPagesize(Pager*, u16*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMaxPageCount(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerReadFileheader(Pager*, int, unsigned char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetCachesize(Pager*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerClose(Pager *pPager);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerAcquire(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, DbPage **ppPage, int clrFlag);
#define sqlite3PagerGet(A,B,C) sqlite3PagerAcquire(A,B,C,0)
SQLITE_PRIVATE DbPage *sqlite3PagerLookup(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRef(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerUnref(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOverwrite(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerPagecount(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerTruncate(Pager*,Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerBegin(DbPage*, int exFlag);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseOne(Pager*,const char *zMaster, Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseTwo(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerIsreadonly(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtBegin(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtCommit(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerStmtRollback(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontRollback(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontWrite(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRefcount(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetSafetyLevel(Pager*,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerDirname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMovepage(Pager*,DbPage*,Pgno);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetData(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetExtra(DbPage *); 
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerLockingMode(Pager *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerReleaseMemory(int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerSetCodec(Pager*,void*(*)(void*,void*,Pgno,int),void*);

#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   Pgno sqlite3PagerPagenumber(DbPage*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3PagerIswriteable(DbPage*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   int *sqlite3PagerStats(Pager*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3PagerRefdump(Pager*);
  int pager3_refinfo_enable;

void disable_simulated_io_errors(void);
void enable_simulated_io_errors(void);
# define disable_simulated_io_errors()
# define enable_simulated_io_errors()

#endif /* _PAGER_H_ */

/************** End of pager.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

** Name of the master database table.  The master database table
** is a special table that holds the names and attributes of all
** user tables and indices.
#define MASTER_NAME       "sqlite_master"
#define TEMP_MASTER_NAME  "sqlite_temp_master"

** The root-page of the master database table.
#define MASTER_ROOT       1

** The name of the schema table.

** A convenience macro that returns the number of elements in
** an array.
#define ArraySize(X)    (sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0]))

** Forward references to structures
typedef struct AggInfo AggInfo;
typedef struct AuthContext AuthContext;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct KeyClass KeyClass;
typedef struct KeyInfo KeyInfo;
typedef struct Module Module;
typedef struct NameContext NameContext;
typedef struct Parse Parse;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TriggerStack TriggerStack;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct WhereLevel WhereLevel;

/************** Include os.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ********************/
/************** Begin file os.h **********************************************/
** 2001 September 16
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This header file (together with is companion C source-code file
** "os.c") attempt to abstract the underlying operating system so that
** the SQLite library will work on both POSIX and windows systems.
** This header file is #include-ed by sqliteInt.h and thus ends up
** being included by every source file.
#ifndef _SQLITE_OS_H_
#define _SQLITE_OS_H_

** Figure out if we are dealing with Unix, Windows, or some other
** operating system.  After the following block of preprocess macros,
** all of OS_UNIX, OS_WIN, OS_OS2, and OS_OTHER will defined to either
** 1 or 0.  One of the four will be 1.  The other three will be 0.
#if defined(OS_OTHER)
# if OS_OTHER==1
#   undef OS_UNIX
#   define OS_UNIX 0
#   undef OS_WIN
#   define OS_WIN 0
#   undef OS_OS2
#   define OS_OS2 0
# else
#   undef OS_OTHER
# endif
#if !defined(OS_UNIX) && !defined(OS_OTHER)
# define OS_OTHER 0
# ifndef OS_WIN
#   if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__) || defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
#     define OS_WIN 1
#     define OS_UNIX 0
#     define OS_OS2 0
#   elif defined(__EMX__) || defined(_OS2) || defined(OS2) || defined(_OS2_) || defined(__OS2__)
#     define OS_WIN 0
#     define OS_UNIX 0
#     define OS_OS2 1
#   else
#     define OS_WIN 0
#     define OS_UNIX 1
#     define OS_OS2 0
#  endif
# else
#  define OS_UNIX 0
#  define OS_OS2 0
# endif
# ifndef OS_WIN
#  define OS_WIN 0
# endif

** Define the maximum size of a temporary filename
#if OS_WIN
# include <windows.h>
#elif OS_OS2
# if (__GNUC__ > 3 || __GNUC__ == 3 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 3) && defined(OS2_HIGH_MEMORY)
#  include <os2safe.h> /* has to be included before os2.h for linking to work */
# endif
# include <os2.h>

/* If the SET_FULLSYNC macro is not defined above, then make it
** a no-op
# define SET_FULLSYNC(x,y)

** The default size of a disk sector

** Temporary files are named starting with this prefix followed by 16 random
** alphanumeric characters, and no file extension. They are stored in the
** OS's standard temporary file directory, and are deleted prior to exit.
** If sqlite is being embedded in another program, you may wish to change the
** prefix to reflect your program's name, so that if your program exits
** prematurely, old temporary files can be easily identified. This can be done
** using -DSQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX=myprefix_ on the compiler command line.
** 2006-10-31:  The default prefix used to be "sqlite_".  But then
** Mcafee started using SQLite in their anti-virus product and it
** started putting files with the "sqlite" name in the c:/temp folder.
** This annoyed many windows users.  Those users would then do a 
** Google search for "sqlite", find the telephone numbers of the
** developers and call to wake them up at night and complain.
** For this reason, the default name prefix is changed to be "sqlite" 
** spelled backwards.  So the temp files are still identified, but
** anybody smart enough to figure out the code is also likely smart
** enough to know that calling the developer will not help get rid
** of the file.
# define SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX "etilqs_"

** The following values may be passed as the second argument to
** sqlite3OsLock(). The various locks exhibit the following semantics:
** SHARED:    Any number of processes may hold a SHARED lock simultaneously.
** RESERVED:  A single process may hold a RESERVED lock on a file at
**            any time. Other processes may hold and obtain new SHARED locks.
** PENDING:   A single process may hold a PENDING lock on a file at
**            any one time. Existing SHARED locks may persist, but no new
**            SHARED locks may be obtained by other processes.
** EXCLUSIVE: An EXCLUSIVE lock precludes all other locks.
** PENDING_LOCK may not be passed directly to sqlite3OsLock(). Instead, a
** process that requests an EXCLUSIVE lock may actually obtain a PENDING
** lock. This can be upgraded to an EXCLUSIVE lock by a subsequent call to
** sqlite3OsLock().
#define NO_LOCK         0
#define SHARED_LOCK     1
#define RESERVED_LOCK   2
#define PENDING_LOCK    3

