talos/startup_test/fennecmark/wikipedia.html
author Joel Maher <jmaher@mozilla.com>
Fri, 20 Jun 2014 10:41:06 -0400
changeset 768 3a6a28b96228
parent 270 2f75acc0f8f2
child 770 f9136c4bc616
permissions -rw-r--r--
Bug 996871 - add preferences to talos to remove external network. r=froydnj

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<title>Communism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title>
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		<div id="siteNotice"><script type="text/javascript">if (wgNotice != '') document.writeln(wgNotice);</script></div>		<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading">Communism</h1>
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			<h3 id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</h3>
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<td style="padding-top: 0.4em; font-size: 85%; line-height: 1.2em;">Part of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Category:Politics" title="Category:Politics">the Politics series</a> on</td>
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<th class="" style="padding: 0pt 0.4em 0.2em; line-height: 1.15em; color: black; font-size: 200%; font-weight: normal;"><strong class="selflink">Communism</strong></th>
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<td class="" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Communist_star.svg" class="image" title="Hammer-and-sickle symbol"><img alt="Hammer-and-sickle symbol" src="en.wikipedia.org/100px-Communist_star.png" height="95" width="100"></a></td>
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<div class="NavContent" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em; text-align: center;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Common_ownership" title="Common ownership">Common ownership</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Egalitarianism" title="Egalitarianism">Egalitarianism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Classless_society" title="Classless society">Classless society</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Class_struggle" title="Class struggle">Class struggle</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletarian_internationalism" title="Proletarian internationalism">Proletarian internationalism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_revolution" title="World revolution">World revolution</a><br></div>
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<div class="NavContent" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em; text-align: center;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">Communist state</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_party" title="Communist party">Communist party</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_revolution" title="Communist revolution">Communist revolution</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_symbolism" title="Communist symbolism">Communist symbolism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communism_and_religion" title="Communism and religion">Communism and religion</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_communism" title="History of communism">History of communism</a><br></div>
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<div class="NavContent" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em; text-align: center;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Juche" title="Juche">Juche</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left_communism" title="Left communism">Left communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Luxemburgism" title="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_communism" title="Council communism">Council communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Titoism" title="Titoism">Titoism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Castroism" title="Castroism">Castroism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Guevarism" title="Guevarism">Guevarism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hoxhaism" title="Hoxhaism">Hoxhaism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">Anarchist communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_communism" title="Religious communism">Religious communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eurocommunism" title="Eurocommunism">Eurocommunism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_communism" title="World communism">World communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stateless_communism" title="Stateless communism">Stateless communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/National_communism" title="National communism">National communism</a></div>
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<div class="NavContent" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em; text-align: center;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_League" title="Communist League">Communist League</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/First_International" title="First International" class="mw-redirect">First International</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Second_International" title="Second International">Second International</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Third_International" title="Third International" class="mw-redirect">Third International</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fourth_International" title="Fourth International">Fourth International</a><br></div>
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<div style="text-align: left;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Gracchus_Babeuf.jpg" class="image" title="François-Noël Babeuf"><img alt="François-Noël Babeuf" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Gracchus_Babeuf.jpg" height="34" width="30"></a>&nbsp;<span class="Unicode"></span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois-No%C3%ABl_Babeuf" title="François-Noël Babeuf">François-Noël Babeuf</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Karl_Marx_001.jpg" class="image" title="Karl Marx"><img alt="Karl Marx" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Karl_Marx_001.jpg" height="42" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Karl Marx</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Engels.jpg" class="image" title="Friedrich Engels"><img alt="Friedrich Engels" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Engels.jpg" height="42" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Friedrich_Engels" title="Friedrich Engels">Friedrich Engels</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Kropotkin1.jpg" class="image" title="Peter Kropotkin"><img alt="Peter Kropotkin" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Kropotkin1.jpg" height="37" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Peter_Kropotkin" title="Peter Kropotkin">Peter Kropotkin</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Gorter.jpg" class="image" title="Herman Gorter"><img alt="Herman Gorter" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Gorter.jpg" height="30" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Herman_Gorter" title="Herman Gorter">Herman Gorter</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Rosa_Luxemburg.jpg" class="image" title="Rosa Luxemburg"><img alt="Rosa Luxemburg" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Rosa_Luxemburg.jpg" height="36" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Rosa_Luxemburg" title="Rosa Luxemburg">Rosa Luxemburg</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Gramsci.png" class="image" title="Antonio Gramsci"><img alt="Antonio Gramsci" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Gramsci.png" height="43" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Antonio_Gramsci" title="Antonio Gramsci">Antonio Gramsci</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Lenin.jpg" class="image" title="Vladimir Lenin"><img alt="Vladimir Lenin" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Lenin.jpg" height="40" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin" title="Vladimir Lenin">Vladimir Lenin</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/LeTrotskyDB.jpg" class="image" title="Leon Trotsky"><img alt="Leon Trotsky" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-LeTrotskyDB.jpg" height="28" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leon_Trotsky" title="Leon Trotsky">Leon Trotsky</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/JStalin_Secretary_general_CCCP_1942.jpg" class="image" title="Joseph Stalin"><img alt="Joseph Stalin" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-JStalin_Secretary_general_CCCP_1942.jpg" height="42" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Joseph_Stalin" title="Joseph Stalin">Joseph Stalin</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Mao_Zedong_portrait.jpg" class="image" title="Mao Zedong"><img alt="Mao Zedong" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Mao_Zedong_portrait.jpg" height="40" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mao_Zedong" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/HOD%C5%BDA_druh%C3%A1_m%C3%ADza.jpg" class="image" title="Enver Hoxha"><img alt="Enver Hoxha" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-HODA_druh_mza.jpg" height="30" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Enver_Hoxha" title="Enver Hoxha">Enver Hoxha</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/GuerrilleroHeroico.jpg" class="image" title="Che Guevara"><img alt="Che Guevara" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-GuerrilleroHeroico.jpg" height="41" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Che_Guevara" title="Che Guevara">Che Guevara</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Ho_Chi_Minh_1946_cropped.jpg" class="image" title="Ho Chi Minh"><img alt="Ho Chi Minh" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Ho_Chi_Minh_1946_cropped.jpg" height="40" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ho_Chi_Minh" title="Ho Chi Minh">Ho Chi Minh</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/DengXiaoping.jpg" class="image" title="Deng Xiaoping"><img alt="Deng Xiaoping" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-DengXiaoping.jpg" height="37" width="30"></a><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deng_Xiaoping" title="Deng Xiaoping">Deng Xiaoping</a><br>
<a href="en.wikipedia.org/Marsal_Tito.jpg" class="image" title="Jospi Broz Tito"><img alt="Jospi Broz Tito" src="en.wikipedia.org/30px-Marsal_Tito.jpg" height="41" width="30"></a>&nbsp;<span class="Unicode"></span><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito" title="Josip Broz Tito">Josip Broz Tito</a><br></div>
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<div class="NavContent" style="padding: 0.2em 0pt 0.4em; text-align: center;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchism" title="Anarchism">Anarchism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-capitalism" title="Anti-capitalism">Anti-capitalism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-communism" title="Anti-communism">Anti-communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cold_War" title="Cold War">Cold War</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_World" title="Communist World" class="mw-redirect">Communist World</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_communism" title="Criticisms of communism" class="mw-redirect">Criticisms of communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">Democratic centralism</a><br>
<span style="line-height: 1.2em;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat" title="Dictatorship of the proletariat">Dictatorship of the proletariat</a></span><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left-wing_politics" title="Left-wing politics">Left-wing politics</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mass_killings_under_Communist_regimes" title="Mass killings under Communist regimes">Mass killings under Communist regimes</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/McCarthyism" title="McCarthyism">McCarthyism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Class" title="New Class" class="mw-redirect">New Class</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Left" title="New Left">New Left</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Post-Communism" title="Post-Communism">Post-Communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Primitive_communism" title="Primitive communism">Primitive communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scientific_Communism" title="Scientific Communism">Scientific Communism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scientific_socialism" title="Scientific socialism" class="mw-redirect">Scientific socialism</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">Socialism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialist_economics" title="Socialist economics">Socialist economics</a><br>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a></div>
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<td style="border-top: 1px solid rgb(170, 170, 170); border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(170, 170, 170); padding: 0.3em 0.4em; font-weight: bold; text-align: center;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Hammer_and_sickle_red_on_transparent.svg" class="image"><img alt="Hammer and sickle red on transparent.svg" src="en.wikipedia.org/15px-Hammer_and_sickle_red_on_transparent.png" height="15" width="15"></a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Portal:Communism" title="Portal:Communism">Communism Portal</a><br>
<span style="font-weight: normal;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Portal:Politics" title="Portal:Politics">Politics portal</a></span></td>
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<p><b>Communism</b> is a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_structure" title="Social structure">social structure</a> in which, theoretically, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Classless_society" title="Classless society">classes are abolished</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Property" title="Property">property</a> is commonly controlled, as well as a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_philosophy" title="Political philosophy">political philosophy</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_movement" title="Social movement">social movement</a> that advocates and aims to create such a society.<sup id="cite_ref-columbia_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-columbia-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Karl Marx</a>, the father of communist thought, posited that communism would be the final stage in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Society" title="Society">society</a>, which would be achieved through a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletarian_revolution" title="Proletarian revolution">proletarian revolution</a> and only possible after a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">socialist</a> stage develops the productive forces, leading to a superabundance of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Goods_and_services" title="Goods and services">goods and services</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-KS_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-KS-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-WA_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WA-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>"<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Pure_communism" title="Pure communism" class="mw-redirect">Pure communism</a>" in the Marxian sense refers to a classless, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stateless_society" title="Stateless society">stateless</a> and oppression-free society where decisions on what to produce and what policies to pursue are made <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Direct_democracy" title="Direct democracy">democratically</a>, allowing every member of society to participate in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Decision_making" title="Decision making">decision-making process</a>
in both the political and economic spheres of life. In modern usage,
communism is often used to refer to the policies of the various <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_states" title="Communist states" class="mw-redirect">communist states</a> which were authoritarian governments that had <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Planned_economy" title="Planned economy">centrally planned economies</a> and ownership of all the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Means_of_production" title="Means of production">means of production</a>. Most communist governments based their ideology on <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a>.</p>
<p>As a political ideology, communism is usually considered to be a branch of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">socialism</a>; a broad group of economic and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_philosophy" title="Political philosophy">political philosophies</a> that draw on the various political and intellectual movements with origins in the work of theorists of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Industrial_Revolution" title="Industrial Revolution">Industrial Revolution</a> and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/French_Revolution" title="French Revolution">French Revolution</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> Communism attempts to offer an alternative to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticism_of_capitalism" title="Criticism of capitalism">problems</a> with the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Capitalism" title="Capitalism">capitalist</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Market_economy" title="Market economy">market economy</a> and the legacy of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Imperialism" title="Imperialism">imperialism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nationalism" title="Nationalism">nationalism</a>.</p>
<p>Marx states that the only way to solve these problems is for the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Working_class" title="Working class">working class</a> (proletariat), who according to Marx are the main producers of wealth in society and are exploited by the Capitalist-class (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bourgeoisie" title="Bourgeoisie">bourgeoisie</a>), to replace the bourgeoisie as the ruling class in order to establish a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Free_society" title="Free society">free society</a>, without class or racial divisions.<sup id="cite_ref-columbia_0-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-columbia-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> The dominant forms of communism, such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a> are based on <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a>, as well as other forms of communism (such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Luxemburgism" title="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_communism" title="Council communism">Council communism</a>), but non-Marxist versions of communism (such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">Anarchist communism</a>) also exist.</p>
<p>Karl Marx never provided a detailed description as to how communism
would function as an economic system, but it is understood that a
communist economy would consist of common ownership of the means of
production, culminating in the negation of the concept of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Private_ownership" title="Private ownership" class="mw-redirect">private ownership</a> of capital, which referred to the means of production in Marxian terminology.</p>
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<h2>Contents</h2>
 <span class="toctoggle">[<a href="javascript:toggleToc()" class="internal" id="togglelink">hide</a>]</span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Terminology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Terminology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Marxist_schools_of_communism"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Marxist schools of communism</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Marxism"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Marxism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Marxism-Leninism"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Marxism-Leninism</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-5"><a href="#Stalinism"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Stalinism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-6"><a href="#Trotskyism"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Trotskyism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Maoism"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Maoism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-8"><a href="#Hoxhaism"><span class="tocnumber">2.2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Hoxhaism</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Titoism"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Titoism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Eurocommunism"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Eurocommunism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Council_communism"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Council communism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Luxemburgism"><span class="tocnumber">2.6</span> <span class="toctext">Luxemburgism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Juche"><span class="tocnumber">2.7</span> <span class="toctext">Juche</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Prachandapath"><span class="tocnumber">2.8</span> <span class="toctext">Prachandapath</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a href="#Non-Marxist_schools"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Non-Marxist schools</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Anarcho-communism"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Anarcho-communism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Christian_communism"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Christian communism</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Early_communism"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Early communism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Growth_of_modern_communism"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Growth of modern communism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Cold_War_years"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Cold War years</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Fear_of_communism"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Fear of communism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#After_the_collapse_of_the_Soviet_Union"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">After the collapse of the Soviet Union</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#Criticism"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Criticism</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terminology">Terminology</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">It has been suggested that this section be <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Splitting" title="Wikipedia:Splitting">split</a> into a new article titled <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/List_of_communist_ideologies" title="List of communist ideologies">List of communist ideologies</a></i>. (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Talk:Communism" title="Talk:Communism">Discuss</a>)</td>
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<p>In the schema of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Historical_materialism" title="Historical materialism">historical materialism</a>,
communism is the idea of a free society with no division or alienation,
where mankind is free from oppression and scarcity. A communist society
would have no governments, countries, or class divisions. In <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxist_philosophy" title="Marxist philosophy">Marxist theory</a>, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat" title="Dictatorship of the proletariat">dictatorship of the proletariat</a>
is the intermediate system between capitalism and communism, when the
government is in the process of changing the means of ownership from <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Privatism" title="Privatism">privatism</a>, to collective ownership.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> In <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_science" title="Political science">political science</a>, the term "communism" is sometimes used to refer to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">communist states</a>, a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Form_of_government" title="Form of government">form of government</a> in which the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sovereign_state" title="Sovereign state">state</a> operates under a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Single-party_state" title="Single-party state">one-party system</a> and declares allegiance to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> or a derivative thereof.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Marxist_schools_of_communism">Marxist schools of communism</span></h2>
<p>Self-identified communists hold a variety of views, including <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_communism" title="Council communism">council communism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Luxemburgism" title="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">anarchist communism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a>, and various currents of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left_communism" title="Left communism">left communism</a>. However, the offshoots of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxist-Leninist" title="Marxist-Leninist" class="mw-redirect">Marxist-Leninist</a> interpretations of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a> are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_relations" title="International relations">international relations</a> during most of the 20th century.<sup id="cite_ref-columbia_0-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-columbia-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Marxism">Marxism</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Communist-manifesto.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/220px-Communist-manifesto.png" class="thumbimage" height="341" width="220"></a>
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<a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_Communist_Manifesto" title="The Communist Manifesto">The Communist Manifesto</a>.</div>
</div>
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<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a></div>
<p>Like other socialists, Marx and Engels sought an end to capitalism
and the systems which they perceived to be responsible for the
exploitation of workers. But whereas earlier socialists often favored
longer-term <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Reform_movement" title="Reform movement">social reform</a>, Marx and Engels believed that popular revolution was all but inevitable, and the only path to the socialist state.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>According to the Marxist argument for communism, the main characteristic of human life in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_class" title="Social class">class society</a> is <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marx%27s_theory_of_alienation" title="Marx's theory of alienation">alienation</a>; and communism is desirable because it entails the full realization of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Human_Freedom" title="Human Freedom" class="mw-redirect">human freedom</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> Marx here follows <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel" title="Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel">Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel</a> in conceiving freedom not merely as an absence of restraints but as action with content.<sup id="cite_ref-mclean_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mclean-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup>
According to Marx, Communism's outlook on freedom was based on an
agent, obstacle, and goal. The agent is the common/working people; the
obstacles are class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Life_chances" title="Life chances">life-chances</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/False_consciousness" title="False consciousness">false consciousness</a>; and the goal is the fulfillment of human needs including satisfying work, and fair share of the product.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup>
They believed that communism allowed people to do what they want, but
also put humans in such conditions and such relations with one another
that they would not wish to exploit, or have any need to. Whereas for
Hegel the unfolding of this ethical life in history is mainly driven by
the realm of ideas, for Marx, communism emerged from material forces,
particularly the development of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Means_of_production" title="Means of production">means of production</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-mclean_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mclean-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Marxism holds that a process of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Class_conflict" title="Class conflict">class conflict</a> and revolutionary struggle will result in victory for the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletariat" title="Proletariat">proletariat</a> and the establishment of a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_society" title="Communist society">communist society</a>
in which private ownership is abolished over time and the means of
production and subsistence belong to the community. Marx himself wrote
little about life under communism, giving only the most general
indication as to what constituted a communist society. It is clear that
it entails abundance in which there is little limit to the projects
that humans may undertake.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> In the popular slogan that was adopted by the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Movement" title="Communist Movement">communist movement</a>, communism was a world in which each gave according to their abilities, and received according to their needs. <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_German_Ideology" title="The German Ideology">The German Ideology</a></i> (1845) was one of Marx's few writings to elaborate on the communist future:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>"In communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of
activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes,
society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for
me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning,
fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after
dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman,
herdsman or critic."<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>Marx's lasting vision was to add this vision to a theory of how
society was moving in a law-governed way toward communism, and, with
some tension, a political theory that explained why revolutionary
activity was required to bring it about.<sup id="cite_ref-mclean_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mclean-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In the late 19th century, the terms "socialism" and "communism" were
often used interchangeably. However, Marx and Engels argued that
communism would not emerge from capitalism in a fully <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Developed_country" title="Developed country">developed state</a>,
but would pass through a "first phase" in which most productive
property was owned in common, but with some class differences
remaining. The "first phase" would eventually evolve into a "higher
phase" in which class differences were eliminated, and a state was no
longer needed. Lenin frequently used the term "socialism" to refer to
Marx and Engels' supposed "first phase" of communism and used the term
"communism" interchangeably with Marx and Engels' "higher phase" of
communism.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>These later aspects, particularly as developed by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vladimir_Ilyich_Lenin" title="Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" class="mw-redirect">Vladimir Ilyich Lenin</a>, provided the underpinning for the mobilizing features of 20th century Communist parties.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Marxism-Leninism">Marxism-Leninism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main articles: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a></div>
<p>Marxism-Leninism is a version of socialism adopted by the Soviet
Union and most Communist Parties across the world today. It shaped the
Soviet Union and influenced Communist Parties worldwide. It was
heralded as a possibility of building communism via a massive program
of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Industrialization" title="Industrialization" class="mw-redirect">industrialization</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Collectivization_in_the_Soviet_Union" title="Collectivization in the Soviet Union">collectivization</a>.
Historically, under the ideology of Marxism-Leninism the rapid
development of industry, and above all the victory of the Soviet Union
in the Second World War occurred alongside a third of the world being
lead by Marxist-Leninist inspired parties. Despite the fall of the
Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries, many communist Parties of the
world today still lay claim to uphold the Marxist-Leninist banner.
Marxism-Leninism expands on Marxists thoughts by bringing the theories
to what Lenin and other Communists considered, the age of capitalist
imperialism, and a renewed focus on party building, the development of
a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialist_state" title="Socialist state">socialist state</a>, and democratic centralism as an organizational principle.</p>
<p>Lenin adapted Marx’s urban revolution to Russia’s agricultural conditions, sparking the “revolutionary nationalism of the poor”.<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> The pamphlet <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/What_is_to_be_Done%3F_%28pamphlet%29" title="What is to be Done? (pamphlet)" class="mw-redirect">What is to be Done?</a></i> (1902), proposed that the (urban) <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletariat" title="Proletariat">proletariat</a> can successfully achieve revolutionary consciousness only under the leadership of a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vanguard_party" title="Vanguard party">vanguard party</a> of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Professional_revolutionaries" title="Professional revolutionaries">professional revolutionaries</a> — who can achieve aims only with internal <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">democratic centralism</a>
in the party; tactical and ideological policy decisions are agreed via
democracy, and every member must support and promote the agreed party
policy.</p>
<p>To wit, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Capitalism" title="Capitalism">capitalism</a> can be overthrown only with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Revolution" title="Revolution">revolution</a> — because attempts to <i>reform</i> capitalism from within (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fabianism" title="Fabianism" class="mw-redirect">Fabianism</a>) and from without (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_socialism" title="Democratic socialism">democratic socialism</a>) will fail because of its inherent contradictions. The purpose of a Leninist revolutionary <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vanguard_party" title="Vanguard party">vanguard party</a> is the forceful <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deposition_%28politics%29" title="Deposition (politics)">deposition</a> of the incumbent government; assume power (as agent of the proletariat) and establish a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat" title="Dictatorship of the proletariat">dictatorship of the proletariat</a> government. Moreover, as the government, the vanguard party must <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Education" title="Education">educate</a> the proletariat — to dispel the societal <a href="http://localhost/wiki/False_consciousness" title="False consciousness">false consciousness</a> of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religion" title="Religion">religion</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nationalism" title="Nationalism">nationalism</a> that are culturally instilled by the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bourgeoisie" title="Bourgeoisie">bourgeoisie</a> in facilitating <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Exploitation" title="Exploitation">exploitation</a>. The dictatorship of the proletariat is governed with a de-centralized <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Direct_democracy" title="Direct democracy">direct democracy</a> practised via <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_%28council%29" title="Soviet (council)">soviets</a> (councils) where the workers exercise political power (cf. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_democracy" title="Soviet democracy">soviet democracy</a>); the fifth chapter of <i>State &amp; Revolution</i>, describes it:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>“. . . the dictatorship of the proletariat — i.e. the organisation
of the vanguard of the oppressed as the ruling class for the purpose of
crushing the oppressors. . . . An immense expansion of democracy, which
for the first time becomes democracy for the poor, democracy for the
people, and not democracy for the rich: . . . and suppression by force,
i.e. exclusion from democracy, for the exploiters and oppressors of the
people — this is the change which democracy undergoes during the <i>transition</i> from capitalism to communism.”<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
</blockquote>
<p>The Bolshevik government was hostile to nationalism, especially to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Russian_nationalism" title="Russian nationalism">Russian nationalism</a>, the “Great Russian chauvinism”, as an obstacle to establishing the proletarian dictatorship.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> The revolutionary elements of Leninism — the disciplined vanguard party, a dictatorship of the proletariat, and class war.</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Stalinism">Stalinism</span></h4>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a></div>
<p>"Stalinism" refers to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_system" title="Political system">political system</a> of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>, and the countries within the Soviet <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sphere_of_influence" title="Sphere of influence">sphere of influence</a>,
during the leadership of Joseph Stalin. The term usually defines the
style of a government rather than an ideology. The ideology was "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> theory", reflecting that Stalin himself was not a theoretician, in contrast to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Marx</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin" title="Vladimir Lenin">Lenin</a>,
and prided himself on maintaining the legacy of Lenin as a founding
father for the Soviet Union and the future Socialist world. Stalinism
is an interpretation of their ideas, and a certain political regime
claiming to apply those ideas in ways fitting the changing needs of
society, as with the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in
the mid-twenties to the rapid industrialization of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Five-Year_Plans_for_the_National_Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union" title="Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the Soviet Union">Five-Year Plans</a>.</p>
<p>The main contributions of Stalin to communist theory were:</p>
<ul>
<li>The groundwork for the Soviet policy concerning nationalities, laid in Stalin's 1913 work <i>Marxism and the National Question</i>,<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> praised by Lenin.</li>
<li><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism_in_One_Country" title="Socialism in One Country">Socialism in One Country</a>,</li>
<li>The theory of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Aggravation_of_class_struggle_under_socialism" title="Aggravation of class struggle under socialism">aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism</a>, a theoretical base supporting the repression of political opponents as necessary.</li>
</ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 252px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Trotsky_militant.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/250px-Trotsky_militant.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="166" width="250"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Trotsky_militant.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leon_Trotsky" title="Leon Trotsky">Leon Trotsky</a> reading <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_Militant" title="The Militant">The Militant</a></i>.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a></div>
<p>Trotsky and his supporters organized into the <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left_Opposition" title="Left Opposition">Left Opposition</a></i> and their platform became known as <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a></i>.
Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining control of the Soviet regime and
Trotskyist attempts to remove Stalin from power resulted in Trotsky's
exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. During Trotsky's exile, world
communism fractured into two distinct branches: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-columbia_0-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-columbia-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> Trotsky later founded the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fourth_International" title="Fourth International">Fourth International</a>, a Trotskyist rival to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Comintern" title="Comintern">Comintern</a>, in 1938.</p>
<p>Trotskyist ideas have continually found a modest echo among <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_movement" title="Political movement">political movements</a> in some countries in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Latin_America" title="Latin America">Latin America</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Asia" title="Asia">Asia</a>, especially in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Argentina" title="Argentina">Argentina</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Brazil" title="Brazil">Brazil</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bolivia" title="Bolivia">Bolivia</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sri_Lanka" title="Sri Lanka">Sri Lanka</a>. Many Trotskyist organizations are also active in more stable, developed countries in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/North_America" title="North America">North America</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Western_Europe" title="Western Europe">Western Europe</a>.