** File Locking Notes:  (Mostly about windows but also some info for Unix)
** We cannot use LockFileEx() or UnlockFileEx() on Win95/98/ME because
** those functions are not available.  So we use only LockFile() and
** UnlockFile().
** LockFile() prevents not just writing but also reading by other processes.
** A SHARED_LOCK is obtained by locking a single randomly-chosen 
** byte out of a specific range of bytes. The lock byte is obtained at 
** random so two separate readers can probably access the file at the 
** same time, unless they are unlucky and choose the same lock byte.
** An EXCLUSIVE_LOCK is obtained by locking all bytes in the range.
** There can only be one writer.  A RESERVED_LOCK is obtained by locking
** a single byte of the file that is designated as the reserved lock byte.
** A PENDING_LOCK is obtained by locking a designated byte different from
** the RESERVED_LOCK byte.
** On WinNT/2K/XP systems, LockFileEx() and UnlockFileEx() are available,
** which means we can use reader/writer locks.  When reader/writer locks
** are used, the lock is placed on the same range of bytes that is used
** for probabilistic locking in Win95/98/ME.  Hence, the locking scheme
** will support two or more Win95 readers or two or more WinNT readers.
** But a single Win95 reader will lock out all WinNT readers and a single
** WinNT reader will lock out all other Win95 readers.
** The following #defines specify the range of bytes used for locking.
** SHARED_SIZE is the number of bytes available in the pool from which
** a random byte is selected for a shared lock.  The pool of bytes for
** shared locks begins at SHARED_FIRST. 
** These #defines are available in sqlite_aux.h so that adaptors for
** connecting SQLite to other operating systems can use the same byte
** ranges for locking.  In particular, the same locking strategy and
** byte ranges are used for Unix.  This leaves open the possiblity of having
** clients on win95, winNT, and unix all talking to the same shared file
** and all locking correctly.  To do so would require that samba (or whatever
** tool is being used for file sharing) implements locks correctly between
** windows and unix.  I'm guessing that isn't likely to happen, but by
** using the same locking range we are at least open to the possibility.
** Locking in windows is manditory.  For this reason, we cannot store
** actual data in the bytes used for locking.  The pager never allocates
** the pages involved in locking therefore.  SHARED_SIZE is selected so
** that all locks will fit on a single page even at the minimum page size.
** PENDING_BYTE defines the beginning of the locks.  By default PENDING_BYTE
** is set high so that we don't have to allocate an unused page except
** for very large databases.  But one should test the page skipping logic 
** by setting PENDING_BYTE low and running the entire regression suite.
** Changing the value of PENDING_BYTE results in a subtly incompatible
** file format.  Depending on how it is changed, you might not notice
** the incompatibility right away, even running a full regression test.
** The default location of PENDING_BYTE is the first byte past the
** 1GB boundary.
#define PENDING_BYTE      0x40000000  /* First byte past the 1GB boundary */
SQLITE_API extern unsigned int sqlite3_pending_byte;
#define PENDING_BYTE sqlite3_pending_byte

#define SHARED_SIZE       510

** Functions for accessing sqlite3_file methods 
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file*, void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int amt, i64 offset);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file*, i64 size);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file*, i64 *pSize);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file*,int,void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id);

** Functions for accessing sqlite3_vfs methods 
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file*, int, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsGetTempname(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *, void *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *, void *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTime(sqlite3_vfs *, double*);

** Convenience functions for opening and closing files using 
** sqlite3_malloc() to obtain space for the file-handle structure.
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file **, int,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *);

** Each OS-specific backend defines an instance of the following
** structure for returning a pointer to its sqlite3_vfs.  If OS_OTHER
** is defined (meaning that the application-defined OS interface layer
** is used) then there is no default VFS.   The application must
** register one or more VFS structures using sqlite3_vfs_register()
** before attempting to use SQLite.
#if OS_UNIX || OS_WIN || OS_OS2
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3OsDefaultVfs(void);
# define sqlite3OsDefaultVfs(X) 0

#endif /* _SQLITE_OS_H_ */

/************** End of os.h **************************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
/************** Include mutex.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
/************** Begin file mutex.h *******************************************/
** 2007 August 28
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** This file contains the common header for all mutex implementations.
** The sqliteInt.h header #includes this file so that it is available
** to all source files.  We break it out in an effort to keep the code
** better organized.
** NOTE:  source files should *not* #include this header file directly.
** Source files should #include the sqliteInt.h file and let that file
** include this one indirectly.
** $Id: sqlite3.c,v 1.16 2008/04/15 19:29:46 mozilla%weilbacher.org Exp $

** If SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF is defined, then this whole module is
** omitted and equivalent functionality must be provided by the
** application that links against the SQLite library.
** Figure out what version of the code to use.  The choices are
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP         For single-threaded applications that
**                             do not desire error checking.
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP_DEBUG   For single-threaded applications with
**                             error checking to help verify that mutexes
**                             are being used correctly even though they
**                             are not needed.  Used when SQLITE_DEBUG is
**                             defined on single-threaded builds.
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS     For multi-threaded applications on Unix.
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_W32          For multi-threaded applications on Win32.
**   SQLITE_MUTEX_OS2          For multi-threaded applications on OS/2.
#define SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP 1   /* The default */
# define SQLITE_MUTEX_W32

** If this is a no-op implementation, implement everything as macros.
#define sqlite3_mutex_alloc(X)    ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
#define sqlite3_mutex_free(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_enter(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_try(X)      SQLITE_OK
#define sqlite3_mutex_leave(X)
#define sqlite3_mutex_held(X)     1
#define sqlite3_mutex_notheld(X)  1


/************** End of mutex.h ***********************************************/
/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/

** Each database file to be accessed by the system is an instance
** of the following structure.  There are normally two of these structures
** in the sqlite.aDb[] array.  aDb[0] is the main database file and
** aDb[1] is the database file used to hold temporary tables.  Additional
** databases may be attached.
struct Db {
  char *zName;         /* Name of this database */
  Btree *pBt;          /* The B*Tree structure for this database file */
  u8 inTrans;          /* 0: not writable.  1: Transaction.  2: Checkpoint */
  u8 safety_level;     /* How aggressive at synching data to disk */
  void *pAux;               /* Auxiliary data.  Usually NULL */
  void (*xFreeAux)(void*);  /* Routine to free pAux */
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Pointer to database schema (possibly shared) */

** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
** If there are no virtual tables configured in this schema, the
** Schema.db variable is set to NULL. After the first virtual table
** has been added, it is set to point to the database connection 
** used to create the connection. Once a virtual table has been
** added to the Schema structure and the Schema.db variable populated, 
** only that database connection may use the Schema to prepare 
** statements.
struct Schema {
  int schema_cookie;   /* Database schema version number for this file */
  Hash tblHash;        /* All tables indexed by name */
  Hash idxHash;        /* All (named) indices indexed by name */
  Hash trigHash;       /* All triggers indexed by name */
  Hash aFKey;          /* Foreign keys indexed by to-table */
  Table *pSeqTab;      /* The sqlite_sequence table used by AUTOINCREMENT */
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 flags;           /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
  sqlite3 *db;         /* "Owner" connection. See comment above */

** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Db.flags field.
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->flags&=~(P)

** Allowed values for the DB.flags field.
** The DB_SchemaLoaded flag is set after the database schema has been
** read into internal hash tables.
** DB_UnresetViews means that one or more views have column names that
** have been filled out.  If the schema changes, these column names might
** changes and so the view will need to be reset.
#define DB_SchemaLoaded    0x0001  /* The schema has been loaded */
#define DB_UnresetViews    0x0002  /* Some views have defined column names */
#define DB_Empty           0x0004  /* The file is empty (length 0 bytes) */

** Each database is an instance of the following structure.
** The sqlite.lastRowid records the last insert rowid generated by an
** insert statement.  Inserts on views do not affect its value.  Each
** trigger has its own context, so that lastRowid can be updated inside
** triggers as usual.  The previous value will be restored once the trigger
** exits.  Upon entering a before or instead of trigger, lastRowid is no
** longer (since after version 2.8.12) reset to -1.
** The sqlite.nChange does not count changes within triggers and keeps no
** context.  It is reset at start of sqlite3_exec.
** The sqlite.lsChange represents the number of changes made by the last
** insert, update, or delete statement.  It remains constant throughout the
** length of a statement and is then updated by OP_SetCounts.  It keeps a
** context stack just like lastRowid so that the count of changes
** within a trigger is not seen outside the trigger.  Changes to views do not
** affect the value of lsChange.
** The sqlite.csChange keeps track of the number of current changes (since
** the last statement) and is used to update sqlite_lsChange.
** The member variables sqlite.errCode, sqlite.zErrMsg and sqlite.zErrMsg16
** store the most recent error code and, if applicable, string. The
** internal function sqlite3Error() is used to set these variables
** consistently.
struct sqlite3 {
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs;            /* OS Interface */
  int nDb;                      /* Number of backends currently in use */
  Db *aDb;                      /* All backends */
  int flags;                    /* Miscellanous flags. See below */
  int openFlags;                /* Flags passed to sqlite3_vfs.xOpen() */
  int errCode;                  /* Most recent error code (SQLITE_*) */
  int errMask;                  /* & result codes with this before returning */
  u8 autoCommit;                /* The auto-commit flag. */
  u8 temp_store;                /* 1: file 2: memory 0: default */
  u8 mallocFailed;              /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
  char nextAutovac;             /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
  int nTable;                   /* Number of tables in the database */
  CollSeq *pDfltColl;           /* The default collating sequence (BINARY) */
  i64 lastRowid;                /* ROWID of most recent insert (see above) */
  i64 priorNewRowid;            /* Last randomly generated ROWID */
  int magic;                    /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
  int nChange;                  /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
  int nTotalChange;             /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;         /* Connection mutex */
  struct sqlite3InitInfo {      /* Information used during initialization */
    int iDb;                    /* When back is being initialized */
    int newTnum;                /* Rootpage of table being initialized */
    u8 busy;                    /* TRUE if currently initializing */
  } init;
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared libraray handles */
  struct Vdbe *pVdbe;           /* List of active virtual machines */
  int activeVdbeCnt;            /* Number of vdbes currently executing */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */   
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */   
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
  void(*xCollNeeded)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*);
  void(*xCollNeeded16)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*);
  void *pCollNeededArg;
  sqlite3_value *pErr;          /* Most recent error message */
  char *zErrMsg;                /* Most recent error message (UTF-8 encoded) */
  char *zErrMsg16;              /* Most recent error message (UTF-16 encoded) */
  union {
    int isInterrupted;          /* True if sqlite3_interrupt has been called */
    double notUsed1;            /* Spacer */
  } u1;
  int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*);
                                /* Access authorization function */
  void *pAuthArg;               /* 1st argument to the access auth function */
  int (*xProgress)(void *);     /* The progress callback */
  void *pProgressArg;           /* Argument to the progress callback */
  int nProgressOps;             /* Number of opcodes for progress callback */
  Hash aModule;                 /* populated by sqlite3_create_module() */
  Table *pVTab;                 /* vtab with active Connect/Create method */
  sqlite3_vtab **aVTrans;       /* Virtual tables with open transactions */
  int nVTrans;                  /* Allocated size of aVTrans */
  Hash aFunc;                   /* All functions that can be in SQL exprs */
  Hash aCollSeq;                /* All collating sequences */
  BusyHandler busyHandler;      /* Busy callback */
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  Db aDbStatic[2];              /* Static space for the 2 default backends */
  sqlite3_stmt *pFetch;         /* Used by SSE to fetch stored statements */
  u8 dfltLockMode;              /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */

** A macro to discover the encoding of a database.
#define ENC(db) ((db)->aDb[0].pSchema->enc)

** Possible values for the sqlite.flags and or Db.flags fields.
** On sqlite.flags, the SQLITE_InTrans value means that we have
** executed a BEGIN.  On Db.flags, SQLITE_InTrans means a statement
** transaction is active on that particular database file.
#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      0x00000001  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
#define SQLITE_InTrans        0x00000008  /* True if in a transaction */
#define SQLITE_InternChanges  0x00000010  /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
#define SQLITE_FullColNames   0x00000020  /* Show full column names on SELECT */
#define SQLITE_ShortColNames  0x00000040  /* Show short columns names */
#define SQLITE_CountRows      0x00000080  /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
#define SQLITE_NullCallback   0x00000100  /* Invoke the callback once if the */
                                          /*   result set is empty */
#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       0x00000200  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    0x00000400  /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
#define SQLITE_WriteSchema    0x00000800  /* OK to update SQLITE_MASTER */
#define SQLITE_NoReadlock     0x00001000  /* Readlocks are omitted when 
                                          ** accessing read-only databases */
#define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks   0x00002000  /* Do not enforce check constraints */
#define SQLITE_ReadUncommitted 0x00004000 /* For shared-cache mode */
#define SQLITE_LegacyFileFmt  0x00008000  /* Create new databases in format 1 */
#define SQLITE_FullFSync      0x00010000  /* Use full fsync on the backend */
#define SQLITE_LoadExtension  0x00020000  /* Enable load_extension */

#define SQLITE_RecoveryMode   0x00040000  /* Ignore schema errors */
#define SQLITE_SharedCache    0x00080000  /* Cache sharing is enabled */
#define SQLITE_Vtab           0x00100000  /* There exists a virtual table */

** Possible values for the sqlite.magic field.
** The numbers are obtained at random and have no special meaning, other
** than being distinct from one another.
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN     0xa029a697  /* Database is open */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED   0x9f3c2d33  /* Database is closed */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY     0xf03b7906  /* Database currently in use */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR    0xb5357930  /* An SQLITE_MISUSE error occurred */