Trotsky's politics differed sharply from those of Stalin and Mao, most
importantly in declaring the need for an international proletarian
revolution (rather than socialism in one country) and unwavering
support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on democratic
principles.</p>
<p>However, as a whole, Trotsky's theories and attitudes were never
accepted in worldwide mainstream Communist circles after Trotsky's
expulsion, either within or outside of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eastern_Bloc" title="Eastern Bloc">Soviet bloc</a>. This remained the case even after the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Secret_Speech" title="Secret Speech" class="mw-redirect">Secret Speech</a> and subsequent events critics claim exposed the fallibility of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalin" title="Stalin" class="mw-redirect">Stalin</a>.</p>
<p>Some criticize Trotskyism as incapable of using concrete analysis on
its theories, rather resorting to phrases and abstract notions.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Maoism">Maoism</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 202px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/5PadriComunisti.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/200px-5PadriComunisti.png" class="thumbimage" height="130" width="200"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/5PadriComunisti.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
This poster shows Mao Zedong as continuing the legacy set by former Communist leaders.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a></div>
<p>Maoism is the Marxist-Leninist trend of Communism associated with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mao_Zedong" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a> and was mostly practiced within the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">People's Republic of China</a>. Khrushchev's reforms heightened ideological differences between the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">People's Republic of China</a> and the Soviet Union, which became increasingly apparent in the 1960s. As the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sino-Soviet_Split" title="Sino-Soviet Split" class="mw-redirect">Sino-Soviet Split</a> in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_communism" title="History of communism">international Communist movement</a>
turned toward open hostility, China portrayed itself as a leader of the
underdeveloped world against the two superpowers, the United States and
the Soviet Union.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Parties and groups that supported the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China" title="Communist Party of China">Communist Party of China</a>
(CPC) in their criticism against the new Soviet leadership proclaimed
themselves as 'anti-revisionist' and denounced the CPSU and the parties
aligned with it as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Revisionism_%28Marxism%29" title="Revisionism (Marxism)">revisionist</a> "capitalist-roaders." The Sino-Soviet Split resulted in divisions amongst communist parties around the world. Notably, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Party_of_Labour_of_Albania" title="Party of Labour of Albania">Party of Labour of Albania</a>
sided with the People's Republic of China. Effectively, the CPC under
Mao's leadership became the rallying forces of a parallel international
Communist tendency. The ideology of CPC, Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong
Thought (generally referred to as 'Maoism'), was adopted by many of
these groups.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>After Mao's death and his replacement by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deng_Xiaoping" title="Deng Xiaoping">Deng Xiaoping</a>,
the international Maoist movement diverged. One sector accepted the new
leadership in China; a second renounced the new leadership and
reaffirmed their commitment to Mao's legacy; and a third renounced
Maoism altogether and aligned with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Socialist_Republic_of_Albania" title="People's Socialist Republic of Albania" class="mw-redirect">Albania</a>.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Hoxhaism">Hoxhaism</span></h4>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hoxhaism" title="Hoxhaism">Hoxhaism</a></div>
<p>Another variant of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-revisionist" title="Anti-revisionist" class="mw-redirect">anti-revisionist</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> appeared after the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sino-Albanian_split" title="Sino-Albanian split">ideological row</a> between the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China" title="Communist Party of China">Communist Party of China</a> and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Party_of_Labour_of_Albania" title="Party of Labour of Albania">Party of Labour of Albania</a>
in 1978. The Albanians rallied a new separate international tendency.
This tendency would demarcate itself by a strict defense of the legacy
of Joseph Stalin and fierce criticism of virtually all other Communist
groupings as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Revisionism_%28Marxism%29" title="Revisionism (Marxism)">revisionism</a>. Critical of the United States, Soviet Union, and China, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Enver_Hoxha" title="Enver Hoxha">Enver Hoxha</a> declared the latter two to be <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social-imperialist" title="Social-imperialist" class="mw-redirect">social-imperialist</a> and condemned the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_invasion_of_Czechoslovakia" title="Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia" class="mw-redirect">Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia</a> by withdrawing from the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Warsaw_Pact" title="Warsaw Pact">Warsaw Pact</a>
in response. Hoxha declared Albania to be the world's only
Marxist-Leninist state after 1978. The Albanians were able to win over
a large share of the Maoists, mainly in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Latin_America" title="Latin America">Latin America</a> such as the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Popular_Liberation_Army" title="Popular Liberation Army">Popular Liberation Army</a>, but also had a significant <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Party_of_Labour_of_Albania#External_following" title="Party of Labour of Albania">international following</a> in general. This tendency has occasionally been labeled as 'Hoxhaism' after him.</p>
<p>After the fall of the Communist government in Albania, the pro-Albanian parties are grouped around an <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Conference_of_Marxist-Leninist_Parties_and_Organizations_%28Unity_%26_Struggle%29" title="International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity &amp; Struggle)" class="mw-redirect">international conference</a> and the publication 'Unity and Struggle'.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Titoism">Titoism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Titoism" title="Titoism">Titoism</a></div>
<p>Elements of Titoism are characterized by policies and practices
based on the principle that in each country, the means of attaining
ultimate communist goals must be dictated by the conditions of that
particular country, rather than by a pattern set in another country.
During Tito’s era, this specifically meant that the communist goal
should be pursued independently of (and often in opposition to) the
policies of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>.</p>
<p>The term was originally meant as a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Pejorative" title="Pejorative">pejorative</a>, and was labeled by Moscow as a heresy during the period of tensions between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia known as the <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Informbiro" title="Informbiro" class="mw-redirect">Informbiro</a></i> period from 1948 to 1955.</p>
<p>Unlike the rest of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eastern_Bloc" title="Eastern Bloc">East Europe</a>, which fell under <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalin" title="Stalin" class="mw-redirect">Stalin</a>'s influence post-World War II, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/SFRY" title="SFRY" class="mw-redirect">Yugoslavia</a>, due to the strong leadership of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito" title="Josip Broz Tito">Marshal Tito</a> and the fact that the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Yugoslav_Partisans" title="Yugoslav Partisans">Yugoslav Partisans</a> liberated Yugoslavia with only limited help from the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Red_Army" title="Red Army">Red Army</a>, remained independent from Moscow. It became the only country in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Balkans" title="Balkans">Balkans</a> to resist pressure from Moscow to join the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Warsaw_Pact" title="Warsaw Pact">Warsaw Pact</a>
and remained "socialist, but independent" right up until the collapse
of Soviet socialism in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Throughout his
time in office, Tito prided himself on Yugoslavia's independence from
Russia, with Yugoslavia never accepting full membership of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Comecon" title="Comecon">Comecon</a> and Tito's open rejection of many aspects of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a> as the most obvious manifestations of this.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Eurocommunism">Eurocommunism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eurocommunism" title="Eurocommunism">Eurocommunism</a></div>
<p>Since the early 1970s, the term <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eurocommunism" title="Eurocommunism">Eurocommunism</a>
was used to refer to moderate, reformist Communist parties in western
Europe. These parties did not support the Soviet Union and denounced
its policies. Such parties were politically active and electorally
significant in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Italy" title="Italy">Italy</a> (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Italian_Communist_Party" title="Italian Communist Party">PCI</a>), <a href="http://localhost/wiki/France" title="France">France</a> (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/French_Communist_Party" title="French Communist Party">PCF</a>), and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Spain" title="Spain">Spain</a> (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_Spain" title="Communist Party of Spain">PCE</a>).<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Council_communism">Council communism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_communism" title="Council communism">Council communism</a></div>
<p>Council communism is a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Far-left" title="Far-left" class="mw-redirect">far-left</a> movement originating in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Germany" title="Germany">Germany</a> and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Netherlands</a> in the 1920s. Its primary organization was the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Workers_Party_of_Germany" title="Communist Workers Party of Germany" class="mw-redirect">Communist Workers Party of Germany</a> (KAPD). Council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within both left-wing <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Libertarian_socialism" title="Libertarian socialism">libertarian socialism</a>.</p>
<p>The central argument of council communism, in contrast to those of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_democracy" title="Social democracy">social democracy</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninist</a> Communism, is that democratic <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Workers%27_councils" title="Workers' councils" class="mw-redirect">workers' councils</a>
arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of
working class organisation and governmental power. This view is opposed
to both the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Reformist" title="Reformist" class="mw-redirect">reformist</a> and the Leninist <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ideology" title="Ideology">ideologies</a>, with their stress on, respectively, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Parliament" title="Parliament">parliaments</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_institutionalism" title="New institutionalism">institutional</a> government (i.e., by applying social reforms), on the one hand, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vanguard_party" title="Vanguard party">vanguard parties</a> and participative <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">democratic centralism</a> on the other).</p>
<p>The core principle of council communism is that the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Government" title="Government">government</a> and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Economic_system" title="Economic system">economy</a> should be managed by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Workers%27_councils" title="Workers' councils" class="mw-redirect">workers' councils</a> composed of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Delegate" title="Delegate">delegates</a> elected at workplaces and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Recall_election" title="Recall election">recallable</a> at any moment. As such, council communists oppose <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Planned_economy" title="Planned economy">state-run</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Authoritarianism" title="Authoritarianism">authoritarian</a> "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/State_socialism" title="State socialism">State socialism</a>"/"<a href="http://localhost/wiki/State_capitalism" title="State capitalism">State capitalism</a>".
They also oppose the idea of a "revolutionary party", since council
communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily
produce a party dictatorship. Council communists support a worker's
democracy, which they want to produce through a federation of workers'
councils. Council communism (and other types of "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Antiauthoritarianism" title="Antiauthoritarianism" class="mw-redirect">anti-authoritarian</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-Leninism" title="Anti-Leninism">Anti-leninist</a> Marxism" such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Autonomism" title="Autonomism">Autonomism</a>) are often viewed as being similar to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchism" title="Anarchism">Anarchism</a> because they criticize Leninist ideologies for being authoritarian and reject the idea of a vanguard party.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Luxemburgism" title="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</a></div>
<p>Luxemburgism, based on the writing of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Rosa_Luxemburg" title="Rosa Luxemburg">Rosa Luxemburg</a>, is an interpretation of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a> which, while supporting the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Russian_Revolution_%281917%29" title="Russian Revolution (1917)">Russian Revolution</a>, as Luxemburg did, agrees with her criticisms of the politics of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Lenin" title="Lenin" class="mw-redirect">Lenin</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotsky" title="Trotsky" class="mw-redirect">Trotsky</a>; she did not see their concept of "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">democratic centralism</a>" as democracy.</p>
<p>The chief tenets of Luxemburgism are commitment to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democracy" title="Democracy">democracy</a> and the necessity of the revolution taking place as soon as possible. In this regard, it is similar to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_Communism" title="Council Communism" class="mw-redirect">Council Communism</a>, but differs in that, for example, Luxemburgists don't reject <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Election" title="Election">elections</a> by principle. It resembles <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchism" title="Anarchism">anarchism</a> in its insistence that only relying on the people themselves as opposed to their leaders can avoid an <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Authoritarian" title="Authoritarian" class="mw-redirect">authoritarian</a> society, but differs in that it sees the importance of a revolutionary party, and mainly the centrality of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Working_class" title="Working class">working class</a> in the revolutionary struggle. It resembles <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a> in its opposition to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Totalitarianism" title="Totalitarianism">totalitarianism</a> of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinist" title="Stalinist" class="mw-redirect">Stalinist</a> government while simultaneously avoiding the reformist politics of modern <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_Democracy" title="Social Democracy" class="mw-redirect">Social Democracy</a>, but differs from Trotskyism in arguing that Lenin and Trotsky also made undemocratic errors.</p>
<p>Luxemburg's idea of democracy, which <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stanley_Aronowitz" title="Stanley Aronowitz">Stanley Aronowitz</a> calls "<i>generalized</i>
democracy in an unarticulated form", represents Luxemburgism's greatest
break with "mainstream communism", since it effectively diminishes the
role of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party" title="Communist Party" class="mw-redirect">Communist Party</a>, but is in fact very similar to the views of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Karl Marx</a> ("<i>The emancipation of the working classes must be conquered by the working classes themselves</i>").
According to Aronowitz, the vagueness of Luxembourgian democracy is one
reason for its initial difficulty in gaining widespread support.
However, since the fall of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>, Luxemburgism has been seen by some socialist thinkers as a way to avoid the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Totalitarianism" title="Totalitarianism">totalitarianism</a> of Stalinism. Early on, Luxemburg attacked undemocratic tendencies present in the Russian Revolution.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Juche">Juche</span></h3>
<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content" style="">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image">
<div style="width: 52px;"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/50px-Question_book-new.png" height="39" width="50"></div>
</td>
<td class="mbox-text" style="">This section <b>does not <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> any <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">references or sources</a></b>.<br>
<small>Please help <a href="en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communism&amp;action=edit" class="external text" rel="nofollow">improve this article</a> by adding citations to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Reliable_sources" title="Wikipedia:Reliable sources" class="mw-redirect">reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Template:Citation_needed" title="Template:Citation needed">challenged</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>. <i>(November 2008)</i></small></td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Juche" title="Juche">Juche</a></div>
<p>In 1992, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Juche" title="Juche">Juche</a> replaced <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism-Leninism" title="Marxism-Leninism" class="mw-redirect">Marxism-Leninism</a> in the revised North Korean constitution as the official state ideology, this being a response to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sino-Soviet_split" title="Sino-Soviet split">Sino-Soviet split</a>. Juche was originally defined as a creative application of Marxism-Leninism, but after the 1991 collapse of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>
(North Korea’s greatest economic benefactor), all reference to
Marxism-Leninism was dropped in the revised 1998 constitution. The
establishment of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Songun" title="Songun">Songun</a> doctrine in the mid-1990s has formally designated the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Military" title="Military">military</a>, not the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletariat" title="Proletariat">proletariat</a> or <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Working_class" title="Working class">working class</a>, as the main revolutionary force in North Korea. All reference to communism had been dropped in the 2009 revised constitution.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>According to Kim Jong-il's <i>On the Juche Idea</i>, the application of Juche in state policy entails the following:</p>
<ol>
<li>The people must have independence (<i>chajusong</i>) in thought and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Politics" title="Politics">politics</a>, economic <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Self-sufficiency" title="Self-sufficiency">self-sufficiency</a>, and self-reliance in defense.</li>
<li>Policy must reflect the will and aspirations of the masses and employ them fully in revolution and construction.</li>
<li>Methods of revolution and construction must be suitable to the situation of the country.</li>
<li>The most important work of revolution and construction is molding
people ideologically as communists and mobilizing them to constructive
action.</li>
</ol>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Prachandapath">Prachandapath</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Prachanda.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/220px-Prachanda.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="156" width="220"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Prachanda.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Prachanda" title="Prachanda">Prachanda</a>, giving a speech at the Nepalese city of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Pokhara" title="Pokhara">Pokhara</a>.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_Nepal_%28Maoist%29" title="Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)" class="mw-redirect">Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)</a></div>
<p>Prachanda Path refers to the ideological line of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Unified_Communist_Party_of_Nepal_%28Maoist%29" title="Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)">Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)</a>. This thought doesn't make an ideological break with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a> but it is an extension of these ideologies totally based on home-ground politics of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nepal" title="Nepal">Nepal</a>.
The doctrine came into existence after it was realized that the
ideology of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism couldn't be practiced
completely as it was done in the past. And an ideology suitable, based
on the ground reality of Nepalese politics was adopted by the party.</p>
<p>After five years of armed struggle, the party realized that none of
the proletarian revolutions of the past could be carried out on Nepal’s
context. So moving further ahead than Marxism, Leninism and Maoism, the
party determined its own ideology, Prachanda Path.</p>
<p>Having analyzed the serious challenges and growing changes in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Global_Arena" title="Global Arena">global arena</a>,
the party started moving on its own doctrine. Prachanda Path in essence
is a different kind of uprising, which can be described as the fusion
of a protracted people’s war strategy which was adopted by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mao_Zedong" title="Mao Zedong">Mao</a>
in China and the Russian model of armed revolution. Most of the Maoist
leaders think that the adoption of Prachanda Path after the second
national conference is what nudged the party into moving ahead with a
clear vision ahead after five years of ‘people’s war’.</p>
<p>Senior Maoist leader Mohan Vaidya alias Kiran says, ‘Just as Marxism
was born in Germany, Leninism in Russia and Maoism in China and
Prachanda Path is Nepal’s identity of revolution. Just as Marxism has
three facets- philosophy, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_economy" title="Political economy">political economy</a>
and scientific socialism, Prachanda Path is a combination of all three
totally in Nepal’s political context.’ Talking about the party’s
philosophy, Maoist chairman <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Prachanda" title="Prachanda">Prachanda</a>
says, ‘The party considers Prachanda path as an enrichment of Marxism,
Leninism and Maoism.’ After the party brought forward its new doctrine,
the government was trying to comprehend the new ideology, Prachanda
Path.</p>
<p><i>see also: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nepalese_Civil_War" title="Nepalese Civil War">'People's Revolution' In Nepal</a></i></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Non-Marxist_schools">Non-Marxist schools</span></h2>
<p>The dominant forms of communism, such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a>, are based on <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a>, but non-Marxist versions of communism (such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">anarchist communism</a>) also exist and are growing in importance since the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_the_Soviet_Union_%281985%E2%80%931991%29#Dissolution_of_the_USSR" title="History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991)" class="mw-redirect">fall of the Soviet Union</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Anarcho-communism">Anarcho-communism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarcho-communism" title="Anarcho-communism" class="mw-redirect">Anarcho-communism</a></div>
<p>Some of Marx's contemporaries espoused similar ideas, but differed
in their views of how to reach to a classless society. Following the
split between those associated with Marx and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mikhail_Bakunin" title="Mikhail Bakunin">Mikhail Bakunin</a> at the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Workingmen%27s_Association" title="International Workingmen's Association">First International</a>, the anarchists formed the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Workers_Association" title="International Workers Association" class="mw-redirect">International Workers Association</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup> Anarchists argued that capitalism and the state were inseparable and that one could not be abolished without the other. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">Anarchist-communists</a> such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Peter_Kropotkin" title="Peter Kropotkin">Peter Kropotkin</a> theorized an immediate transition to one society with no classes. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarcho-syndicalism" title="Anarcho-syndicalism">Anarcho-syndicalism</a> became one of the dominant forms of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/List_of_anarchist_organizations" title="List of anarchist organizations">anarchist organization</a>, arguing that <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trade_union" title="Trade union">labor unions</a>,
as opposed to Communist parties, are the organizations that can change
society. Consequently, many anarchists have been in opposition to
Marxist communism to this day.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Anarchist communists propose that the freest form of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_organisation" title="Social organisation">social organisation</a> would be a society composed of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Self-governance" title="Self-governance">self-governing</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Commune_%28socialism%29" title="Commune (socialism)">communes</a> with collective use of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Means_of_production" title="Means of production">means of production</a>, organized by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Direct_democracy" title="Direct democracy">direct democracy</a>, and related to other communes through <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Federation" title="Federation">federation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-LibCom_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LibCom-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup>
However, some anarchist communists oppose the majoritarian nature of
direct democracy, feeling that it can impede individual liberty and
favor <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Consensus_democracy" title="Consensus democracy">consensus democracy</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Christian_communism">Christian communism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a></div>
<p>Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered on
Christianity. It is a theological and political theory based upon the
view that the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Jesus" title="Jesus">teachings of Jesus</a> Christ urge Christians to support communism as the ideal <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_structure" title="Social structure">social system</a>. Christian communists trace the origins of their practice to teachings in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Testament" title="New Testament">New Testament</a>, such as this one from <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Acts_of_the_Apostles" title="Acts of the Apostles">Acts of the Apostles</a> at chapter 2 and verses 42, 44, and 45:</p>
<blockquote>
<p><b>42</b> <i>And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and in fellowship [...]</i> <b>44</b> <i>And all that believed were together, and had all things in common;</i> <b>45</b> <i>And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need.</i> (<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Authorized_King_James_Version" title="Authorized King James Version">King James Version</a>)</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Christian communism can be seen as a radical form of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_socialism" title="Christian socialism">Christian socialism</a>.
Also, due to the fact that many Christian communists have formed
independent stateless communes in the past, there is also a link
between Christian communism and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_anarchism" title="Christian anarchism">Christian anarchism</a>. Christian communists may or may not agree with various parts of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a>.</p>
<p>Christian communists also share some of the political goals of Marxists, for example replacing capitalism with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">socialism</a>,
which should in turn be followed by communism at a later point in the
future. However, Christian communists sometimes disagree with Marxists
(and particularly with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninists</a>) on the way a socialist or communist society should be organized.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_communism" title="History of communism">History of communism</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_communism">Early communism</span></h3>
<div class="rellink">Further information: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Primitive_communism" title="Primitive communism">Primitive communism</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_communism" title="Religious communism">Religious communism</a></div>
<p>Karl Heinrich Marx saw <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Primitive_communism" title="Primitive communism">primitive communism</a> as the original, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hunter-gatherer" title="Hunter-gatherer" class="mw-redirect">hunter-gatherer</a> state of humankind from which it arose. For Marx, only after humanity was capable of producing <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Economic_surplus" title="Economic surplus">surplus</a>, did private property develop.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>In the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_Western_philosophy" title="History of Western philosophy" class="mw-redirect">history of Western thought</a>, certain elements of the idea of a society based on common ownership of property can be traced back to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ancient_history" title="Ancient history">ancient times</a> .<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> Examples include the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Spartacus" title="Spartacus">Spartacus</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Slave_rebellion" title="Slave rebellion">slave revolt</a> in Rome.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="http://localhost/wiki/5th_century" title="5th century">fifth century</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mazdak" title="Mazdak">Mazdak</a> movement in what is now <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Iran" title="Iran">Iran</a>
has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous
privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, criticizing the
institution of private property and for striving for an egalitarian
society.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scripture" title="Scripture">Scripture</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-britannica_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-britannica-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> In the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Middle_Ages" title="Middle Ages">medieval</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_Church" title="Christian Church">Christian church</a>, for example, some <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Monasticism" title="Monasticism">monastic</a> communities and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_order" title="Religious order">religious orders</a> shared their land and other property (see <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_communism" title="Religious communism">religious communism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a>). These groups often believed that concern with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Private_property" title="Private property">private property</a> was a distraction from religious service to God and neighbor.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Communist thought has also been traced back to the work of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/16th_century" title="16th century">16th century</a> English writer <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Thomas_More" title="Thomas More">Thomas More</a>. In his treatise <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Utopia_%28book%29" title="Utopia (book)">Utopia</a></i> (1516), More portrayed a society based on <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Common_ownership" title="Common ownership">common ownership</a> of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> In the 17th century, communist thought arguably surfaced again in England. In 17th century England, a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Puritan" title="Puritan">Puritan</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_denomination" title="Religious denomination">religious group</a> known as the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Diggers" title="Diggers">Diggers</a> advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from May 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eduard_Bernstein" title="Eduard Bernstein">Eduard Bernstein</a>, in his 1895 <i>Cromwell and Communism</i><sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> argued that several groupings in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/English_Civil_War" title="English Civil War">English Civil War</a>, especially the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Diggers" title="Diggers">Diggers</a> espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals, and that <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell" title="Oliver Cromwell">Oliver Cromwell</a>'s attitude to these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment" title="Age of Enlightenment">Age of Enlightenment</a> of the 18th century, through such thinkers as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Jean_Jacques_Rousseau" title="Jean Jacques Rousseau" class="mw-redirect">Jean Jacques Rousseau</a> in France.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> Later, following the upheaval of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/French_Revolution" title="French Revolution">French Revolution</a>, communism emerged as a political doctrine.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois-No%C3%ABl_Babeuf" title="François-Noël Babeuf">François Noël Babeuf</a>, in particular, espoused the goals of common ownership of land and total economic and political equality among citizens.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Various social reformers in the early 19th century founded
communities based on common ownership. But unlike many previous
communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a
rational and philanthropic basis.<sup id="cite_ref-britannica_24-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-britannica-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> Notable among them were <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Robert_Owen" title="Robert Owen">Robert Owen</a>, who founded <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Harmony,_Indiana" title="New Harmony, Indiana">New Harmony</a> in Indiana (1825), and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Charles_Fourier" title="Charles Fourier">Charles Fourier</a>, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Brook_Farm" title="Brook Farm">Brook Farm</a> (1841–47).<sup id="cite_ref-britannica_24-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-britannica-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> Later in the 19th century, Karl Marx described these social reformers as "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Utopian_socialism" title="Utopian socialism">utopian socialists</a>" to contrast them with his program of "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scientific_socialism" title="Scientific socialism" class="mw-redirect">scientific socialism</a>" (a term coined by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Friedrich_Engels" title="Friedrich Engels">Friedrich Engels</a>). Other writers described by Marx as "utopian socialists" included <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Claude_Henri_de_Rouvroy,_comte_de_Saint-Simon" title="Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon">Saint-Simon</a>.</p>
<p>In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement of 19th century Europe.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> As the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Industrial_Revolution" title="Industrial Revolution">Industrial Revolution</a> advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Proletariat" title="Proletariat">proletariat</a>&nbsp;
— a new class of urban factory workers who labored under
often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/List_of_German-language_philosophers" title="List of German-language philosophers">German philosopher</a>
Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels
offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their
famous pamphlet <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_Communist_Manifesto" title="The Communist Manifesto">The Communist Manifesto</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-britannica_24-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-britannica-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> Engels, who lived in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Manchester" title="Manchester">Manchester</a>, observed the organization of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Chartism" title="Chartism">Chartist</a> movement (<i>see <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_British_socialism" title="History of British socialism" class="mw-redirect">History of British socialism</a></i>), while Marx departed from his university comrades to meet the proletariat in France and Germany.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Growth_of_modern_communism">Growth of modern communism</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 222px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Soviet_Union,_Lenin_%2855%29.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/220px-Soviet_Union_Lenin_55.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="299" width="220"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Soviet_Union,_Lenin_%2855%29.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin" title="Vladimir Lenin">Vladimir Lenin</a>, following his return to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Saint_Petersburg" title="Saint Petersburg">Petrograd</a>.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_Communism" title="History of Communism" class="mw-redirect">History of Communism</a></div>
<p>In the late 19th century, Russian Marxism developed a distinct character. The first major figure of Russian Marxism was <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Georgi_Plekhanov" title="Georgi Plekhanov">Georgi Plekhanov</a>.