** Each SQL function is defined by an instance of the following
** structure.  A pointer to this structure is stored in the sqlite.aFunc
** hash table.  When multiple functions have the same name, the hash table
** points to a linked list of these structures.
struct FuncDef {
  i16 nArg;            /* Number of arguments.  -1 means unlimited */
  u8 iPrefEnc;         /* Preferred text encoding (SQLITE_UTF8, 16LE, 16BE) */
  u8 needCollSeq;      /* True if sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq() might be called */
  u8 flags;            /* Some combination of SQLITE_FUNC_* */
  void *pUserData;     /* User data parameter */
  FuncDef *pNext;      /* Next function with same name */
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Regular function */
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Aggregate step */
  void (*xFinalize)(sqlite3_context*);                /* Aggregate finializer */
  char zName[1];       /* SQL name of the function.  MUST BE LAST */

** Each SQLite module (virtual table definition) is defined by an
** instance of the following structure, stored in the sqlite3.aModule
** hash table.
struct Module {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;       /* Callback pointers */
  const char *zName;                   /* Name passed to create_module() */
  void *pAux;                          /* pAux passed to create_module() */
  void (*xDestroy)(void *);            /* Module destructor function */

** Possible values for FuncDef.flags
#define SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE   0x01  /* Candidate for the LIKE optimization */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_CASE   0x02  /* Case-sensitive LIKE-type function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_EPHEM  0x04  /* Ephermeral.  Delete with VDBE */

** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
** of this structure.
struct Column {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this column */
  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value of this column */
  char *zType;     /* Data type for this column */
  char *zColl;     /* Collating sequence.  If NULL, use the default */
  u8 notNull;      /* True if there is a NOT NULL constraint */
  u8 isPrimKey;    /* True if this column is part of the PRIMARY KEY */
  char affinity;   /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
  u8 isHidden;     /* True if this column is 'hidden' */

** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
** There may two seperate implementations of the collation function, one
** that processes text in UTF-8 encoding (CollSeq.xCmp) and another that
** processes text encoded in UTF-16 (CollSeq.xCmp16), using the machine
** native byte order. When a collation sequence is invoked, SQLite selects
** the version that will require the least expensive encoding
** translations, if any.
** The CollSeq.pUser member variable is an extra parameter that passed in
** as the first argument to the UTF-8 comparison function, xCmp.
** CollSeq.pUser16 is the equivalent for the UTF-16 comparison function,
** xCmp16.
** If both CollSeq.xCmp and CollSeq.xCmp16 are NULL, it means that the
** collating sequence is undefined.  Indices built on an undefined
** collating sequence may not be read or written.
struct CollSeq {
  char *zName;          /* Name of the collating sequence, UTF-8 encoded */
  u8 enc;               /* Text encoding handled by xCmp() */
  u8 type;              /* One of the SQLITE_COLL_... values below */
  void *pUser;          /* First argument to xCmp() */
  int (*xCmp)(void*,int, const void*, int, const void*);
  void (*xDel)(void*);  /* Destructor for pUser */

** Allowed values of CollSeq flags:
#define SQLITE_COLL_BINARY  1  /* The default memcmp() collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_NOCASE  2  /* The built-in NOCASE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_REVERSE 3  /* The built-in REVERSE collating sequence */
#define SQLITE_COLL_USER    0  /* Any other user-defined collating sequence */

** A sort order can be either ASC or DESC.
#define SQLITE_SO_ASC       0  /* Sort in ascending order */
#define SQLITE_SO_DESC      1  /* Sort in ascending order */

** Column affinity types.
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by number the values consecutively.  
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'a'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P3 operand, they will be more readable.
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.
#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     'a'
#define SQLITE_AFF_NONE     'b'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'e'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

** Each SQL table is represented in memory by an instance of the
** following structure.
** Table.zName is the name of the table.  The case of the original
** CREATE TABLE statement is stored, but case is not significant for
** comparisons.
** Table.nCol is the number of columns in this table.  Table.aCol is a
** pointer to an array of Column structures, one for each column.
** If the table has an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then Table.iPKey is the index of
** the column that is that key.   Otherwise Table.iPKey is negative.  Note
** that the datatype of the PRIMARY KEY must be INTEGER for this field to
** be set.  An INTEGER PRIMARY KEY is used as the rowid for each row of
** the table.  If a table has no INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, then a random rowid
** is generated for each row of the table.  Table.hasPrimKey is true if
** the table has any PRIMARY KEY, INTEGER or otherwise.
** Table.tnum is the page number for the root BTree page of the table in the
** database file.  If Table.iDb is the index of the database table backend
** in sqlite.aDb[].  0 is for the main database and 1 is for the file that
** holds temporary tables and indices.  If Table.isEphem
** is true, then the table is stored in a file that is automatically deleted
** when the VDBE cursor to the table is closed.  In this case Table.tnum 
** refers VDBE cursor number that holds the table open, not to the root
** page number.  Transient tables are used to hold the results of a
** sub-query that appears instead of a real table name in the FROM clause 
** of a SELECT statement.
struct Table {
  char *zName;     /* Name of the table */
  int nCol;        /* Number of columns in this table */
  Column *aCol;    /* Information about each column */
  int iPKey;       /* If not less then 0, use aCol[iPKey] as the primary key */
  Index *pIndex;   /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  int tnum;        /* Root BTree node for this table (see note above) */
  Select *pSelect; /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  int nRef;          /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  Trigger *pTrigger; /* List of SQL triggers on this table */
  FKey *pFKey;       /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;     /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Expr *pCheck;      /* The AND of all CHECK constraints */
  int addColOffset;  /* Offset in CREATE TABLE statement to add a new column */
  u8 readOnly;     /* True if this table should not be written by the user */
  u8 isEphem;      /* True if created using OP_OpenEphermeral */
  u8 hasPrimKey;   /* True if there exists a primary key */
  u8 keyConf;      /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
  u8 autoInc;      /* True if the integer primary key is autoincrement */
  u8 isVirtual;             /* True if this is a virtual table */
  u8 isCommit;              /* True once the CREATE TABLE has been committed */
  Module *pMod;             /* Pointer to the implementation of the module */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to the module instance */
  int nModuleArg;           /* Number of arguments to the module */
  char **azModuleArg;       /* Text of all module args. [0] is module name */
  Schema *pSchema;          /* Schema that contains this table */

** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table.  This is
** done as a macro so that it will be optimized out when virtual
** table support is omitted from the build.
#  define IsVirtual(X)      ((X)->isVirtual)
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) ((X)->isHidden)
#  define IsVirtual(X)      0
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X) 0