Underlying the work of Plekhanov was the assumption that Russia, less
urbanized and industrialized than Western Europe, had many years to go
before society would be ready for proletarian revolution to occur, and
a transitional period of a bourgeois democratic regime would be
required to replace <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Tsar" title="Tsar">Tsarism</a> with a socialist and later communist society.&nbsp;(EB)<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from October 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>In Russia, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/October_Revolution" title="October Revolution">1917 October Revolution</a> was the first time any party with an avowedly Marxist orientation, in this case the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union" title="Communist Party of the Soviet Union">Bolshevik Party</a>, seized <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Political_power" title="Political power">state power</a>.
The assumption of state power by the Bolsheviks generated a great deal
of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx
predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations
laid by the most advanced capitalist development. Russia, however, was
one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely
illiterate <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Peasantry" title="Peasantry" class="mw-redirect">peasantry</a>
and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that
Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeoisie capitalism.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup> Other socialists also believed that a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/October_Revolution" title="October Revolution">Russian revolution</a> could be the precursor of workers' revolutions in the West.</p>
<p>The moderate <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Menshevik" title="Menshevik">Mensheviks</a> opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_revolution" title="Communist revolution">socialist revolution</a>
before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful
rise to power was based upon the slogans "peace, bread, and land" and
"All power to the Soviets", slogans which tapped the massive public
desire for an end to Russian involvement in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_War_I" title="World War I">First World War</a>, the peasants' demand for <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Land_reform" title="Land reform">land reform</a>, and popular support for the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_%28council%29" title="Soviet (council)">Soviets</a>.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>The usage of the terms "communism" and "socialism" shifted after
1917, when the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and
installed a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Single_party_state" title="Single party state" class="mw-redirect">single party</a> regime devoted to the implementation of socialist policies under <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a>.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> The <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Second_International" title="Second International">Second International</a>
had dissolved in 1916 over national divisions, as the separate national
parties that composed it did not maintain a unified front against the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_War_I" title="World War I">war</a>, instead generally supporting their respective nation's role. Lenin thus created the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Third_International" title="Third International" class="mw-redirect">Third International</a> (Comintern) in 1919 and sent the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Twenty-one_Conditions" title="Twenty-one Conditions">Twenty-one Conditions</a>, which included <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">democratic centralism</a>, to all European <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_socialism" title="Democratic socialism">socialist parties</a> willing to adhere. In France, for example, the majority of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/French_Section_of_the_Workers%27_International" title="French Section of the Workers' International">French Section of the Workers' International</a> (SFIO) party split in 1921 to form the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/French_Communist_Party" title="French Communist Party">French Section of the Communist International</a> (SFIC).<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup>
Henceforth, the term "Communism" was applied to the objective of the
parties founded under the umbrella of the Comintern. Their program
called for the uniting of workers of the world for revolution, which
would be followed by the establishment of a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat" title="Dictatorship of the proletariat">dictatorship of the proletariat</a> as well as the development of a <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialist_economics" title="Socialist economics">socialist economy</a>. Ultimately, if their program held, there would develop a harmonious classless society, with the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Withering_away_of_the_state" title="Withering away of the state" class="mw-redirect">withering away of the state</a>.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 302px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sino-Soviet_split_1980.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/300px-Sino-Soviet_split_1980.png" class="thumbimage" height="152" width="300"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sino-Soviet_split_1980.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under
the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, "communist
states") in 1980. The map also includes Communist alignment: either to
the Soviet Union, China or independent</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>During the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Russian_Civil_War" title="Russian Civil War">Russian Civil War</a> (1918–1922), the Bolsheviks <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nationalization" title="Nationalization">nationalized</a> all productive property and imposed a policy of <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/War_communism" title="War communism">war communism</a></i>,
which put factories and railroads under strict government control,
collected and rationed food, and introduced some bourgeois management
of industry. After three years of war and the 1921 <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Kronstadt_rebellion" title="Kronstadt rebellion">Kronstadt rebellion</a>, Lenin declared the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Economic_Policy" title="New Economic Policy">New Economic Policy</a> (NEP) in 1921, which was to give a "limited place for a limited time to capitalism." The NEP lasted until 1928, when <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Joseph_Stalin" title="Joseph Stalin">Joseph Stalin</a>
achieved party leadership, and the introduction of the first Five Year
Plan spelled the end of it. Following the Russian Civil War, the
Bolsheviks formed in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR), or <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>, from the former <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Russian_Empire" title="Russian Empire">Russian Empire</a>.</p>
<p>Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Communist parties were
organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the
broad base; they were made up only of elite <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cadre" title="Cadre">cadres</a> approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Party_discipline" title="Party discipline">party discipline</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>After <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a>, Communists consolidated power in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eastern_Europe" title="Eastern Europe">Eastern Europe</a>, and in 1949, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China" title="Communist Party of China">Communist Party of China</a> (CPC) led by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mao_Zedong" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a> established the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">People's Republic of China</a>, which would later follow its own ideological path of Communist development.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cuba" title="Cuba">Cuba</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/North_Korea" title="North Korea">North Korea</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cambodia" title="Cambodia">Cambodia</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Angola" title="Angola">Angola</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mozambique" title="Mozambique">Mozambique</a> were among the other countries in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Third_World" title="Third World">Third World</a>
that adopted or imposed a pro-Communist government at some point.
Although never formally unified as a single political entity, by the
early 1980s almost one-third of the world's population lived in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">Communist states</a>, including the former <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">People's Republic of China</a>. By comparison, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/British_Empire" title="British Empire">British Empire</a> had ruled up to one-quarter of the world's population at its greatest extent.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Communist states such as the Soviet Union and China succeeded in
becoming industrial and technological powers, challenging the
capitalists' powers in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Arms_race" title="Arms race">arms race</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Space_race" title="Space race" class="mw-redirect">space race</a> and military conflicts.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Cold_War_years">Cold War years</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 152px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sputnik-stamp-ussr.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/150px-Sputnik-stamp-ussr.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="209" width="150"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sputnik-stamp-ussr.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
USSR postage stamp depicting the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">communist state</a> launching the first artificial satellite <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Sputnik_1" title="Sputnik 1">Sputnik 1</a>.</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>By virtue of the Soviet Union's victory in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">Second World War</a> in 1945, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Red_Army" title="Red Army">Soviet Army</a> had occupied nations in both <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eastern_Europe" title="Eastern Europe">Eastern Europe</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/East_Asia" title="East Asia">East Asia</a>;
as a result, communism as a movement spread to many new countries. This
expansion of communism both in Europe and Asia gave rise to a few
different branches of its own, such as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a>.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Communism had been vastly strengthened by the winning of many new
nations into the sphere of Soviet influence and strength in Eastern
Europe. Governments modeled on Soviet Communism took power with Soviet
assistance in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bulgaria" title="Bulgaria">Bulgaria</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Czechoslovakia" title="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/East_Germany" title="East Germany">East Germany</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Poland" title="Poland">Poland</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hungary" title="Hungary">Hungary</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Romania" title="Romania">Romania</a>. A Communist government was also created under <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Joseph_Tito" title="Joseph Tito" class="mw-redirect">Marshal Tito</a> in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Yugoslavia" title="Yugoslavia">Yugoslavia</a>, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialist_Federal_Republic_of_Yugoslavia" title="Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia">Yugoslavia</a> from the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cominform" title="Cominform">Cominform</a>, which had replaced the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Comintern" title="Comintern">Comintern</a>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Titoism" title="Titoism">Titoism</a>, a new branch in the world communist movement, was labeled <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deviationism" title="Deviationism">deviationist</a></i>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Albania" title="Albania">Albania</a> also became an independent Communist nation after World War II.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from April 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>By 1950, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China" title="Communist Party of China">Chinese Communists</a> held all of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mainland_China" title="Mainland China">Mainland China</a>,
thus controlling the most populous nation in the world. Other areas
where rising Communist strength provoked dissension and in some cases
led to actual fighting through conventional and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Guerrilla_warfare" title="Guerrilla warfare">guerrilla warfare</a> include the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Korean_War" title="Korean War">Korean War</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a>, many nations of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Middle_East" title="Middle East">Middle East</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Africa" title="Africa">Africa</a>, and notably succeeded in the case of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vietnam_War" title="Vietnam War">Vietnam War</a> against the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Armed_forces" title="Armed forces">military power</a> of the United States and its allies. With varying degrees of success, Communists attempted to unite with <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nationalism" title="Nationalism">nationalist</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">socialist</a> forces against what they saw as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Western_world" title="Western world">Western</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Imperialism" title="Imperialism">imperialism</a> in these poor countries.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Fear_of_communism">Fear of communism</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 152px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Is_this_tomorrow.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/150px-Is_this_tomorrow.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="217" width="150"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Is_this_tomorrow.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
A 1947 <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Propaganda" title="Propaganda">propaganda</a> book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society "warning of the dangers" of a Communist takeover.</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Red_Scare" title="Red Scare">Red Scare</a></div>
<p>With the exception of the Soviet Union's, China's and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Italian_resistance_movement" title="Italian resistance movement">Italian resistance movement</a>'s great contribution in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a>, communism was seen as a rival, and a threat to western democracies and capitalism for most of the twentieth century.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from November 2009" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup> This rivalry peaked during the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cold_War" title="Cold War">Cold War</a>,
as the world's two remaining superpowers, the United States and the
Soviet Union, polarized most of the world into two camps of nations
(characterized in the West as "The Free World" vs. "Behind the Iron
Curtain"); supported the spread of their economic and political systems
(capitalism and democracy vs. communism); strengthened their military
power, developed new weapon systems and stockpiled <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nuclear_weapon" title="Nuclear weapon">nuclear weapons</a>; competed with each other in space exploration; and even fought each other through proxy client nations.</p>
<p>Near the beginning of the Cold War, on February 9, 1950, Senator <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Joseph_McCarthy" title="Joseph McCarthy">Joseph McCarthy</a> from <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wisconsin" title="Wisconsin">Wisconsin</a> accused 205 Americans working in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/United_States_Department_of_State" title="United States Department of State">State Department</a> of being "card-carrying Communists".<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> The fear of communism in the U.S. spurred aggressive investigations and the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Red-baiting" title="Red-baiting">red-baiting</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Blacklist" title="Blacklist">blacklisting</a>,
jailing and deportation of people suspected of following Communist or
other left-wing ideology. Many famous actors and writers were put on a
"blacklist" from 1950 to 1954, which meant they would not be hired and
would be subject to public disdain.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="After_the_collapse_of_the_Soviet_Union">After the collapse of the Soviet Union</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 302px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sino-Soviet_split_2008.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/300px-Sino-Soviet_split_2008.png" class="thumbimage" height="152" width="300"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Sino-Soviet_split_2008.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
A map of countries who declare themselves to be socialist states under
the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, "communist
states") today. The map also includes Communist alignment: either to
China or independent</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>In 1985, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev" title="Mikhail Gorbachev">Mikhail Gorbachev</a> became leader of the Soviet Union and relaxed central control, in accordance with reform policies of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Glasnost" title="Glasnost">glasnost</a> (openness) and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Perestroika" title="Perestroika">perestroika</a> (restructuring). The Soviet Union did not intervene as <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Poland" title="Poland">Poland</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/East_Germany" title="East Germany">East Germany</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Czechoslovakia" title="Czechoslovakia">Czechoslovakia</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bulgaria" title="Bulgaria">Bulgaria</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Romania" title="Romania">Romania</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hungary" title="Hungary">Hungary</a> all abandoned Communist rule by 1990. In 1991, the Soviet Union itself dissolved.</p>
<p>By the beginning of the 21st century, states controlled by Communist parties under a single-party system include the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China" title="People's Republic of China">People's Republic of China</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cuba" title="Cuba">Cuba</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Laos" title="Laos">Laos</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vietnam" title="Vietnam">Vietnam</a>, and informally <a href="http://localhost/wiki/North_Korea" title="North Korea">North Korea</a>. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in many countries. President <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dimitris_Christofias" title="Dimitris Christofias">Dimitris Christofias</a> of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cyprus" title="Cyprus">Cyprus</a> is a member of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Progressive_Party_of_Working_People" title="Progressive Party of Working People">Progressive Party of Working People</a>, but the country is not run under single-party rule. In <a href="http://localhost/wiki/South_Africa" title="South Africa">South Africa</a>, the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/SACP" title="SACP" class="mw-redirect">Communist Party</a> is a partner in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/African_National_Congress" title="African National Congress">ANC</a>-led government. In <a href="http://localhost/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, communists lead the governments of three <a href="http://localhost/wiki/States_and_territories_of_India" title="States and territories of India">states</a>, with a combined population of more than 115 million. In <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nepal" title="Nepal">Nepal</a>, communists hold a majority in the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nepalese_Constituent_Assembly" title="Nepalese Constituent Assembly">parliament</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the
Maoist legacy; and the People's Republic of China, Laos, Vietnam, and,
to a far lesser degree, Cuba have reduced state control of the economy
in order to stimulate growth. The People's Republic of China runs <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special_Economic_Zone" title="Special Economic Zone">Special Economic Zones</a> dedicated to market-oriented enterprise, free from <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Central_government" title="Central government" class="mw-redirect">central government</a> control. Several other communist states have also attempted to implement market-based reforms, including Vietnam.</p>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width: 152px;"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Kerala_communist_tableaux.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="en.wikipedia.org/150px-Kerala_communist_tableaux.jpg" class="thumbimage" height="226" width="150"></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="en.wikipedia.org/Kerala_communist_tableaux.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="en.wikipedia.org/magnify-clip.png" alt="" height="11" width="15"></a></div>
A <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Tableau_vivant" title="Tableau vivant">tableau</a> in a communist rally in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Kerala" title="Kerala">Kerala</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, of a young farmer and worker.</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Theories within Marxism as to why communism in Eastern Europe was
not achieved after socialist revolutions pointed to such elements as
the pressure of external capitalist states, the relative backwardness
of the societies in which the revolutions occurred, and the emergence
of a bureaucratic stratum or class that arrested or diverted the
transition press in its own interests. (Scott and Marshall, 2005)
Marxist critics of the Soviet Union, most notably Trotsky, referred to
the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Politics_of_the_Soviet_Union" title="Politics of the Soviet Union">Soviet system</a>, along with other Communist states, as "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Degenerated_workers%27_state" title="Degenerated workers' state">degenerated</a>" or "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deformed_workers%27_state" title="Deformed workers' state">deformed workers' states</a>", arguing that the Soviet system fell far short of Marx's communist ideal and he claimed the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Working_class" title="Working class">working class</a> was politically dispossessed. The ruling stratum of the Soviet Union was held to be a bureaucratic <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Caste" title="Caste">caste</a>, but not a new <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ruling_class" title="Ruling class">ruling class</a>, despite their political control. Anarchists who adhere to <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Participatory_economics" title="Participatory economics">Participatory economics</a>
claim that the Soviet Union became dominated by powerful intellectual
elites who in a capitalist system crown the proletariat’s labor on
behalf of the bourgeoisie.</p>
<p>Non-Marxists, in contrast, have often applied the term to any
society ruled by a Communist Party and to any party aspiring to create
a society similar to such existing <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Nation_state" title="Nation state">nation-states</a>. In the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Social_sciences" title="Social sciences">social sciences</a>,
societies ruled by Communist Parties are distinct for their single
party control and their socialist economic bases. While some social and
<a href="http://localhost/wiki/List_of_political_scientists" title="List of political scientists">political scientists</a> applied the concept of "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Totalitarianism" title="Totalitarianism">totalitarianism</a>" to these societies, others identified possibilities for independent political activity within them,<sup id="cite_ref-34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup>
and stressed their continued evolution up to the point of the
dissolution of the Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe during
the late 1980s and early 1990s.<sup class="Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from December 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed">citation needed</a></i>]</sup></p>
<p>Today, Marxist revolutionaries are conducting armed insurgencies in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/India" title="India">India</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Philippines" title="Philippines">Philippines</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Peru" title="Peru">Peru</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bangladesh" title="Bangladesh">Bangladesh</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Iran" title="Iran">Iran</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Turkey" title="Turkey">Turkey</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Colombia" title="Colombia">Colombia</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Criticism">Criticism</span></h2>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main articles: <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_communism" title="Criticisms of communism" class="mw-redirect">Criticisms of communism</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-communism" title="Anti-communism">anti-communism</a></div>
<p>A diverse array of writers and political activists have published <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_communism" title="Criticisms of communism" class="mw-redirect">criticism of communism</a>, such as:</p>
<ul>
<li>Soviet bloc dissidents <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Lech_Wa%C5%82%C4%99sa" title="Lech Wałęsa">Lech Wałęsa</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Aleksandr_Solzhenitsyn" title="Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn">Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/V%C3%A1clav_Havel" title="Václav Havel">Václav Havel</a>;</li>
<li>Social theorists <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Hannah_Arendt" title="Hannah Arendt">Hannah Arendt</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Raymond_Aron" title="Raymond Aron">Raymond Aron</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ralf_Dahrendorf" title="Ralf Dahrendorf">Ralf Dahrendorf</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Seymour_Martin_Lipset" title="Seymour Martin Lipset">Seymour Martin Lipset</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_August_Wittfogel" title="Karl August Wittfogel">Karl Wittfogel</a>;</li>
<li>Economists <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ludwig_von_Mises" title="Ludwig von Mises">Ludwig von Mises</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Friedrich_Hayek" title="Friedrich Hayek" class="mw-redirect">Friedrich Hayek</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Milton_Friedman" title="Milton Friedman">Milton Friedman</a>;</li>
<li>Historians and social scientists <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Robert_Conquest" title="Robert Conquest">Robert Conquest</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/St%C3%A9phane_Courtois" title="Stéphane Courtois">Stéphane Courtois</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Richard_Pipes" title="Richard Pipes">Richard Pipes</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/R._J._Rummel" title="R. J. Rummel">R. J. Rummel</a>;</li>
<li><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-Stalinist_left" title="Anti-Stalinist left">Anti-Stalinist leftists</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ignazio_Silone" title="Ignazio Silone">Ignazio Silone</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/George_Orwell" title="George Orwell">George Orwell</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Saul_Alinsky" title="Saul Alinsky">Saul Alinsky</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Richard_Wright_%28author%29" title="Richard Wright (author)">Richard Wright</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Arthur_Koestler" title="Arthur Koestler">Arthur Koestler</a>, and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Bernard-Henri_Levy" title="Bernard-Henri Levy" class="mw-redirect">Bernard-Henri Levy</a>;</li>
<li>Russian-born novelist and philosopher <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ayn_Rand" title="Ayn Rand">Ayn Rand</a></li>
<li>Philosophers <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leszek_Ko%C5%82akowski" title="Leszek Kołakowski">Leszek Kołakowski</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Popper" title="Karl Popper">Karl Popper</a>.</li>
</ul>
<p>Part of this criticism is on the policies adopted by one-party states ruled by Communist parties (known as "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">Communist states</a>"). Critics are specially focused on their economic performance compared to market based economies. Their <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Human_rights" title="Human rights">human rights</a>
records are thought to be responsible for the flight of refugees from
communist states, and are alleged by some scholars to be responsible
for famines, purges and warfare resulting in deaths far in excess of
previous empires, capitalist or Axis regimes.<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Some writers, such as Courtois, argue that the actions of Communist
states were the inevitable (though sometimes unintentional) result of
Marxist principles;<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup>
thus, these authors present the events occurring in those countries,
particularly under Stalin and Mao, as an argument against Marxism
itself. Some critics were former Marxists, such as Wittfogel, who
applied Marx's concept of "<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Oriental_despotism" title="Oriental despotism">Oriental despotism</a>" to Communist states such as the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> Silone, Wright and Koestler (among other writers) who contributed essays to the book <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_God_that_Failed" title="The God that Failed">The God that Failed</a></i> (the title refers not to the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/God" title="God">Christian God</a> but to Marxism).<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Czes%C5%82aw_Mi%C5%82osz" title="Czesław Miłosz">Czesław Miłosz</a>, author of the influential essay <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_Captive_Mind" title="The Captive Mind">The Captive Mind</a></i>, was an example of a sceptic holding a party post, that of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cultural_attach%C3%A9" title="Cultural attaché">cultural attaché</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There have also been more direct <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_Marxism" title="Criticisms of Marxism">criticisms of Marxism</a>, such as criticisms of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Labor_theory_of_value" title="Labor theory of value">labor theory of value</a> or <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_Marxism#Marx.27s_predictions" title="Criticisms of Marxism">Marx's predictions</a>. Nevertheless, Communist parties outside of the <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Warsaw_Pact" title="Warsaw Pact">Warsaw Pact</a>, such as the Communist parties in Western Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa, differed greatly.</p>
<p>Economic criticisms of communal and/or government property are described under <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_socialism" title="Criticisms of socialism">criticisms of socialism</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<dl>
<dt>Notes</dt>
</dl>
<div class="references-small references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-columbia-0">^ <a href="#cite_ref-columbia_0-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-columbia_0-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-columbia_0-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-columbia_0-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <span class="citation book">"<a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/communism.aspx" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Communism</a>". <i>Columbia Encyclopedia</i>. 2008.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.encyclopedia.com%2Ftopic%2Fcommunism.aspx+Communism%5D&amp;rft.atitle=Columbia+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-KS-1"><b><a href="#cite_ref-KS_1-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Schaff, Kory (2001). <i>Philosophy and the problems of work: a reader</i>. Lanham, Md: Rowman &amp; Littlefield. pp.&nbsp;<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=mdLh5EMehwgC&amp;pg=PA224&amp;dq=isbn=0742507955&amp;source=gbs_search_r&amp;cad=0_1&amp;sig=ACfU3U2S6uiRNCig9mq_bY4yKB7877tY4A" class="external text" rel="nofollow">224</a>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7425-0795-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-7425-0795-5">0-7425-0795-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Philosophy+and+the+problems+of+work%3A+a+reader&amp;rft.aulast=Schaff&amp;rft.aufirst=Kory&amp;rft.au=Schaff%2C%26%2332%3BKory&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B%5Bhttp%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DmdLh5EMehwgC%26pg%3DPA224%26dq%3Disbn%3D0742507955%26source%3Dgbs_search_r%26cad%3D0_1%26sig%3DACfU3U2S6uiRNCig9mq_bY4yKB7877tY4A+224%5D&amp;rft.place=Lanham%2C+Md&amp;rft.pub=Rowman+%26+Littlefield&amp;rft.isbn=0-7425-0795-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-WA-2"><b><a href="#cite_ref-WA_2-0">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Walicki, Andrzej (1995). <i>Marxism and the leap to the kingdom of freedom: the rise and fall of the Communist utopia</i>. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. p.&nbsp;95. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8047-2384-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-8047-2384-2">0-8047-2384-2</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Marxism+and+the+leap+to+the+kingdom+of+freedom%3A+the+rise+and+fall+of+the+Communist+utopia&amp;rft.aulast=Walicki&amp;rft.aufirst=Andrzej&amp;rft.au=Walicki%2C%26%2332%3BAndrzej&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B95&amp;rft.place=Stanford%2C+Calif&amp;rft.pub=Stanford+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=0-8047-2384-2&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b> "Socialism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Columbia_University_Press" title="Columbia University Press">Columbia University Press</a>. 03 Feb. 2008.&lt;reference.com <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/columbia/socialis" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.reference.com/browse/columbia/socialis</a>&gt;.</li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/ch04.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Critique of the Gotha Programme--IV"</a>. <i>Critique of the Gotha Programme</i><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/ch04.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/ch04.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Critique+of+the+Gotha+Programme--IV&amp;rft.atitle=Critique+of+the+Gotha+Programme&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.marxists.org%2Farchive%2Fmarx%2Fworks%2F1875%2Fgotha%2Fch04.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b> Stephen Whitefield. "Communism." <i>The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics</i>. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Oxford_University_Press" title="Oxford University Press">Oxford University Press</a>, 2003.</li>
<li id="cite_note-mclean-6">^ <a href="#cite_ref-mclean_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-mclean_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-mclean_6-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> McLean and McMillan, 2003.</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b> Ball and Dagger 118</li>
<li id="cite_note-8"><b><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></b> Terence Ball and Richard Dagger. "Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal." <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Pearson_Education" title="Pearson Education">Pearson Education</a>, Inc.:2006.</li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b> Karl Marx, (1845). <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_German_Ideology" title="The German Ideology">The German Ideology</a></i>, Marx-Engels Institute, Moscow. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781573922586" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-1-57392-258-6</a>. Sources available at <a href="http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The German Ideology</a> at www.marxists.org.</li>
<li id="cite_note-10"><b><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></b> <i>Faces of Janus</i> p. 133.</li>
<li id="cite_note-11"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b> Hill, Christopher <i>Lenin and the Russian Revolution</i> (1971) Penguin Books:Londonp. 86.</li>
<li id="cite_note-12"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b> Harding, Neil (ed.) <i>The State in Socialist Society</i>, second edition (1984) St. Antony's College: Oxford, p. 189.</li>