** Each foreign key constraint is an instance of the following structure.
** A foreign key is associated with two tables.  The "from" table is
** the table that contains the REFERENCES clause that creates the foreign
** key.  The "to" table is the table that is named in the REFERENCES clause.
** Consider this example:
**     CREATE TABLE ex1(
**     );
** For foreign key "fk1", the from-table is "ex1" and the to-table is "ex2".
** Each REFERENCES clause generates an instance of the following structure
** which is attached to the from-table.  The to-table need not exist when
** the from-table is created.  The existance of the to-table is not checked
** until an attempt is made to insert data into the from-table.
** The sqlite.aFKey hash table stores pointers to this structure
** given the name of a to-table.  For each to-table, all foreign keys
** associated with that table are on a linked list using the FKey.pNextTo
** field.
struct FKey {
  Table *pFrom;     /* The table that constains the REFERENCES clause */
  FKey *pNextFrom;  /* Next foreign key in pFrom */
  char *zTo;        /* Name of table that the key points to */
  FKey *pNextTo;    /* Next foreign key that points to zTo */
  int nCol;         /* Number of columns in this key */
  struct sColMap {  /* Mapping of columns in pFrom to columns in zTo */
    int iFrom;         /* Index of column in pFrom */
    char *zCol;        /* Name of column in zTo.  If 0 use PRIMARY KEY */
  } *aCol;          /* One entry for each of nCol column s */
  u8 isDeferred;    /* True if constraint checking is deferred till COMMIT */
  u8 updateConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on UPDATE */
  u8 deleteConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on DELETE */
  u8 insertConf;    /* How to resolve conflicts that occur on INSERT */

** SQLite supports many different ways to resolve a constraint
** error.  ROLLBACK processing means that a constraint violation
** causes the operation in process to fail and for the current transaction
** to be rolled back.  ABORT processing means the operation in process
** fails and any prior changes from that one operation are backed out,
** but the transaction is not rolled back.  FAIL processing means that
** the operation in progress stops and returns an error code.  But prior
** changes due to the same operation are not backed out and no rollback
** occurs.  IGNORE means that the particular row that caused the constraint
** error is not inserted or updated.  Processing continues and no error
** is returned.  REPLACE means that preexisting database rows that caused
** a UNIQUE constraint violation are removed so that the new insert or
** update can proceed.  Processing continues and no error is reported.
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
#define OE_Ignore   4   /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
#define OE_Replace  5   /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */

#define OE_Restrict 6   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
#define OE_SetNull  7   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
#define OE_SetDflt  8   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  99  /* Do whatever the default action is */

** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the 
** comparison of the two index keys.
** If the KeyInfo.incrKey value is true and the comparison would
** otherwise be equal, then return a result as if the second key
** were larger.
struct KeyInfo {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database connection */
  u8 enc;             /* Text encoding - one of the TEXT_Utf* values */
  u8 incrKey;         /* Increase 2nd key by epsilon before comparison */
  u8 prefixIsEqual;   /* Treat a prefix as equal */
  int nField;         /* Number of entries in aColl[] */
  u8 *aSortOrder;     /* If defined an aSortOrder[i] is true, sort DESC */
  CollSeq *aColl[1];  /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */

** Each SQL index is represented in memory by an
** instance of the following structure.
** The columns of the table that are to be indexed are described
** by the aiColumn[] field of this structure.  For example, suppose
** we have the following table and index:
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the 
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
struct Index {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this index */
  int nColumn;     /* Number of columns in the table used by this index */
  int *aiColumn;   /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  unsigned *aiRowEst; /* Result of ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;   /* The SQL table being indexed */
  int tnum;        /* Page containing root of this index in database file */
  u8 onError;      /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  u8 autoIndex;    /* True if is automatically created (ex: by UNIQUE) */
  char *zColAff;   /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;    /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema; /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;  /* Array of size Index.nColumn. True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;   /* Array of collation sequence names for index */

** Each token coming out of the lexer is an instance of
** this structure.  Tokens are also used as part of an expression.
** Note if Token.z==0 then Token.dyn and Token.n are undefined and
** may contain random values.  Do not make any assuptions about Token.dyn
** and Token.n when Token.z==0.
struct Token {
  const unsigned char *z; /* Text of the token.  Not NULL-terminated! */
  unsigned dyn  : 1;      /* True for malloced memory, false for static */
  unsigned n    : 31;     /* Number of characters in this token */

** An instance of this structure contains information needed to generate
** code for a SELECT that contains aggregate functions.
** If Expr.op==TK_AGG_COLUMN or TK_AGG_FUNCTION then Expr.pAggInfo is a
** pointer to this structure.  The Expr.iColumn field is the index in
** AggInfo.aCol[] or AggInfo.aFunc[] of information needed to generate
** code for that node.
** AggInfo.pGroupBy and AggInfo.aFunc.pExpr point to fields within the
** original Select structure that describes the SELECT statement.  These
** fields do not need to be freed when deallocating the AggInfo structure.
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* The original expression */
  } *aCol;
  int nColumn;            /* Number of used entries in aCol[] */
  int nColumnAlloc;       /* Number of slots allocated for aCol[] */
  int nAccumulator;       /* Number of columns that show through to the output.
                          ** Additional columns are used only as parameters to
                          ** aggregate functions */
  struct AggInfo_func {   /* For each aggregate function */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* Expression encoding the function */
    FuncDef *pFunc;          /* The aggregate function implementation */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    int iDistinct;           /* Ephermeral table used to enforce DISTINCT */
  } *aFunc;
  int nFunc;              /* Number of entries in aFunc[] */
  int nFuncAlloc;         /* Number of slots allocated for aFunc[] */

** Each node of an expression in the parse tree is an instance
** of this structure.
** Expr.op is the opcode.  The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here.  For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator.  This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are subexpressions.  Expr.pList is a list
** of argument if the expression is a function.
** Expr.token is the operator token for this node.  For some expressions
** that have subexpressions, Expr.token can be the complete text that gave
** rise to the Expr.  In the latter case, the token is marked as being
** a compound token.
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
** If the expression is a function, the Expr.iTable is an integer code
** representing which function.  If the expression is an unbound variable
** marker (a question mark character '?' in the original SQL) then the
** Expr.iTable holds the index number for that variable.
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
** The Expr.pSelect field points to a SELECT statement.  The SELECT might
** be the right operand of an IN operator.  Or, if a scalar SELECT appears
** in an expression the opcode is TK_SELECT and Expr.pSelect is the only
** operand.
** If the Expr is of type OP_Column, and the table it is selecting from
** is a disk table or the "old.*" pseudo-table, then pTab points to the
** corresponding table definition.
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
  u16 flags;             /* Various flags.  See below */
  CollSeq *pColl;        /* The collation type of the column or 0 */
  Expr *pLeft, *pRight;  /* Left and right subnodes */
  ExprList *pList;       /* A list of expressions used as function arguments
                         ** or in "<expr> IN (<expr-list)" */
  Token token;           /* An operand token */
  Token span;            /* Complete text of the expression */
  int iTable, iColumn;   /* When op==TK_COLUMN, then this expr node means the
                         ** iColumn-th field of the iTable-th table. */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  int iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  int iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  Select *pSelect;       /* When the expression is a sub-select.  Also the
                         ** right side of "<expr> IN (<select>)" */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for OP_Column expressions. */
/*  Schema *pSchema; */
  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */

** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
#define EP_FromJoin     0x01  /* Originated in ON or USING clause of a join */
#define EP_Agg          0x02  /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved     0x04  /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error        0x08  /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct     0x10  /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect    0x20  /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_Dequoted     0x40  /* True if the string has been dequoted */
#define EP_InfixFunc    0x80  /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_ExpCollate  0x100  /* Collating sequence specified explicitly */

** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Expr.flags field.
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprHasAnyProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
** list of "ID = expr" items in an UPDATE.  A list of expressions can
** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
** field is not used.
struct ExprList {
  int nExpr;             /* Number of expressions on the list */
  int nAlloc;            /* Number of entries allocated below */
  int iECursor;          /* VDBE Cursor associated with this ExprList */
  struct ExprList_item {
    Expr *pExpr;           /* The list of expressions */
    char *zName;           /* Token associated with this expression */
    u8 sortOrder;          /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
    u8 isAgg;              /* True if this is an aggregate like count(*) */
    u8 done;               /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
  } *a;                  /* One entry for each expression */

** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
** The IdList.a.idx field is used when the IdList represents the list of
** column names after a table name in an INSERT statement.  In the statement
**     INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) ...
** If "a" is the k-th column of table "t", then IdList.a[0].idx==k.
struct IdList {
  struct IdList_item {
    char *zName;      /* Name of the identifier */
    int idx;          /* Index in some Table.aCol[] of a column named zName */
  } *a;
  int nId;         /* Number of identifiers on the list */
  int nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated for a[] below */

** The bitmask datatype defined below is used for various optimizations.
** Changing this from a 64-bit to a 32-bit type limits the number of
** tables in a join to 32 instead of 64.  But it also reduces the size
** of the library by 738 bytes on ix86.
typedef u64 Bitmask;

** The following structure describes the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.
** Each table or subquery in the FROM clause is a separate element of
** the SrcList.a[] array.
** With the addition of multiple database support, the following structure
** can also be used to describe a particular table such as the table that
** is modified by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  In standard SQL,
** such a table must be a simple name: ID.  But in SQLite, the table can
** now be identified by a database name, a dot, then the table name: ID.ID.
** The jointype starts out showing the join type between the current table
** and the next table on the list.  The parser builds the list this way.
** But sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType() later shifts the jointypes so that each
** jointype expresses the join between the table and the previous table.
struct SrcList {
  i16 nSrc;        /* Number of tables or subqueries in the FROM clause */
  i16 nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated in a[] below */
  struct SrcList_item {
    char *zDatabase;  /* Name of database holding this table */
    char *zName;      /* Name of the table */
    char *zAlias;     /* The "B" part of a "A AS B" phrase.  zName is the "A" */
    Table *pTab;      /* An SQL table corresponding to zName */
    Select *pSelect;  /* A SELECT statement used in place of a table name */
    u8 isPopulated;   /* Temporary table associated with SELECT is populated */
    u8 jointype;      /* Type of join between this able and the previous */
    int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
    Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
    IdList *pUsing;   /* The USING clause of a join */
    Bitmask colUsed;  /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N or pTab is used */
  } a[1];             /* One entry for each identifier on the list */

** Permitted values of the SrcList.a.jointype field
#define JT_INNER     0x0001    /* Any kind of inner or cross join */
#define JT_CROSS     0x0002    /* Explicit use of the CROSS keyword */
#define JT_NATURAL   0x0004    /* True for a "natural" join */
#define JT_LEFT      0x0008    /* Left outer join */
#define JT_RIGHT     0x0010    /* Right outer join */
#define JT_OUTER     0x0020    /* The "OUTER" keyword is present */
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

** For each nested loop in a WHERE clause implementation, the WhereInfo
** structure contains a single instance of this structure.  This structure
** is intended to be private the the where.c module and should not be
** access or modified by other modules.
** The pIdxInfo and pBestIdx fields are used to help pick the best
** index on a virtual table.  The pIdxInfo pointer contains indexing
** information for the i-th table in the FROM clause before reordering.
** All the pIdxInfo pointers are freed by whereInfoFree() in where.c.
** The pBestIdx pointer is a copy of pIdxInfo for the i-th table after
** FROM clause ordering.  This is a little confusing so I will repeat
** it in different words.  WhereInfo.a[i].pIdxInfo is index information 
** for WhereInfo.pTabList.a[i].  WhereInfo.a[i].pBestInfo is the
** index information for the i-th loop of the join.  pBestInfo is always
** either NULL or a copy of some pIdxInfo.  So for cleanup it is 
** sufficient to free all of the pIdxInfo pointers.
struct WhereLevel {
  int iFrom;            /* Which entry in the FROM clause */
  int flags;            /* Flags associated with this level */
  int iMem;             /* First memory cell used by this level */
  int iLeftJoin;        /* Memory cell used to implement LEFT OUTER JOIN */
  Index *pIdx;          /* Index used.  NULL if no index */
  int iTabCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to access the table */
  int iIdxCur;          /* The VDBE cursor used to acesss pIdx */
  int brk;              /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nxt;              /* Jump here to start the next IN combination */
  int cont;             /* Jump here to continue with the next loop cycle */
  int top;              /* First instruction of interior of the loop */
  int op, p1, p2;       /* Opcode used to terminate the loop */
  int nEq;              /* Number of == or IN constraints on this loop */
  int nIn;              /* Number of IN operators constraining this loop */
  struct InLoop {
    int iCur;              /* The VDBE cursor used by this IN operator */
    int topAddr;           /* Top of the IN loop */
  } *aInLoop;           /* Information about each nested IN operator */
  sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx;  /* Index information for this level */

  /* The following field is really not part of the current level.  But
  ** we need a place to cache index information for each table in the
  ** FROM clause and the WhereLevel structure is a convenient place.
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;  /* Index info for n-th source table */

** The WHERE clause processing routine has two halves.  The
** first part does the start of the WHERE loop and the second
** half does the tail of the WHERE loop.  An instance of
** this structure is returned by the first half and passed
** into the second half to give some continuity.
struct WhereInfo {
  Parse *pParse;
  SrcList *pTabList;   /* List of tables in the join */
  int iTop;            /* The very beginning of the WHERE loop */
  int iContinue;       /* Jump here to continue with next record */
  int iBreak;          /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nLevel;          /* Number of nested loop */
  sqlite3_index_info **apInfo;  /* Array of pointers to index info structures */
  WhereLevel a[1];     /* Information about each nest loop in the WHERE */

** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most 
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented. 
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
struct NameContext {
  Parse *pParse;       /* The parser */
  SrcList *pSrcList;   /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
  ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of named expressions */
  int nRef;            /* Number of names resolved by this context */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
  u8 allowAgg;         /* Aggregate functions allowed here */
  u8 hasAgg;           /* True if aggregates are seen */
  u8 isCheck;          /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
  int nDepth;          /* Depth of subquery recursion. 1 for no recursion */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
  NameContext *pNext;  /* Next outer name context.  NULL for outermost */

** An instance of the following structure contains all information
** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause.  nOffset is set to 0.
** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
** offset).  But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
** the P3_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later.  Neither the KeyInfo nor
** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
** for the result set.  The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[2] contains collating
** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
struct Select {
  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
  u8 op;                 /* One of: TK_UNION TK_ALL TK_INTERSECT TK_EXCEPT */
  u8 isDistinct;         /* True if the DISTINCT keyword is present */
  u8 isResolved;         /* True once sqlite3SelectResolve() has run. */
  u8 isAgg;              /* True if this is an aggregate query */
  u8 usesEphm;           /* True if uses an OpenEphemeral opcode */
  u8 disallowOrderBy;    /* Do not allow an ORDER BY to be attached if TRUE */
  char affinity;         /* MakeRecord with this affinity for SRT_Set */
  SrcList *pSrc;         /* The FROM clause */
  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Select *pRightmost;    /* Right-most select in a compound select statement */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
  Expr *pOffset;         /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
  int iLimit, iOffset;   /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
  int addrOpenEphm[3];   /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */

** The results of a select can be distributed in several ways.
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Except       2  /* Remove result from a UNION index */
#define SRT_Discard      3  /* Do not save the results anywhere */

/* The ORDER BY clause is ignored for all of the above */
#define IgnorableOrderby(X) (X<=SRT_Discard)

#define SRT_Callback     4  /* Invoke a callback with each row of result */
#define SRT_Mem          5  /* Store result in a memory cell */
#define SRT_Set          6  /* Store non-null results as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Table        7  /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
#define SRT_EphemTab     8  /* Create transient tab and store like SRT_Table */
#define SRT_Subroutine   9  /* Call a subroutine to handle results */
#define SRT_Exists      10  /* Store 1 if the result is not empty */

** An SQL parser context.  A copy of this structure is passed through
** the parser and down into all the parser action routine in order to
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache 
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
  int rc;              /* Return code from execution */
  char *zErrMsg;       /* An error message */
  Vdbe *pVdbe;         /* An engine for executing database bytecode */
  u8 colNamesSet;      /* TRUE after OP_ColumnName has been issued to pVdbe */
  u8 nameClash;        /* A permanent table name clashes with temp table name */
  u8 checkSchema;      /* Causes schema cookie check after an error */
  u8 nested;           /* Number of nested calls to the parser/code generator */
  u8 parseError;       /* True after a parsing error.  Ticket #1794 */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors seen */
  int nTab;            /* Number of previously allocated VDBE cursors */
  int nMem;            /* Number of memory cells used so far */
  int nSet;            /* Number of sets used so far */
  int ckOffset;        /* Stack offset to data used by CHECK constraints */
  u32 writeMask;       /* Start a write transaction on these databases */
  u32 cookieMask;      /* Bitmask of schema verified databases */
  int cookieGoto;      /* Address of OP_Goto to cookie verifier subroutine */
  int cookieValue[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+2];  /* Values of cookies to verify */
  int nTableLock;        /* Number of locks in aTableLock */
  TableLock *aTableLock; /* Required table locks for shared-cache mode */

  /* Above is constant between recursions.  Below is reset before and after
  ** each recursion */

  int nVar;            /* Number of '?' variables seen in the SQL so far */
  int nVarExpr;        /* Number of used slots in apVarExpr[] */
  int nVarExprAlloc;   /* Number of allocated slots in apVarExpr[] */
  Expr **apVarExpr;    /* Pointers to :aaa and $aaaa wildcard expressions */
  u8 explain;          /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
  Token sErrToken;     /* The token at which the error occurred */
  Token sNameToken;    /* Token with unqualified schema object name */
  Token sLastToken;    /* The last token parsed */
  const char *zSql;    /* All SQL text */
  const char *zTail;   /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
  Table *pNewTable;    /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
  Trigger *pNewTrigger;     /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
  TriggerStack *trigStack;  /* Trigger actions being coded */
  const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
  Token sArg;                /* Complete text of a module argument */
  u8 declareVtab;            /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
  Table *pVirtualLock;       /* Require virtual table lock on this table */
  int nHeight;            /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */

  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB 0
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB (pParse->declareVtab)

** An instance of the following structure can be declared on a stack and used
** to save the Parse.zAuthContext value so that it can be restored later.
struct AuthContext {
  const char *zAuthContext;   /* Put saved Parse.zAuthContext here */
  Parse *pParse;              /* The Parse structure */

** Bitfield flags for P2 value in OP_Insert and OP_Delete
#define OPFLAG_NCHANGE   1    /* Set to update db->nChange */
#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID 2    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE  4    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND    8    /* This is likely to be an append */

 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
 * containing the SQL statements specified as the trigger program.
struct Trigger {
  char *name;             /* The name of the trigger                        */
  char *table;            /* The table or view to which the trigger applies */
  u8 op;                  /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT         */
  u8 tr_tm;               /* One of TRIGGER_BEFORE, TRIGGER_AFTER */
  Expr *pWhen;            /* The WHEN clause of the expresion (may be NULL) */
  IdList *pColumns;       /* If this is an UPDATE OF <column-list> trigger,
                             the <column-list> is stored here */
  Token nameToken;        /* Token containing zName. Use during parsing only */
  Schema *pSchema;        /* Schema containing the trigger */
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */

** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which. 
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program. 
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the 
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the 
 * value of "op" as follows:
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ... 
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * target    -> A token holding the name of the table to update rows of.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
struct TriggerStep {
  int op;              /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  int orconf;          /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */

  Select *pSelect;     /* Valid for SELECT and sometimes 
                          INSERT steps (when pExprList == 0) */
  Token target;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT steps */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* Valid for DELETE, UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* Valid for UPDATE statements and sometimes 
                           INSERT steps (when pSelect == 0)         */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Valid for INSERT statements only */
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */

 * An instance of struct TriggerStack stores information required during code
 * generation of a single trigger program. While the trigger program is being
 * coded, its associated TriggerStack instance is pointed to by the
 * "pTriggerStack" member of the Parse structure.
 * The pTab member points to the table that triggers are being coded on. The 
 * newIdx member contains the index of the vdbe cursor that points at the temp
 * table that stores the new.* references. If new.* references are not valid
 * for the trigger being coded (for example an ON DELETE trigger), then newIdx
 * is set to -1. The oldIdx member is analogous to newIdx, for old.* references.
 * The ON CONFLICT policy to be used for the trigger program steps is stored 
 * as the orconf member. If this is OE_Default, then the ON CONFLICT clause 
 * specified for individual triggers steps is used.
 * struct TriggerStack has a "pNext" member, to allow linked lists to be
 * constructed. When coding nested triggers (triggers fired by other triggers)
 * each nested trigger stores its parent trigger's TriggerStack as the "pNext" 
 * pointer. Once the nested trigger has been coded, the pNext value is restored
 * to the pTriggerStack member of the Parse stucture and coding of the parent
 * trigger continues.
 * Before a nested trigger is coded, the linked list pointed to by the 
 * pTriggerStack is scanned to ensure that the trigger is not about to be coded
 * recursively. If this condition is detected, the nested trigger is not coded.
struct TriggerStack {
  Table *pTab;         /* Table that triggers are currently being coded on */
  int newIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "new" temp table */
  int oldIdx;          /* Index of vdbe cursor to "old" temp table */
  int orconf;          /* Current orconf policy */
  int ignoreJump;      /* where to jump to for a RAISE(IGNORE) */
  Trigger *pTrigger;   /* The trigger currently being coded */
  TriggerStack *pNext; /* Next trigger down on the trigger stack */

** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.  
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
  const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */

** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
struct StrAccum {
  char *zBase;     /* A base allocation.  Not from malloc. */
  char *zText;     /* The string collected so far */
  int  nChar;      /* Length of the string so far */
  int  nAlloc;     /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  u8   mallocFailed;   /* Becomes true if any memory allocation fails */
  u8   useMalloc;      /* True if zText is enlargable using realloc */
  u8   tooBig;         /* Becomes true if string size exceeds limits */

** A pointer to this structure is used to communicate information
** from sqlite3Init and OP_ParseSchema into the sqlite3InitCallback.
typedef struct {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database being initialized */
  int iDb;            /* 0 for main database.  1 for TEMP, 2.. for ATTACHed */
  char **pzErrMsg;    /* Error message stored here */
  int rc;             /* Result code stored here */
} InitData;

** Assuming zIn points to the first byte of a UTF-8 character,
** advance zIn to point to the first byte of the next UTF-8 character.
#define SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(zIn) {                        \
  if( (*(zIn++))>=0xc0 ){                              \
    while( (*zIn & 0xc0)==0x80 ){ zIn++; }             \
  }                                                    \

** The SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT macro can be either a constant (for production
** builds) or a function call (for debugging).  If it is a function call,
** it allows the operator to set a breakpoint at the spot where database
** corruption is first detected.
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3Corrupt(void);
# define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT sqlite3Corrupt()
# define DEBUGONLY(X)        X
# define DEBUGONLY(X)

** Internal function prototypes
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrICmp(const char *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3StrNICmp(const char *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNumber(const char*, int*, u8);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3MallocZero(unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, unsigned);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrDup(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrNDup(const char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void *sqlite3TextToPtr(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetString(char **, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorClear(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Dequote(char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DequoteExpr(sqlite3*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeywordCode(const unsigned char*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunParser(Parse*, const char*, char **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3RegisterExpr(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprSpan(Expr*,Token*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprDelete(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListDelete(ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetInternalSchema(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginParse(Parse*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,char*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Select*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateView(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,Select*,int,int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(Parse*,Table*);
# define sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(A,B) 0

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTable(Parse*, SrcList*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTable(Table*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int,int*,int*,int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*, Token*,
                                      Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IdListDelete(IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListDelete(SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                        Token*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, int, int, Select*, int, int*, char *aff);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Vdbe*, Table*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfTrue(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfFalse(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3FindTable(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTable(Parse*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3FindIndex(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Vacuum(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunVacuum(char**, sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3NameFromToken(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompare(Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprResolveNames(NameContext *, Expr *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates(NameContext*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(NameContext*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3GetVdbe(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3CreateIdExpr(Parse *, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Randomness(int, void*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackAll(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginTransaction(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackTransaction(Parse*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsInteger(Expr*, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(sqlite3*, Vdbe*, Table*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Vdbe*, Table*, int, char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Vdbe*, Index*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int,char*,int,int,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*, Table*, int, char*, int, int, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprDup(sqlite3*,Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TokenCopy(sqlite3*,Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListDup(sqlite3*,ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListDup(sqlite3*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListDup(sqlite3*,IdList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectDup(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunction(sqlite3*,const char*,int,int,u8,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyOn(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyOff(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheck(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ChangeCookie(sqlite3*, Vdbe*, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(Parse*, Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse*, Table*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, int, ExprList*, int, Table *, int, int, 
                           int, int);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(Trigger*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(A,B,C,D,E,F) 0
# define sqlite3DeleteTrigger(A)
# define sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(A,B)
# define sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(A,B,C)
# define sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I) 0

SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthRead(Parse*,Expr*,Schema*,SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3AuthCheck(Parse*,int, const char*, const char*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPush(Parse*, AuthContext*, const char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3AuthContextPop(AuthContext*);
# define sqlite3AuthRead(a,b,c,d)
# define sqlite3AuthCheck(a,b,c,d,e)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3AuthContextPush(a,b,c)
# define sqlite3AuthContextPop(a)  ((void)(a))
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Attach(Parse*, Expr*, Expr*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Detach(Parse*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFactory(const sqlite3 *db, const char *zFilename,
                       int omitJournal, int nCache, int flags, Btree **ppBtree);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixInit(DbFixer*, Parse*, int, const char*, const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSrcList(DbFixer*, SrcList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSelect(DbFixer*, Select*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExpr(DbFixer*, Expr*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExprList(DbFixer*, ExprList*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixTriggerStep(DbFixer*, TriggerStep*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double*);
SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*,...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *, int*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FitsIn64Bits(const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *pData, int nChar);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *pData, int nByte);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8Read(const u8*, const u8*, const u8**);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char *, u64);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *, u64 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *, u32 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TableAffinityStr(Vdbe *, Table *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char *,int,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char *zName, int nName);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSetColl(Parse *pParse, Expr *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);

SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8, 
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RootPageMoved(Db*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFunctions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SelectResolve(Parse *, Select *, NameContext *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(sqlite3*, CollSeq *, const char *, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3*,Expr*,int*,char*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AttachFunctions(sqlite3 *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MinimumFileFormat(Parse*, int, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SchemaFree(void *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE Schema *sqlite3SchemaGet(sqlite3 *, Btree *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SchemaToIndex(sqlite3 *db, Schema *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(Parse *, Index *);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *, 
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);

** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(size_t));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);

SQLITE_PRIVATE   void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
SQLITE_PRIVATE   int sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*