<li id="cite_note-13"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1913/03.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Marxism and the National Question"</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.marx2mao.com/Other/OT73NB.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"On Trotskyism"</a>. Marx2mao.com<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.marx2mao.com/Other/OT73NB.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.marx2mao.com/Other/OT73NB.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=On+Trotskyism&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Marx2mao.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.marx2mao.com%2FOther%2FOT73NB.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://home.flash.net/%7Ecomvoice/32cTrotskyism.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Swedish FRP on anti-Marxist-Leninist dogmas of Trotskyism"</a>. Home.flash.net<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://home.flash.net/%7Ecomvoice/32cTrotskyism.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://home.flash.net/~comvoice/32cTrotskyism.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Swedish+FRP+on+anti-Marxist-Leninist+dogmas+of+Trotskyism&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Home.flash.net&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.flash.net%2F%7Ecomvoice%2F32cTrotskyism.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080201115440/http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/wim/wyl/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"What's Your Line?"</a>. Web.archive.org<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080201115440/http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/wim/wyl/" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://web.archive.org/web/20080201115440/http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/wim/wyl/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=What%27s+Your+Line%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Web.archive.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20080201115440%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.etext.org%2FPolitics%2FMIM%2Fwim%2Fwyl%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><b><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></b> This poster has been jokingly referred to as "The History of Shaving" <a href="http://www.iisg.nl/%7Elandsberger/if.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Stefan Landsberger's Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages-Ideological Foundations</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSSEO253213" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSSEO253213</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><b><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></b> Marshall, Peter. "Demanding the Impossible&nbsp; — A History of Anarchism" p. 9. Fontana Press, London, 1993 <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780006862451" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-00-686245-1</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-LibCom-20"><b><a href="#cite_ref-LibCom_20-0">^</a></b> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Isaac_Puente" title="Isaac Puente">Puente, Isaac</a>.<a href="http://flag.blackened.net/liberty/libcom.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Libertarian Communism"</a>. <i>The Cienfuegos Press Anarchist Review</i>. Issue 6 Orkney 1982.</li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/David_Graeber" title="David Graeber">Graeber, David</a> and Grubacic, Andrej. <i>Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary Movement Of The Twenty-first Century</i>.</li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.vroma.org/%7Ebmcmanus/spartacus.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Historical Background for Spartacus"</a>. Vroma.org<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.vroma.org/%7Ebmcmanus/spartacus.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/spartacus.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Historical+Background+for+Spartacus&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Vroma.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vroma.org%2F%7Ebmcmanus%2Fspartacus.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b> <i>The Cambridge History of Iran</i> Volume 3, <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080611075040/http://www.derafsh-kaviyani.com/english/mazdak.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Period</a>, edited by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ehsan_Yarshater" title="Ehsan Yarshater">Ehsan Yarshater</a>, Parts 1 and 2, p1019, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cambridge_University_Press" title="Cambridge University Press">Cambridge University Press</a> (1983)</li>
<li id="cite_note-britannica-24">^ <a href="#cite_ref-britannica_24-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-britannica_24-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-britannica_24-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-britannica_24-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> "Communism." <i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i>. 2006. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica" title="Encyclopædia Britannica">Encyclopædia Britannica</a> Online.</li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/works/1895/cromwell/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Eduard Bernstein: Cromwell and Communism (1895)</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b> Eduard Bernstein, (1895). <i>Kommunistische und demokratisch-sozialistische Strömungen während der englischen Revolution</i>, J.H.W. Dietz, Stuttgart. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/36367345" class="external text" rel="nofollow">36367345</a> Sources available at <a href="http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/works/1895/cromwell/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Eduard Bernstein: Cromwell and Communism (1895)</a> at www.marxists.org.</li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b> "Communism" <i>A Dictionary of Sociology</i>. John Scott and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Gordon_Marshall" title="Gordon Marshall">Gordon Marshall</a>. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.</li>
<li id="cite_note-28"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b> Marc Edelman, "Late Marx and the Russian road: Marx and the 'Peripheries of Capitalism'" - <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Book_review" title="Book review">book reviews</a>. <i>Monthly Review</i>, Dec., 1984. <a href="http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_v36/ai_3537723" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Late Marx and the Russian road: Marx and the "Peripheries of Capitalism." - book reviews Monthly Review Find Articles at BNET</a> at www.findarticles.com.</li>
<li id="cite_note-29"><b><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></b> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Norman_Davies" title="Norman Davies">Norman Davies</a>. "Communism" <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II</i>. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/M._R._D._Foot" title="M. R. D. Foot">M. R. D. Foot</a>. Oxford University Press, 2001.</li>
<li id="cite_note-30"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b> <span class="citation news">Hildreth, Jeremy (2005-06-14). <a href="http://online.wsj.com/article/SB111870387824258558.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"The British Empire's Lessons for Our own"</a>. <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_Wall_Street_Journal" title="The Wall Street Journal">The Wall Street Journal</a></i><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://online.wsj.com/article/SB111870387824258558.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://online.wsj.com/article/SB111870387824258558.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+British+Empire%27s+Lessons+for+Our+own&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BThe+Wall+Street+Journal%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Hildreth&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeremy&amp;rft.au=Hildreth%2C%26%2332%3BJeremy&amp;rft.date=2005-06-14&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB111870387824258558.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-31"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Adams, John G. (1983). <i>Without Precedent</i>. New York, N.Y.: W. W. Norton &amp; Company. p.&nbsp;285. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-393-01616-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-393-01616-1">0-393-01616-1</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Without+Precedent&amp;rft.aulast=Adams&amp;rft.aufirst=John+G.&amp;rft.au=Adams%2C%26%2332%3BJohn+G.&amp;rft.date=1983&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B285&amp;rft.place=New+York%2C+N.Y.&amp;rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton+%26+Company&amp;rft.isbn=0-393-01616-1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-32"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b> <span class="citation book">Georgakas, Dan (1992). "The Hollywood Blacklist". <i>Encyclopedia of the American Left</i>. University of Illinois Press.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Hollywood+Blacklist&amp;rft.atitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+American+Left&amp;rft.aulast=Georgakas&amp;rft.aufirst=Dan&amp;rft.au=Georgakas%2C%26%2332%3BDan&amp;rft.date=1992&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Illinois+Press&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-33"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11057207&amp;fsrc=nwl" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Nepal's election The Maoists triumph Economist.com"</a>. Economist.com. 2008-04-17<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11057207&amp;fsrc=nwl" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11057207&amp;fsrc=nwl</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2009-10-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Nepal%27s+election+The+Maoists+triumph+Economist.com&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2008-04-17&amp;rft.pub=Economist.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fdisplaystory.cfm%3Fstory_id%3D11057207%26fsrc%3Dnwl&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-34"><b><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></b> <span class="citation Journal">H. Gordon Skilling (April 1966). "Interest Groups and Communist Politics". <i>World Politics</i> <b>18</b> (3): 435–451. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F2009764" class="external text" rel="nofollow">10.2307/2009764</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Interest+Groups+and+Communist+Politics&amp;rft.jtitle=World+Politics&amp;rft.aulast=H.+Gordon+Skilling&amp;rft.au=H.+Gordon+Skilling&amp;rft.date=April+1966&amp;rft.volume=18&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=435%E2%80%93451&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.2307%2F2009764&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span>?UNIQ3ab34e171166e61b-HTMLCommentStrip7c7dfbc41ccbeb7000000002</li>
<li id="cite_note-35"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b> <span class="citation book"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/J._Arch_Getty" title="J. Arch Getty">J. Arch Getty</a> (1985). <i>Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered: 1933–1938</i>. Cambridge University Press. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-521-33570-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-521-33570-6">978-0-521-33570-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Origins+of+the+Great+Purges%3A+The+Soviet+Communist+Party+Reconsidered%3A+1933%E2%80%931938&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BJ.+Arch+Getty%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BJ.+Arch+Getty%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=1985&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-521-33570-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-36"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b> <span class="citation book"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Steven_Rosefielde" title="Steven Rosefielde">Rosefielde, Steven</a> (2009). <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Red_Holocaust_%282009_book%29" title="Red Holocaust (2009 book)">Red Holocaust</a></i>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Routledge" title="Routledge">Routledge</a>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-415-77757-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-415-77757-5">978-0-415-77757-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=%5B%5BRed+Holocaust+%282009+book%29%7CRed+Holocaust%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Rosefielde&amp;rft.aufirst=Steven&amp;rft.au=Rosefielde%2C%26%2332%3BSteven&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BRoutledge%5D%5D&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-415-77757-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Communism"><span style="display: none;">&nbsp;</span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-37"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Daniel_Jonah_Goldhagen" title="Daniel Jonah Goldhagen" class="mw-redirect">Daniel Jonah Goldhagen</a>. <i>Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity.</i> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/PublicAffairs" title="PublicAffairs">PublicAffairs</a>, 2009. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/1586487698" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 1586487698</a>
p. 54: "...in the past century communist regimes, led and inspired by
the Soviet Union and China, have killed more people than any other
regime type."</li>
<li id="cite_note-38"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b> Benjamin A. Valentino. <i>Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century.</i> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cornell_University_Press" title="Cornell University Press" class="mw-redirect">Cornell University Press</a>, 2004. <a href="http://books.google.com.au/books?id=LQfeXVU_EvgC&amp;pg=PA91#v=onepage&amp;q=&amp;f=false" class="external text" rel="nofollow">p.91</a> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/0801439655" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0801439655</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-39"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b> Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Andrzej_Paczkowski" title="Andrzej Paczkowski">Andrzej Paczkowski</a>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/St%C3%A9phane_Courtois" title="Stéphane Courtois">Stéphane Courtois</a>, <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Black_Book_of_Communism" title="Black Book of Communism" class="mw-redirect">The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression</a></i>, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Harvard_University_Press" title="Harvard University Press">Harvard University Press</a>, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780674076082" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2</a></li>
<li id="cite_note-40"><b><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></b> Wittfogel, Karl <i>Oriental Despotism</i>, Vintage, 1981</li>
<li id="cite_note-41"><b><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></b> Crossman, Richard, ed., <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_God_That_Failed" title="The God That Failed" class="mw-redirect">The God That Failed</a></i>. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Harper_%26_Brothers" title="Harper &amp; Brothers">Harper &amp; Bros</a>, 1949</li>
<li id="cite_note-42"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/15/obituaries/15milosz.html?pagewanted=all" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Czeslaw Milosz, Poet and Nobelist Who Wrote of Modern Cruelties, Dies at 93</a>, <i><a href="http://localhost/wiki/The_New_York_Times" title="The New York Times">The New York Times</a></i>, accessed 3 January 2010.</li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.marxist.com/rircontents-5.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science By Alan Woods and Ted Grant</a></li>
<li>Forman, James D., "Communism from Marx's Manifesto to 20th century Reality", New York, Watts. 1972. <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780531025710" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-531-02571-0</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.marxist.com/marxist-books.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Books on Communism, Socialism and Trotskyism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Furet" title="François Furet">Furet, Francois</a>, Furet, Deborah Kan (Translator), "The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century", <a href="http://localhost/wiki/University_of_Chicago_Press" title="University of Chicago Press">University of Chicago Press</a>, 2000, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780226273419" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-226-27341-9</a></li>
<li>Daniels, Robert Vincent, "A Documentary History of Communism and the World: From Revolution to Collapse", University Press of <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_England" title="New England">New England</a>, 1994, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780874516784" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-87451-678-4</a></li>
<li><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Marx, Karl</a> and <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Friedrich_Engels" title="Friedrich Engels">Friedrich Engels</a>, "Communist Manifesto", (Mass Market Paperback - REPRINT), Signet Classics, 1998, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780451527103" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-451-52710-3</a></li>
<li>Dirlik, Arif, "Origins of Chinese Communism", Oxford University Press, 1989, <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780195054545" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 978-0-19-505454-5</a></li>
<li>Beer, Max, "The General <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_socialism" title="History of socialism">History of Socialism</a> and Social Struggles Volumes 1 &amp; 2", New York, Russel and Russel, Inc. 1957</li>
<li>Adami, Stefano, 'Communism', in Encyclopedia of Italian <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Literary_criticism" title="Literary criticism">Literary Studies</a>, ed. Gaetana Marrone - P.Puppa, Routledge, New York- London, 2006</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">Wikimedia Commons has media related to: <i><b><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Communism" class="extiw" title="commons:Category:Communism">Communism</a></b></i></td>
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<td class="mbox-text" style="">Look up <i><b><a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/communism" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:communism">communism</a></b></i> in <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wiktionary" title="Wiktionary">Wiktionary</a>, the free dictionary.</td>
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<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/expert/infopress_page/019-53246-091-04-14-902-20090401IPR53245-01-04-2009-2009-false/default_en.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">European Parliament resolution on European conscience and totalitarianism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.marxist.com/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">In Defense of Marxism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/index.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Anarchy Archives</a> Includes the works of anarchist communists.</li>
<li><a href="http://www.libcom.org/library" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Libertarian Communist Library</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.marxists.org/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Marxists Internet Archive</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.marxist.net/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Marxist.net</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.wumingfoundation.com/english/outtakes/communism.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">The Mu Particle in "Communism"</a>, a short etymological essay by <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Wu_Ming" title="Wu Ming">Wu Ming</a>.</li>
<li><a href="http://www.osaarchivum.org/guide/fonds/communismandcoldwar.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Open Society Archives</a>, one of the biggest history of communism and cold war archives in the world.</li>
<li><a href="http://www.quran-miracle.info/Quran-Communism.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Islam and Communism</a></li>
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<span class="" style="font-size: 110%;"><strong class="selflink"><span style="color: yellow;">Communism</span></strong></span></th>
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<div style="padding: 0em 0.25em;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leninism" title="Leninism">Leninism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Maoism" title="Maoism">Maoism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Juche" title="Juche">Juche</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Trotskyism" title="Trotskyism">Trotskyism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Titoism" title="Titoism">Titoism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left_communism" title="Left communism">Left communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Council_communism" title="Council communism">Council communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchist_communism" title="Anarchist communism">Anarchist communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Religious_communism" title="Religious communism">Religious communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Christian_communism" title="Christian communism">Christian communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Eurocommunism" title="Eurocommunism">Eurocommunism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/National_communism" title="National communism">National communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/World_communism" title="World communism">World communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stateless_communism" title="Stateless communism">Stateless communism</a></div>
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<div style="padding: 0em 0.25em;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_League" title="Communist League">Communist League</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/First_International" title="First International" class="mw-redirect">First International</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Second_International" title="Second International">Second International</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Comintern" title="Comintern">Comintern</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fourth_International" title="Fourth International">Fourth International</a></div>
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<div style="padding: 0em 0.25em;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois-No%C3%ABl_Babeuf" title="François-Noël Babeuf">François-Noël Babeuf</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Marx" title="Karl Marx">Karl Marx</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Friedrich_Engels" title="Friedrich Engels">Friedrich Engels</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Peter_Kropotkin" title="Peter Kropotkin">Peter Kropotkin</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Herman_Gorter" title="Herman Gorter">Herman Gorter</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Rosa_Luxemburg" title="Rosa Luxemburg">Rosa Luxemburg</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Karl_Liebknecht" title="Karl Liebknecht">Karl Liebknecht</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Antonio_Gramsci" title="Antonio Gramsci">Antonio Gramsci</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin" title="Vladimir Lenin">Vladimir Lenin</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Leon_Trotsky" title="Leon Trotsky">Leon Trotsky</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Joseph_Stalin" title="Joseph Stalin">Joseph Stalin</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mao_Zedong" title="Mao Zedong">Mao Zedong</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Antonie_Pannekoek" title="Antonie Pannekoek">Antonie Pannekoek</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Che_Guevara" title="Che Guevara">Che Guevara</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Ho_Chi_Minh" title="Ho Chi Minh">Ho Chi Minh</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Deng_Xiaoping" title="Deng Xiaoping">Deng Xiaoping</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Murray_Bookchin" title="Murray Bookchin">Murray Bookchin</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Josip_Broz_Tito" title="Josip Broz Tito">Josip Broz Tito</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev" title="Mikhail Gorbachev">Mikhail Gorbachev</a></div>
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<div style="padding: 0em 0.25em;"><a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anarchism" title="Anarchism">Anarchism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-capitalism" title="Anti-capitalism">Anti-capitalism</a> <span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-communism" title="Anti-communism">Anti-communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Anti-revisionism" title="Anti-revisionism" class="mw-redirect">Anti-revisionism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Cold_War" title="Cold War">Cold War</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_state" title="Communist state">Communist state</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_symbolism" title="Communist symbolism">Communist symbolism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communist_World" title="Communist World" class="mw-redirect">Communist World</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Criticisms_of_communism" title="Criticisms of communism" class="mw-redirect">Criticisms of communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Democratic_centralism" title="Democratic centralism">Democratic centralism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat" title="Dictatorship of the proletariat">Dictatorship of the proletariat</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/History_of_communism" title="History of communism">History of communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Left-wing_politics" title="Left-wing politics">Left-wing politics</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Luxemburgism" title="Luxemburgism">Luxemburgism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Mass_killings_under_Communist_regimes" title="Mass killings under Communist regimes">Mass killings under Communist regimes</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/McCarthyism" title="McCarthyism">McCarthyism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Class" title="New Class" class="mw-redirect">New Class</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/New_Left" title="New Left">New Left</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Post-communism" title="Post-communism" class="mw-redirect">Post-communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Primitive_communism" title="Primitive communism">Primitive communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Communism_and_religion" title="Communism and religion">Communism and religion</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scientific_communism" title="Scientific communism" class="mw-redirect">Scientific communism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Scientific_socialism" title="Scientific socialism" class="mw-redirect">Scientific socialism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialism" title="Socialism">Socialism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Socialist_economics" title="Socialist economics">Socialist economics</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Titoism" title="Titoism">Titoism</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">&nbsp;·</span> <a href="http://localhost/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a></div>
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			<ul>
				<li class="interwiki-af"><a href="http://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">Afrikaans</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ar"><a href="http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B4%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A9">العربية</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-an"><a href="http://an.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Aragonés</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ast"><a href="http://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismu">Asturianu</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-az"><a href="http://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunizm">Azərbaycan</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-bn"><a href="http://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%95%E0%A6%AE%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%89%E0%A6%A8%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%9C%E0%A6%AE">বাংলা</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-zh-min-nan"><a href="http://zh-min-nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ki%C5%8Dng-s%C3%A1n-ch%C3%BA-g%C4%AB">Bân-lâm-gú</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-be"><a href="http://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%B7%D0%BC">Беларуская</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-be-x-old"><a href="http://be-x-old.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%B7%D0%BC">Беларуская (тарашкевіца)</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-bs"><a href="http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizam">Bosanski</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-br"><a href="http://br.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunouriezh">Brezhoneg</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-bg"><a href="http://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D1%8A%D0%BC">Български</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ca"><a href="http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunisme">Català</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-cs"><a href="http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismus">Česky</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-cy"><a href="http://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comiwnyddiaeth">Cymraeg</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-da"><a href="http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">Dansk</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-de"><a href="http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunismus">Deutsch</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-et"><a href="http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunism">Eesti</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-el"><a href="http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9A%CE%BF%CE%BC%CE%BC%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BD%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CF%8C%CF%82">Ελληνικά</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-es"><a href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Español</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-eo"><a href="http://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismo">Esperanto</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-eu"><a href="http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismo">Euskara</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fa"><a href="http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%D9%85%D9%88%D9%86%DB%8C%D8%B3%D9%85">فارسی</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fo"><a href="http://fo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisma">Føroyskt</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fr"><a href="http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communisme">Français</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fy"><a href="http://fy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">Frysk</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ga"><a href="http://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumannachas">Gaeilge</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-gl"><a href="http://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Galego</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-gan"><a href="http://gan.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E7%94%A2%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9">贛語</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ko"><a href="http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EA%B3%B5%EC%82%B0%EC%A3%BC%EC%9D%98">한국어</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-hi"><a href="http://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6">हिन्दी</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-hr"><a href="http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizam">Hrvatski</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-io"><a href="http://io.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismo">Ido</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-id"><a href="http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunisme">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-is"><a href="http://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komm%C3%BAnismi">Íslenska</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-it"><a href="http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Italiano</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-he"><a href="http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%96%D7%9D">עברית</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-jv"><a href="http://jv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunisme">Basa Jawa</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-kn"><a href="http://kn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B2%95%E0%B2%AE%E0%B3%8D%E0%B2%AF%E0%B3%82%E0%B2%A8%E0%B2%BF%E0%B2%B8%E0%B2%AE%E0%B3%8D">ಕನ್ನಡ</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ka"><a href="http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%99%E1%83%9D%E1%83%9B%E1%83%A3%E1%83%9C%E1%83%98%E1%83%96%E1%83%9B%E1%83%98">ქართული</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sw"><a href="http://sw.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukomunisti">Kiswahili</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ku"><a href="http://ku.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kom%C3%BBn%C3%AEzm">Kurdî / كوردی</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-la"><a href="http://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communismus">Latina</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-lv"><a href="http://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunisms">Latviešu</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-lb"><a href="http://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunismus">Lëtzebuergesch</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-lt"><a href="http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizmas">Lietuvių</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-li"><a href="http://li.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communisme">Limburgs</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ln"><a href="http://ln.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komynisim%C9%9B">Lingála</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-jbo"><a href="http://jbo.wikipedia.org/wiki/kaurpo%27esi%27o">Lojban</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-hu"><a href="http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunizmus">Magyar</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-mk"><a href="http://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BC">Македонски</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ml"><a href="http://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B4%95%E0%B4%AE%E0%B5%8D%E0%B4%AF%E0%B5%82%E0%B4%A3%E0%B4%BF%E0%B4%B8%E0%B4%82">മലയാളം</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-mr"><a href="http://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6">मराठी</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-arz"><a href="http://arz.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B4%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9%87">مصرى</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ms"><a href="http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunisme">Bahasa Melayu</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-mwl"><a href="http://mwl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quemunismo">Mirandés</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-my"><a href="http://my.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%80%80%E1%80%BD%E1%80%94%E1%80%BA%E1%80%99%E1%80%BC%E1%80%B0%E1%80%94%E1%80%85%E1%80%BA%E1%80%9D%E1%80%AB%E1%80%92">မြန်မာဘာသာ</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-nl"><a href="http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communisme">Nederlands</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-nds-nl"><a href="http://nds-nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">Nedersaksisch</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ne"><a href="http://ne.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A6">नेपाली</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ja"><a href="http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E7%94%A3%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9">日本語</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-no"><a href="http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">‪Norsk (bokmål)‬</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-nn"><a href="http://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunisme">‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-nrm"><a href="http://nrm.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commeunisme">Nouormand</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-oc"><a href="http://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunisme">Occitan</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-nds"><a href="http://nds.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunismus">Plattdüütsch</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-pl"><a href="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizm">Polski</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-pt"><a href="http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Português</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ro"><a href="http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunism">Română</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-qu"><a href="http://qu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumunismu">Runa Simi</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ru"><a href="http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%BC">Русский</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sah"><a href="http://sah.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%BC">Саха тыла</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-stq"><a href="http://stq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunismus">Seeltersk</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-st"><a href="http://st.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bokominisi">Sesotho</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sq"><a href="http://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizmi">Shqip</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-scn"><a href="http://scn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumunismu">Sicilianu</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-si"><a href="http://si.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B7%83%E0%B6%B8%E0%B7%83%E0%B6%B8%E0%B7%8F%E0%B6%A2%E0%B7%80%E0%B7%8F%E0%B6%AF%E0%B6%BA">සිංහල</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-simple"><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communism">Simple English</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sk"><a href="http://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizmus">Slovenčina</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sl"><a href="http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizem">Slovenščina</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sr"><a href="http://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BC">Српски / Srpski</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sh"><a href="http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunizam">Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fi"><a href="http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunismi">Suomi</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-sv"><a href="http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunism">Svenska</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-tl"><a href="http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismo">Tagalog</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-ta"><a href="http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%AA%E0%AF%8A%E0%AE%A4%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%B5%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%9F%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%88">தமிழ்</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-te"><a href="http://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B0%95%E0%B0%AE%E0%B1%8D%E0%B0%AF%E0%B1%82%E0%B0%A8%E0%B0%BF%E0%B0%9C%E0%B0%82">తెలుగు</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-th"><a href="http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%95%E0%B9%8C">ไทย</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-tr"><a href="http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kom%C3%BCnizm">Türkçe</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-uk"><a href="http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D1%96%D0%B7%D0%BC">Українська</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-vec"><a href="http://vec.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comunismo">Vèneto</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-vi"><a href="http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%E1%BB%A7_ngh%C4%A9a_c%E1%BB%99ng_s%E1%BA%A3n">Tiếng Việt</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-fiu-vro"><a href="http://fiu-vro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunism">Võro</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-zh-classical"><a href="http://zh-classical.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E7%94%A2%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9">文言</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-war"><a href="http://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komunismo">Winaray</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-wuu"><a href="http://wuu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E4%BA%A7%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89">吴语</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-yi"><a href="http://yi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A7%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%96%D7%9D">ייִדיש</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-zh-yue"><a href="http://zh-yue.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E7%94%A2%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9">粵語</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-bat-smg"><a href="http://bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuomon%C4%97zmos">Žemaitėška</a></li>
				<li class="interwiki-zh"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%85%B1%E4%BA%A7%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89">中文</a></li>
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